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Encyclopedia > Prehistoric Wales
History of Wales
Chronological Eras
Prehistoric Wales
Roman Wales
Early Middle Ages
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Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 AD when the Roman army began a military campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. Traditionally, historians have believed that successive waves of immigrants brought different cultures into the area, largely replacing the previous inhabitants, with the last wave of immigrants being the Celts. However, studies of population genetics now suggest that this may not be true, and that immigration was on a smaller scale. Caerphilly Castle. ... Up to and during the Roman occupation of Britain, Wales was not a separate country; all the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages (a sub-family of the Celtic languages) and were regarded as Britons (or Brythons). ... The history of Wales in the early Middle Ages is sketchy, as there is very little written history from the period. ... The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman invasion of England. ... Wales in the Late Middle Ages covers the period from the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in late 1282 to the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. ... Brecknockshire, also known as Breconshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Frycheiniog is an inland traditional county of Wales, bounded to the north by Radnorshire, to the east by Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, to the south by Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, and west by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... The Kingdom of Dyfed was a sub-Roman and early medieval kingdom in south-west Wales. ... Ergyng was a Welsh kingdom of the sub-Roman and early medieval period. ... Mediaeval kingdoms of Wales. ... For the fictional Kingdom of Gwynedd in the Deryni series of novels, see Gwynedd (fictional). ... Glywysing was a post-Roman and early medieval kingdom of mid-South Wales. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Seisyllwg was a kingdom of medieval Wales. ... Welsh colonization of the Americas began in the 19th century. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the country. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This article is about the European people. ...

Contents

Paleolithic

The earliest known human remains discovered in modern-day Wales is a human tooth, found in a cave in the valley of the River Elwy in north Wales, whose owner probably lived during a temperate phase between 225,000 and 186,000 years ago in the Lower Palaeolithic period and is usually classified as early Neanderthal. [1] This is the furthest north-westerly site at which Neanderthal remains have been found. The remains of classic Neanderthals were found at Coygan Cave and have been dated to about 50,000 years ago. The River Elwy (Afon Elwy in Welsh) is a river in north Wales and is a tributary of the River Clwyd. ... The Lower Paleolithic or Palaeolithic refers to the earliest period of human existence, the first of the three Paleolithic (Stone Age) periods. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ...


The Paviland limestone caves of the Gower peninsula in south Wales are by far the richest source of Aurignacian material in Britain, including burins and scrapers dated to about 28,500 years ago. [2] The first remains of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens to be found in Wales was the famous Red Lady of Paviland. This was a human skeleton dyed in red ochre discovered in 1826 in one of the Paviland caves. Despite the name, the skeleton is actually that of a young man who lived about 26,000 years ago at the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period (old stone age). [3] He is considered to be the oldest known ceremonial burial in Western Europe. The skeleton was found along with fragments of small cylyndrical ivory rods, fragments of ivory bracelets and seashells. [4] Settlement in Wales was apparently intermittent as periods of cooling and warming led to the ice sheets advancing and retreating. Wales appears to have been abandoned from about 21,000 years ago until after 13,000 years ago, with a burial found at Kendrick's Cave on the Great Orme dating to about 12,000 years ago. [5] For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Gower redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ... The Red Lady of Paviland was a fairly complete human skeleton dyed in red ochre that was discovered in 1826 by Rev. ... Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced //, from the Greek ochros, yellow) are pigments made from naturally tinted clay. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangors 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005 Saint Tudnos church, the original parish church...


Mesolithic

Following the last Ice age, Wales became roughly the shape it is today by about 7000 BC and was inhabited by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Wales has many sites where Mesolithic material has been found, but securely stratified material is rare. [6]The earliest dated Mesolithic site in Wales is Nab Head, Pembrokeshire, around 9,200 years ago. [7] Many of the sites from this period are coastal, although 9,000 years ago they would have been some distance inland from the sea. There is a particular concentration in Pembrokeshire, but there are also a good number of upland sites, most apparently seasonal hunting locations, for example around Llyn Brenig. [8] Some decorated pebbles found at Rhuddlan represent the earliest art found in Wales. [9] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Aerial view of Llyn Brenig Llyn Brenig is a reservoir located in North Wales, in the heart of the Denbigh moors, on the border between the counties of Conwy and Denbighshire. ... Rhuddlan is a town in the administrative county of Denbighshire, traditional county of Flintshire, north Wales, lying on the River Clwyd. ...


