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Encyclopedia > Prefecture

The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. In English the term prefecture is also used to refer to offices deemed equivalent in other languages' cultural traditions. A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...

Contents

Literal prefectures

Antiquity

For subsequent types of praefectura, see Praefectus. It has been used most prominently to denote a somewhat self-governing body or area since the tetrarchy, when emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into 4 districts (each divided into dioceses, grouping under a Vicarius a number of Roman provinces, listed under that article), although he maintained two pretorian prefectures as an administrative level above the also surviving dioceses (a few of which were split). The word prefect can refer to any of a number of types of official, including: in Latin, a praefectus was a high-ranking military or civil official in the Roman Empire. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ...


Ecclesiastic

As Canon law is strongly inspired by Roman law, it is not surprising that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect. That term occurs also in otherwise styled offices, such as the head of a congregation or department of the Roman curia. Various ecclesiastical areas, too small for a diocese, are termed prefects. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


French préfecture

Main article: préfecture In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ...


In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. As there are 100 départements in France, there are 100 préfectures in France. A préfecture de région is the capital city of a région. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


Analogous prefectures

Brazilian equivalent of prefecture

In Brazil, the prefecture (prefeitura in Portuguese) is the City Hall, home to the Executive of a city and to the mayor's office. It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


Greek equivalent of prefecture

Modern Greece, under its 1975 Constitution, is divided into 51 nomoi (Greek: νομοί) which form the units of local government. These are most commonly translated into English as prefectures. Each nomos is headed by a prefect (nomarch), who was until recently a ministerial appointee but is nowadays elected by direct popular vote. Municipal elections in Greece are held every four years and voting for the election of nomarchs and mayors is carried out concurrently but with separate ballots. Nomos (plural: Nomoi) can refer to: the prefectures of Greece, the administrative division immediately below the peripheries of Greece (Greek: νομός, νομοί) the subdivisions of Ancient Egypt, see Nome (subnational division) law (Greek: νόμος, νόμοι). It is the origin of the suffix -onomy. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


See: Prefectures of Greece Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External...


Chinese equivalents of prefecture

The ancient sense

Xian (县/縣)

When used in the context of Chinese history, especially China before the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate xian (县/縣). This unit of administration is translated as "county" when used in a contemporary context. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li...


See County (China) for more information on the xian of China. In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ...


Zhou

In the context of Chinese history during or after the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate zhou (州), another ancient unit of administration in China. China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li...


See Zhou (political division) for more information on the zhou of China. The zhōu (州) was a historical political division of China. ...


The modern sense

In modern-day People's Republic of China, the prefecture (地区; pinyin: dìqū) is an administrative division found in the second level of the administrative hierarchy. In addition to prefectures, this level also includes autonomous prefectures, leagues, and prefecture-level cities. The prefecture level comes under the province level, and in turn oversees the county level. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... A league (Mongolian: chuulghan, Chinese: 盟, pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in Chinas administrative structure. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ...


See Prefecture of China for more information on modern prefectures in China. Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ...


Japanese sense of prefecture

In reference to the Japanese system of administrative subdivisions, prefecture is used as the translation for todōfuken (都道府県). The system of local government in Japan consists of two classes: prefectures as the large-area local governing units and municipalities as the basic local-level governing units. In Asian practice, the administrative segregation of a country or unified nation-state is usually trifold: the state, large-area local governing units, and basic local-level governing units; Japan follows this pattern. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ...


Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, and each is further divided into municipalities. These prefectures and municipalities neither overlap geographically nor leave any area uncovered; all residents of Japan are therefore residents of one municipality and one prefecture. The prefecture plays a sufficiently large role in personal identity that Japanese introducing themselves abroad often mention their prefecture of origin as well as (or instead of) their municipality. The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ...


The prefectures and municipalities function as more than just the country's administrative units: they are incorporated bodies—independent from the national government—that possess their own basic spheres of responsibility and local residents as their constituents, holding administrative authority within their respective geographical boundaries. In Hokkaidō and several other prefectures, subprefectures are used as special administrative units, due to peculiarities of governmental evolution and the difficulty in centrally governing certain geographically large or remote areas.   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Some Japanese prefectures are divided into branch offices. ...


Prefectures are all followed with the suffix -ken (Kanagawa-ken for example). Osaka and Kyoto are both referred to as a -fu, Osaka-fu and Kyoto-fu respectively but also translated prefectures. There are two government units that are not technically referred to as prefectures in Japan. Tokyo's prefecture-level government and its area is followed by -to, (都 lit. capital) and whose government calls itself "Tokyo Metropolitan Government" in English. Finally Hokkaidō's dō is a suffix for ancient region names but it was 1869 the region was named so. Hokkaidō's government calls itself "Hokkaidō Government" in English. Below a prefecture are -shi, cities, and -ku, wards. Provincial Map of Japan in the 8th Century AD Gokishichidō , Gokishichidō, lit. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Japan's current prefectural system was established in the Meiji era after the new Meiji government abolished fiefs run by feudal clans known as han. This change is called the abolition of the han system; see "Meiji Restoration" in the History of Japan article and the "Meiji era" article for more historical details of this event. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... The Han ) were the fiefs of feudal clans of Japan that were created by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and existed until their abolition in 1871, three years after the Meiji Restoration. ... Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century CE. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178...


Mongolian equivalent

Mongolian prefectures (Aimags) were adopted under the Manchu Empire. Today these are usually translated as "provinces". Mongolia is divided into 21 aymags or provinces. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of...


Venezuelan equivalent

Traditionally the prefecture as being the City Hall and the prefect as being the equivalent of a mayor and commissioner until recently; now the prefectures and prefect are analogous with the figure of Town Clerk It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ... The term town clerk has been commonly applied, in several English-speaking countries, to an influential employee of a city or borough or town administration. ...


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