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Encyclopedia > Prehistoric warfare

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern
Battlespace
Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space
Theaters
Arctic · Cyberspace · Desert
Jungle · Mountain · Urban
Weapons
Armoured · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry ·
Mechanized · Nuclear · Psychological
Radiological · Ski · Submarine
Tactics

Amphibious · Asymmetric · Attrition
Cavalry · Conventional · Fortification
Guerrilla · Hand to hand · Invasion
Joint · Maneuver · Siege · Total
Trench · Unconventional A war is a conflict between two or more groups that involve large numbers of individuals. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... // Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory or altering the established government. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units Military science concerns itself with the study and of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... Military rank, or, more commonly, simply rank, is a system of grading seniority and command within armed forces or otherwise military-style organizations. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

Conscription · Coup d'état
Military dictatorship · Martial law
Militarism · Military rule A coup d’État (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

Military academy · Military science
Polemology · Philosophy of war
Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. Historical warfare sets in with the standing armies of Bronze Age Sumer, but prehistoric warfare may be studied in some societies at much later dates. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... A war is a conflict between two or more groups that involve large numbers of individuals. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A state is a set of institutions that possesses the exclusive legitimate authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Sumer (or Å umer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in...


When humans first began fighting wars is a matter of great debate among anthropologists and historians. The answer of this question is of course dependent on the definition of "war" itself, viz. at what stage does a brawl between hunting parties acquire the quality of an armed conflict between political or ethnic entities. See Anthropology. ... This is a list of historians. ... A war is a conflict between two or more groups that involve large numbers of individuals. ...


The size of prehistoric armies is a matter of debate. Those who deny the very notion of prehistoric war argue that population densities were too low to have anything larger than raiding parties of a few dozen men in nearly all possible cases. This is supported by the later Amarna letters, where up to 20 armed persons were able to terrorize towns in the southern Levant. Others argue that settlements of the size of Çatal Höyük in modern day Turkey would have likely fielded several hundred men, and an alliance of a few cities would thus produce a sizable force. These groups were certainly large enough that we can assume that all of the elements of warfare, such as tactics, logistics, and organizational structure, would have been essential to the success of an expedition. One of the Amarna letters The designation Amarna letters denotes an archive of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Endemic warfare

Main article: endemic warfare

Of the hunter-gatherer societies still in existence today, some lead lives of great violence, frequently raiding neighboring groups and seizing territory, women, and goods from others by force. Other groups, such as the Bushmen of the Kalahari, live in societies with no warfare and very little murder. Which of these states was more common among early humans is still unknown, and is a matter of deep debate. What is common among those groups that remain and fight frequently is that warfare is highly ritualized, with a number of taboos and practices in place that limit the number of casualties and the duration of a conflict, a situation known as endemic warfare. Among tribal societies engaging in endemic warfare, conflict may escalate to actual warfare every generation or so, for various reasons such as population pressure or conflict over resources, but also for no readily understandable reason. Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighbouring Botswana and Namibia. ... The Kalahari Desert is a large, arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa that covers about 500,000 km². It covers 70% of Botswana, and parts of Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa. ... Homosexuality is considered taboo in many cultures around the world. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...


Paleolithic

The most common weapons used by early man were simple in form and easy to produce. Originally, such weaponry consisted of clubs and spears. These were heavily used for hunting as early as 35,000 BC, but there is little evidence that there was much of what we would consider war in that era. Of the many cave paintings from this period, none depict people attacking other people. There is no known archaeological evidence of large scale fighting during this period of social evolution. A club, cudgel, truncheon, night stick, or bludgeon is perhaps the simplest of all weapons. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Cave or rock paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ...


Beginning around 12,000 BC, combat was transformed by the development of bows, maces, and slings. The bow seems to have been the most important weapon in the development of early warfare, in that it enabled attacks to be launched with far less risk to the attacker when compared to the risk involved in the use of mêlée combat weaponry. While there are no cave paintings of battles between men armed with clubs, the development of the bow is concurrent with the first known depictions of organized warfare consisting of clear illustrations of two or more groups of men attacking each other. These figures are arrayed in lines and columns with a distinctly garbed leader at the front. Some paintings even portray still recognizable tactical techniques like flankings and envelopments. (Redirected from 12,000 BC) The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... A bow is ancient weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow. ... Assorted maces For its symbolical derivative, see ceremonial mace. ... Home-made sling. ... Mêlée generally refers to disorganized hand-to-hand combat involving a group of fighters. ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head...


The mace seems to have enjoyed a period of primacy as the weapon of choice for personal combat. However, the development of leather armour greatly limited its effectiveness, which left projectiles and edged weapons paramount. Leather Armour is a form of warfare protection created with animal hides that have been cured or tanned. ...