An investigation of post holes at the late Neolithic - Early Bronze Age chambered tomb of Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey, published in 2006, gave a radiocarbon dating which placed two of the holes in the Mesolithic period. [10] Bryn Celli Ddu is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...


Neolithic

Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey

The earliest farming communities are now believed to date from about 4000 BC, marking the beginning of the Neolithic period. Pollen evidence indicates the clearing of forests on an increasing scale during this period. The Neolithic saw the construction of many chambered tombs, the most notable including Bryn Celli Ddu and Barclodiad y Gawres on Anglesey. [11] Three main types of megalithic tomb are found in Wales, the Severn-Cotswold type in the south-east, the Portal dolmen type and the Passage graves which are characteristic of the Irish Sea area and the Atlantic façade of Europe and Morocco. Megalithic tombs are most common in the western lowlands. [12] There is evidence of close cultural links with Ireland, particularly in the Early Neolithic period. [13] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 766 KB) Summary Bryn Celli Ddu Môn/ Anglesey Rhion Pritchard Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Wales Bryn Celli Ddu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 766 KB) Summary Bryn Celli Ddu Môn/ Anglesey Rhion Pritchard Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Wales Bryn Celli Ddu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Large T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands. ... Barclodiad y Gawres is a Neolithic burial chamber on the North Wales island of Anglesey. ... Severn-Cotswold (or Cotswold-Severn) is a name given to a type of Megalithic chamber tomb built by Neolithic peoples in Wales and south west England around 3500 BC. They consist of precisely-built, long trapezoid earth mounds covering a burial chamber. ... A Portal dolmen or Portal tomb is a type of Neolithic chamber tomb. ... A passage tomb near the town of Sligo in Ireland A Passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or Passage tomb is a tomb, usually dating to the Neolithic, where the burial chamber is reached along a distinct, and usually low, passage. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ...


A number of houses from the Neolithic period have also been found in Wales, most notably the settlement at Clegyr Boia near St David's in Pembrokeshire. Many artefacts have also been found, particularly polished stone axeheads. There were a number of "factories" in Wales producing these axeheads, the largest being the Graig Lwyd factory at Penmaenmawr on the north coast which exported its products as far afield as Yorkshire and the English midlands. [14] Pottery finds also indicate a relationship with Ireland. St Davids (Welsh: Tyddewi) is the smallest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of under 2,000 people. ... Penmaenmawr is a town in the county borough of Conwy, traditional county of Caernarfonshire, north Wales. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ...


The Bronze Age

The Mold cape, now in the British Museum
The Mold cape, now in the British Museum

Metal tools first appeared in Wales about 2500 BC, initially copper followed by bronze. The climate during the Early Bronze Age (c. 2100-1400 BC) is thought to have been warmer than at present, as there are many remains from this period in what are now bleak uplands. Much of the copper for the production of bronze probably came from the copper mine on the Great Orme, where prehistoric mining on a very large scale dates largely from the middle Bronze Age. [15] In particular copper from the Great Orme mines appears to have been used for the production of bronze implements of the Acton Park Complex, named after a hoard found at Acton Park near Wrexham. These tools, particularly axeheads, were developed towards the end of the Early Bronze Age and are innovative in both metallurgy and design. They were widely exported, with examples being found along the continental coast from Brittanny to north Germany. [16] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1263x779, 357 KB) The Mold gold cape. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1263x779, 357 KB) The Mold gold cape. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangors 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005 Saint Tudnos church, the original parish church... // Acton Park is a residential area in the Welsh county borough of Wrexham. ... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Burial practices in the Bronze Age differed from the communal tombs of the Neolithic period, with a change to burial in round barrows and the provision of grave goods. Inhumation was soon replaced by cremation and in Wales the cemetery mound with a number of burials had become the standard form by about 2000 BC. [17] One of the most striking finds from Bronze Age Wales was the gold cape found in a tomb at Bryn yr Ellyllion, Mold, Flintshire dated to 1900-1600 BC, weighing 560 g and produced from a single gold ingot. Very few weapons have been found in Early Bronze Age graves in Wales compared with other objects, and the lack of traces of earlier Bronze Age settlements is thought to indicate that farms or hamlets were undefended. [18] Round barrows are one of the most common types of archaeological monuments. ... Mold (Welsh: ) is a town in Flintshire, Wales, on the River Alyn. ...


