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Encyclopedia > Pravda
Правда
Pravda

Front page of an issue
of Pravda. The headline
says: "Declaration by
the Soviet Leadership"
Type Daily newspaper
Format Broadsheet

Owner Communist Party
of the Soviet Union
Founded October 3, 1908
Political allegiance Bolshevism
Language Russian language
Ceased publication August 22, 1991
Headquarters Vienna
Saint Petersburg
Moscow

Website: www.pravda.ru-.(descendant)

Pravda (Russian: Правда, "The Truth") was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. The Pravda newspaper was started in 1912 in Vienna, Austria, and it did not arrive in Moscow until 1918. During the Cold War, Pravda was well-known in the West for its pronouncements as the official voice of Soviet Communism (similarly, Izvestia was the official voice of the Soviet government). Pravda (The Truth in many Slavic languages (or Justice in some South Slavic languages) - пра́вда, prawda, pravda) Newspapers: Pravda was a newspaper of the Soviet Union and is a newspaper in Russia Komsomolskaya Pravda is an all-Russian daily newspaper. ... new, better version of image; Pravda newspaper front page (from August 1991 coup). ... The political system of the Soviet Union was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the only party permitted by Constitution. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ...


After the paper was closed down in 1991 by decree of President Yeltsin, many of the staff founded a new paper with the same name, which is now a tabloid-style Russian news source. There is furthermore an unrelated Internet-based newspaper, Pravda Online (www.Pravda.ru). A number of other, less famous, newspapers have also been called Pravda. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Origins

The Vienna Pravda

The original Pravda was founded by Leon Trotsky as a Russian social democratic newspaper aimed at Russian workers. The paper was published abroad to avoid censorship and was smuggled into Russia. The first issue was published in Vienna, Austria on October 3, 1908. The editorial staff consisted of Trotsky and, at various times, Victor Kopp, Adolf Joffe and Matvey Skobelev. The last two had wealthy parents and supported the paper financially. Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Adolf Abramovich Joffe (Адольф Абрамович Йоффе) (October 10, 1883 – November 16, 1927) was a Russian revolutionary and an associate of Leon Trotsky. ... Matvey Ivanovich Skobelev (1885 - 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and politician. ...


Since the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was then split into multiple factions and since Trotsky was a self-described 'non-factional social democrat', the newspaper spent much of its time trying to unite party factions. The editors tried to avoid the factional issues that divided Russian emigres and concentrated on the issues of interest to Russian workers. Coupled with a lively and easy to understand style, it made the paper very popular in Russia. The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́ча&#1103...


In January 1910, the party's Central Committee had a rare plenary meeting with all party factions represented. A comprehensive agreement to re-unite the party was worked out and tentatively agreed upon. As part of the agreement, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed central organ. Lev Kamenev, a leading member of the Bolshevik faction and Lenin's close associate, was made a member of the editorial board, but he withdrew in August 1910 once the reconciliation attempt failed. The newspaper published its last issue on April 15, 1912. Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The St. Petersburg Pravda

During the 1917 Revolution

16 March 1917: Pravda reports the declaration of Polish independence

The overthrow of Czar Nicholas II by the February Revolution of 1917 allowed Pravda to reopen. The original editors of the newly reincarnated Pravda, Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov, were opposed to the liberal Russian Provisional Government. However, when Kamenev, Stalin and former Duma deputy Matvei Muranov returned from Siberian exile on March 12, they ousted Molotov and Shlyapnikov and took over the editorial board. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 700 pixel, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/png) Prawda, Russian bolshewik newspaper, March 16th, 1917: declaration of independence for Poland Prawda, gazeta rosyjskich bolszewików z 16 marca 1917: deklaracja niepodlegÅ‚oÅ›ci dla... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 700 pixel, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/png) Prawda, Russian bolshewik newspaper, March 16th, 1917: declaration of independence for Poland Prawda, gazeta rosyjskich bolszewików z 16 marca 1917: deklaracja niepodlegÅ‚oÅ›ci dla... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Alexander Gavrilovich Shlyapnikov (in Russian, Александр Гаврилович Шляпников) (1885-1937) was a Russian communist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Matvei Konstantinovich Muranov (29 November 1873 — 9 December 1959) was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. ...


Under Kamenev's and Stalin's influence, Pravda took a conciliatory tone towards the Provisional Government -- "insofar as it struggles against reaction or counter-revolution" -- and called for a unification conference with the internationalist wing of the Mensheviks. On March 14, Kamenev wrote in his first editorial:

What purpose would it serve to speed things up, when things were already taking place at such a rapid pace?[1]

and on March 15 he supported the war effort:

When army faces army, it would be the most insane policy to suggest to one of those armies to lay down its arms and go home. This would not be a policy of peace, but a policy of slavery, which would be rejected with disgust by a free people.[2]

After Lenin's and Grigory Zinoviev's return to Russia on April 3, Lenin strongly condemned the Provisional Government and unification tendencies in his April Theses. Kamenev argued against Lenin's position in Pravda editorials, but Lenin prevailed at the April Party conference, at which point Pravda also condemned the Provisional Government as "counter-revolutionary". From then on, Pravda essentially followed Lenin's editorial stance. After the October Revolution of 1917 Pravda was selling nearly 100,000 copies daily. Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