Neolithic

The first archaeological record of what could be a prehistoric battle is on the Nile in Egypt near its border with Sudan. Known as Cemetery 117 it is at least seven thousand years old. It contains a large number of bodies, many with arrowheads embedded in their skeletons, which indicates that they may have been the casualties of a battle. Some question this conclusion by arguing that the bodies may have accumulated over many decades, and may even be evidence of the murder of trespassers rather than actual battles. Nearly half of the bodies are female, and this fact also causes some to question the argument for large-scale warfare. The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... The Nile (Arabic: ‎, translit: , Ancient Egyptian iteru) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river—though not the most voluminous—on Earth. ... Cemetery 117 is an ancient cemetery discovered in 1964 by a team lead by Fred Wendorf near the northern border of Sudan. ... American Indian arrowheads of several shapes and functions Japanese arrowheads of several shapes and functions Arrowhead can refer to: the point of an arrow; some plants in the genus Sagittaria; the Arrowhead region of northeastern Minnesota; a place name in southern California, derived from an arrowhead-shaped geologic formation in...


With the development of agriculture and the domestication of animals, human societies seem to have become more prone to engage in warfare. Agriculture created enough of a surplus of food to enable farmers to spend some of the year as warriors, or to support a dedicated warrior class.


The Māori of New Zealand are notable for the thousands of fortifications constructed to enhance a group's standing in the near continuous fighting on their islands in the South Pacific. In an era before siege weapons had been developed to a high level of technological complexity, and when attackers had limited supplies and time to spend engaged in battles, fortifications seem to have been a successful method of securing a population and livestock against invaders, though the fields and homes would likely be pillaged by the attackers. These substantial fortifications show that there was considerable social organization in the societies of prehistoric peoples. This is indirect corollary evidence for them also having been capable of conducting organized warfare. The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and to their language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oceania. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ...


Bronze Age

The onset of the Chalcolithic saw the introduction of copper daggers, axes, and other items. For the most part these were far too expensive and malleable to be efficient weapons. They are considered by many scholars to have been largely ceremonial implements. It was with the development of bronze that edged metal weapons became commonplace. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...


Military conquests expanding city states to empires begins in the 3rd millennium BC, notably with Sargon I creating the Akkadian Empire. Senusret I in the 20th century BC subjugates Nubia under Egyptian control. Babylonia and later Assyria built empires in Mesopotamia while the Hittite Empire ruled much of Anatolia. Chariots appear in the 20th century BC, and become central to warfare in the Ancient Near East from the 17th century BC. The Hyksos and Kassite invasions mark the transition to the Late Bronze Age. Ahmose I defeated the Hyksos and re-established Egyptian control of Nubia and Canaan, territories again defended by Ramesses II at the Battle of Kadesh, the greatest chariot battle of the Bronze Age. The raids of the Sea Peoples and the renewed disintegration of Egypt in the Third Intermediate Period marks the end of the Bronze Age. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Sargon (2334 BC - 2279 BC short chronology) was the first person in recorded history to create an empire, or multi-ethnic state. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Temple Relief thought to be of Senusret I, on exhibit at the R.O.M. Senusret I was the second pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. ... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC) In the earliest historical times, the term Assyria (Syriac:ܐܬܘܖ̈) referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in todayss north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... The Kassites were a mountain tribe of obscure origins speaking an Indo-European language who conquered Mesopotamia, bringing the Old Babylonian era to an end and for the first time welding together the network of independent, feuding city-states into a territory that can be called Babylonia. ... nomen or birth name Ahmose I (also known as Amosis I) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli Strength ca. ... The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ...


Iron Age

Main article: Ancient warfare

Early Iron Age events like the Dorian invasion, Greek colonialism and their interaction with Phoenician and Etruscan forces lie within the prehistoric period. Germanic warrior societies of the Migration period engaged in endemic warfare (see also Thorsberg moor). Anglo-Saxon warfare lies on the edge of historicity, its study relying primarily on archaeology with the help of only fragmentary written accounts. Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... This article or section should be merged with Dorian The Dorian invasion is one of the theories advanced to explain the decline of the Mycenaean civilization in ancient Greece. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Thorsberg moor (Thorsberger Moor, Tosbarch, Tåsbjerre Thors hill; ) near Süderbrarup in Anglia, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD served as the location of votive deposits by the Angles and is hence the location of important Roman Iron Age finds...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prehistoric warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1152 words)
Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states.
Historical warfare sets in with the standing armies of Bronze Age Sumer, but prehistoric warfare may be studied in some societies at much later dates.
What is common among those groups that remain and fight frequently is that warfare is highly ritualized, with a number of taboos and practices in place that limit the number of casualties and the duration of a conflict, a situation known as endemic warfare.
ancient warfare: Information from Answers.com (6032 words)
The earliest representations of siege warfare is dated to the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, c.3000 BC, while the first siege equipment is known from Egyptian tomb reliefs of the 24th century BC showing wheeled siege ladders.
Warfare became more intense, ruthless and much more decisive during the Warring States Period, in which great social and political change was accompanied by the end of the system of chariot warfare and the adoption of mass infantry armies.
This pattern of warfare was broken during the Peloponnesian War, when Athens's command of the sea allowed the city to ignore the destruction of the Athenian crops by Sparta and her allies by shipping grain into the city from the Crimea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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