From about 1250 BC there was a deterioration in the climate which became more marked from about 1000 BC, with higher rainfall and much lower summer temperatures. This led to an increase in peat formation and probably the abandonment of many upland settlements. [19] It has been suggested that this led to conflict and to changes in social organization, with the earliest hillforts appearing about 800 BC. [20]


The Late Bronze Age saw the development of more advanced bronze implements, with weapons becoming increasingly common. [21] While the weapons reflect introduced styles, there are pronounced regional variations in the styles of tools, particularly axes. On the basis of tool types, Wales can be divided into four regions, the south-east, south-west, north-west and north-east. Interestingly these regions show an approximate correspondence to the territories of the tribes later recorded in these areas by the Romans, the Silures, Demetae, Ordovices and Deceangli respectively. [22] The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe of ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan. ... The Demetae were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Deceangli or Deceangi were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Isles, prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. ...


The Iron Age

Entrance through the dry-stone rampart, Tre'r Ceiri hillfort, Gwynedd
Entrance through the dry-stone rampart, Tre'r Ceiri hillfort, Gwynedd

The earliest iron implements found in Wales come from Llyn Fawr at the head of the Rhondda Valley, where objects apparently deposited as votive offerings include three made of iron; a sword, a spearhead and a sickle. These items are thought to date to about 650 BC, and while the sword appears to be imported the sickle is an imitation of a native bronze prototype. [23] The Iron Age saw the building of hillforts which are particularly numerous in Wales, examples being Pen Dinas near Aberystwyth and Tre'r Ceiri on the Llŷn pensinsula. The earliest distinctively Iron Age settlement in Wales is considered to be Castell Odo, a small hillfort near the tip of the Llŷn peninsula, dated to about 400 BC. [24] The largest hillforts are most numerous along the eastern border of Wales, with some large examples also found in the lowlands of north-west Wales. In the south-west, by contrast, hillforts are very numerous but mainly small, with an area of under 1.2 hectares. [25] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... Llyn Fawr is a lake in south Wales, best known as the site of an important hoard of weapons and tools from the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. ... The River Rhondda (Welsh: ) is a river in south-east Wales which has two major tributaries; the Rhondda Fawr (English: ) and the Rhondda Fach (English: ). Despite their names, both tributaries are about the same length. ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... Pen Dinas is a hill in Aberystwyth, Wales. ... , Aberystwyth (IPA: , South Welsh: ) (in English: Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre and holiday resort within Ceredigion, Wales. ... Yr Eifl is a mountain on the Lleyn peninsula in north-western Wales. ... The Lleyn peninsula also known by its Welsh name of the LlÅ·n extends from north west Wales. ...


A particularly significant find from this period was made in 1943 at Llyn Cerrig Bach on Anglesey, when the ground was being prepared for the construction of a Royal Air Force base. The cache included weapons, shields, chariots along with their fittings and harnesses, and slave chains and tools. Many had been deliberately broken and seem to have been votive offerings. [26] These finds are considered to be one of the most important collections of La Tène metalwork discovered in Britain. Pottery on the other hand is fairly rare in Wales during this period and most of what has been found appears to be imported. [27] Llyn Cerrig Bach is a small lake in the north-west of the island of Anglesey, Wales. ... RAF redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ...


The La Tène culture is traditionally associated with the Celts, and the general view until fairly recently was that the appearance of this culture indicated a large-scale invasion by peoples who also brought a celtic language which later developed into Welsh [28]. The currently more popular view is that any movement of peoples was on a smaller scale, with cultural diffusion responsible for most of the changes. There is some evidence to support the latter model, such as burials associated with earlier religious sites. [29] It has been suggested that a celtic language was being spoken in Wales by about 700 BC. This article is about the European people. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