The Soviet period

The offices of the newspaper were transferred to Moscow on March 3, 1918 when the Soviet capital was moved there. Pravda became an official publication, or "organ", of the Soviet Communist Party. Pravda became the conduit for announcing official policy and policy changes and would remain so until 1991. Subscription to Pravda was mandatory for state run companies, the armed services and other organizations until 1989[3]. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Other newspapers existed as organs of other state bodies. For example, Izvestia — which covered foreign relations — was the organ of the Supreme Soviet, Trud was the organ of the trade union movement, Komsomolskaya Pravda was the organ of the Komsomol organization, and Pionerskaya Pravda was the organ of Young Pioneers. Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Trud (Tpyд in Russian, meaning labour) is one of Russia’s largest-circulation daily newspapers. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian Комсомольская правда, meaning Komsomols Truth) is an all-Russian newspaper and is the product of the long-lived but now extinct Komsomol organization. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... Pionerskaya Pravda (Пионе́рская Пра́вда) is an all-Russian newspaper. ... Soviet Young Pioneer (right) with her friend from Poland (left) in Artek. ...


In the period after the death of Lenin in 1924, Pravda was to form a power base for Nikolai Bukharin, one of the rival party leaders, who edited the newspaper, which helped him reinforce his reputation as a Marxist theoretician. For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Similarly, after the death of Stalin in 1953 and the ensuing power vacuum, Communist Party leader Nikita Khrushchev used his alliance with Dmitry Shepilov, Pravda's editor-in-chief, to gain the upper hand in his struggle with Prime Minister Georgy Malenkov. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Dmitri Shepilov Dmitri Trofimovich Shepilov (Russian: Дмитрий Трофимович Шепилов) (5 November [O.S. 23 October] 1905 – 8 August 1995) was a Soviet politician and foreign minister who joined the abortive plot to oust Nikita Khruschev from power in 1957. ... Georgy (Georgii) Maximilianovich Malenkov (Russian: , his first name then surname pronounced GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF; January 8 [O.S. December 26, 1901] 1902 – January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician, Communist Party leader and close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ...


The post-Soviet period

On August 22, 1991, a decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin shut down the Communist Party and seized all of its property, including Pravda. Its team of journalists fought for their newspaper and freedom of speech. They registered a new paper with the same title just weeks after. is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ...


A few months later, then-editor Gennady Seleznyov (now a member of the Duma) sold Pravda to a family of Greek entrepreneurs, the Yannikoses. The next editor-in-chief, Alexander Ilyin, handed Pravda's trademark — the Order of Lenin medals — and the new registration certificate over to the new owners. Gennadiy Seleznyov (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... Russian engineer, who proved Fermats theorem with mistake. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... The Order of Lenin (Russian: Орден Ленина, Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest national order of the Soviet Union. ...


By that time, a serious split occurred in the editorial office. Over 90% of the journalists who had been working for Pravda until 1991 quit their jobs. They established their own version of the newspaper, which was later shut down under government pressure. These same journalists, led by former Pravda editors Vadim Gorshenin and Viktor Linnik in January 1999, launched Pravda Online, the first web-based newspaper in the Russian language; English, Italian and Portuguese versions are also available. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The new Pravda newspaper and Pravda Online are not related in any way, although the journalists of both publications are still in touch with each other. The paper Pravda tends to analyze events from a leftist point of view, while the web-based newspaper often takes a nationalist approach. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Meanwhile, in 2004, a new urban guide Pravda has been launched in Lithuania. It has no stylistic resemblance to the original communist Pravda, although its mission purports "to report the truth and nothing but the truth".


Pravda in arts

Lenin reading a copy of Pravda

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Lenin reads a copy of Pravda. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lenin reads a copy of Pravda. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution is a 99-minute 1965 science fiction film (dystopia) directed by Jean-Luc Godard, starring Eddie Constantine, Anna Karina, Howard Vernon and Akim Tamiroff. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see NoHo (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... (Redirected from 2010: The Year We Make Contact) 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ...

References

  • Cookson, Matthew (April 30, 2004). The spark that lit a revolution. Socialist Worker, p. 7.

Notes

  1. ^ See Marcel Liebman, Leninism under Lenin, London, J. Cape, 1975, ISBN 0-224-01072-7 p.123
  2. ^ See E. H. Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, London, Macmillan, 1950, vol. 1, p. 75.
  3. ^ See Mark Hooker. The Military Uses of Literature: Fiction and the Armed Forces in the Soviet Union, Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers, 1996, ISBN 0-275-95563-X p.34

See also

The following publictions were known as central newspapers in the Soviet Union. ... In 1919, Vladimir Lenin commissioned the Pravda to organize a network of peoples corresponents. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... Samantha Reed Smith (June 29, 1972 – August 25, 1985) was an American schoolgirl from Houlton, Maine who was called Americas Youngest Ambassador in the United States and the Goodwill Ambassador in the Soviet Union during her short lifetime. ...

External links

  • Pravda Newspaper
  • CNN Cold War Knowledge Bank - comparison of articles on Cold War topics in TIME Magazine and Pravda between 1945 and 1991

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