FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Preaspiration

In phonetics, preaspiration is a period of voicelessness or aspiration preceding the closure of a voiceless obstruent,[1] basically equivalent to an [h]-like sound preceding the obstruent. In other words, when an obstruent is preaspirated, the glottis is opened for some time before the obstruent closure.[2] To mark preaspiration using the International Phonetic Alphabet, generally the diacritic for regular aspiration (a superscript "h", [ʰ]), is placed before the preaspirated consonant. Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Preaspiration is comparatively uncommon across languages of the world,[3] and is claimed by some to not be phonemically contrastive in any language.[4] A distinction is therefore often made between so-called normative and non-normative preaspiration: in a language with normative preaspiration of certain voiceless obstruents, the preaspiration is obligatory even though it is not a distinctive feature; in a language with non-normative preaspiration, the preaspiration is non-obligatory, and may not appear.[5][6][1] Preaspirated consonants are usually allophonic variants of some class of "fortis" ("strong") consonants when they occur after a vowel (generally a stressed vowel).[3] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


Preaspiration can take a number of different forms; while the most usual is glottal friction (an [h]-like sound), the friction can assimilate in point of articulation with the obstruent or the preceding vowel, becoming for example [ç] after close vowels;[7] other potential realizations include [x] and even [f].[8] Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In speech, consonants may have different places of articulation, generally with full or partial stoppage of the airstream. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ...


Preaspiration is perhaps best-known from Scandinavian languages--most prominently in Icelandic and Faroese, but it occurs in some dialects of Norwegian and Swedish as well. It also occurs, among other languages, in Scottish Gaelic, Halh Mongolian, some Sami languages, and in several American Indian languages, including dialects of Cree, Ojibwe, Fox, and Hopi.[9][10] The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Mongolian is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family, and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... The Anishinaabe language or the Ojibwe group of languages or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie, Meskwaki, Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, and others) is an Algonquian Indian language, spoken by around 1000 Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States. ... Hopi is an Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people of northeastern Arizona, although today some Hopi are monolingual English speakers. ...


Some examples of preaspirated plosives from Icelandic (where they occur only after stressed vowels):[11] A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...

  • kappí [ˈkʰaʰpi], "hero"
  • hattur [ˈhaʰtʏr], "hat"
  • þakka [ˈθaʰka], "thank" listen 

In Huautla Mazatec, preaspirates can occur word-initially, perhaps uniquely among languages which contain preaspirates:[12] The Mazatecan languages are a closely related group of highly tonal languages. ...

  • [ʰti] - "fish"
  • [ʰtse] - "a sore"
  • [ʰtʃi] - "small"
  • [ʰka] - "stubble"

See also

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... A acoustic phonetics affricate airstream mechanism allophone alveolar approximant alveolar consonant alveolar ejective fricative alveolar ejective alveolar flap alveolar nasal alveolar ridge alveolar trill alveolo-palatal consonant apical consonant approximant consonant articulatory phonetics aspiration auditory phonetics B back vowel bilabial click bilabial consonant bilabial ejective bilabial nasal bilabial trill breathy... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Helgason, Pétur. Research Interests. Uppsala University. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  2. ^ Stevens and Hajek (2004:334)
  3. ^ a b Silverman (2003)
  4. ^ Mechtild (2002:33)
  5. ^ Gordeeva and Scobbie (2004)
  6. ^ McRobbie-Utasi (2003:1)
  7. ^ Stevens and Hajek (2004:334-35)
  8. ^ McRobbie-Utasi (1991:77)
  9. ^ Rießler, Michael. On the Origin of Preaspiration in North Germanic (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  10. ^ McRobbie-Utasi (1991, 2003), Svantesson (2003)
  11. ^ Silverman (2003:582)
  12. ^ Silverman (2003:590-91)

Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ...

References

  • Gordeeva, Olga, and Scobbie, James M. (2004). "Non-Normative Preaspiration of Voiceless Fricatives in Scottish English: a Comparison with Swedish Preaspiration" (PPT). Colloquium of the British Association of Academic Phoneticians, University of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. 
  • Silverman, Daniel (2003). "On the Rarity of Pre-Aspirated Stops" (PDF). Journal of Linguistics 39: 575-598. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. 
  • Tronnier, Mechtild (2002). "Preaspiration in Southern Swedish Dialects" (PDF). Proceedings of Fonetik 2002. Speech, Music and Hearing Quarterly Progress and Status Report 44: 33-36. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. 

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m