The prehistoric period ended with the arrival of the Roman army who began their campaigns against the Welsh tribes in 48 AD with an attack on the Deceangli in north-east Wales. Wales was divided between a number of tribes, of which the Silures and the Ordovices put up the most stubborn resistance. The Roman conquest was complete by 79 AD. The reports of Roman historians such as Tacitus give a little more information about Wales in this period, such as that the island of Anglesey was apparently a stronghold of the Druids. The impact of the arrival of the Romans may have varied from one part of Wales to another; for example there is evidence that some hillforts, such as Tre'r Ceiri, continued to be occupied during the Roman period. The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... The Deceangli or Deceangi were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Isles, prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. ... The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe of ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan. ... The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Lynch, Aldhose-Green & Davies Prehistoric Wales p. 6
  2. ^ Lynch, Aldhose-Green & Davies Prehistoric Wales p. 16
  3. ^ Davies, J A history of Wales p. 4
  4. ^ Lynch, Aldhose-Green & Davies Prehistoric Wales p. 18-19
  5. ^ Lynch, Aldhose-Green & Davies Prehistoric Wales p. 41
  6. ^ Lynch, Aldhouse-Green and Davies Prehistoric Wales p.39
  7. ^ Lynch, Aldhouse-Green and Davies Prehistoric Wales p.23
  8. ^ Lynch, Aldhouse-Green and Davies Prehistoric Wales p.31
  9. ^ Lynch, Aldhouse-Green and Davies Prehistoric Wales p.38
  10. ^ Pitts, M. Sensational new discoveries at Bryn Celli Ddu p.6
  11. ^ Lynch, F. Prehistoric Anglesey pp.34-42, 58
  12. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp.42-43
  13. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp.54
  14. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp. 56-7
  15. ^ Lynch, F. Gwynedd pp. 39-40
  16. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p. 99
  17. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p. 126
  18. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p. 138
  19. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp. 140-5
  20. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp. 150
  21. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp. 180
  22. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales pp. 184
  23. ^ Cunliffe, B. (ed) Iron Age communities in Britain p.290
  24. ^ Foster, I.Ll. & Daniel, G Prehistoric and early Wales p. 130
  25. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p.147
  26. ^ Lynch, F. Prehistoric Anglesey pp.249-77
  27. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p.199
  28. ^ Cunliffe, B. (ed) Iron Age communities in Britain p.3
  29. ^ Lynch, F. et al Prehistoric Wales p.213

References

  • Barry Cunliffe (1987) Iron Age communities in Britain' (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2nd ed) ISBN 0-7100-8725-X
  • John Davies, (1994) A History of Wales (Penguin Books) ISBN 0-14-014581-8
  • I.Ll. Foster & Glyn Daniel (eds) (1965) Prehistoric and early Wales (Routledge and Kegan Paul)
  • John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)
  • Frances Lynch (1995) Gwynedd (A guide to ancient and historic Wales series) (HMSO) ISBN 0-11-701574-1
  • Frances Lynch (1970) Prehistoric Anglesey: the archaeology of the island to the Roman conquest (Anglesey Antiquarian Society)
  • Frances Lynch, Stephen Aldhouse-Green and Jeffrey L. Davies (2000) Prehistoric Wales (Sutton Publishing) ISBN 0-7509-2165-X
  • Pitts, M. 2006. Sensational new discoveries at Bryn Celli Ddu. British Archaeology No. 89 (July/August) p. 6
  • J.A. Taylor (ed) (1980) Culture and environment in prehistoric Wales (BAR British series 76) ISBN 0-86054-079-0

See also

Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Codified by Hywel Dda (Hywell the Good) in the early 10th century, the laws of the Welsh Princes were significantly more complex than would be found in other ares of Western Europe for centuries. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... For the fictional Kingdom of Gwynedd in the Deryni series of novels, see Gwynedd (fictional). ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Castles in Wales is a link page for any castle in Wales. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Wales has elections to four tiers of government: 22 unitary local authorities, the National Assembly for Wales, the United Kingdom Parliament and the European Parliament. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The First Minister (Welsh: ) is the leader of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... The Secretary of State for Wales is the head of the Wales Office within the United Kingdom cabinet. ... The Welsh Office building in Whitehall, London The Welsh Office was a department in the Government of the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales. ... Welsh self-government is the Welsh expression of nationalism, a movement that became popular in nineteenth-century and throughout the twentieth century. ... Geological map of Great Britain showing Wales in the South West. ... A list of the 156 Marilyns of Wales. ... This is a list of the lakes in Wales ordered by Unitary authority. ... This is an article about the demographic data of Wales from the 2001 UK census. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Wales is a part of the United Kingdom, but is a culturally and politically separate Celtic country. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... The media in Wales is quite varied with there being services for people in both English and Welsh. ... A symbol or (in many senses) token is a representation of something — an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. ... This is a list of flags used exclusively in Wales. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Welsh Dragon on the tailfin of an Air Wales ATR 42 aircraft. ...

 
 

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