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Encyclopedia > Prague Spring
People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past

The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies (except for Romania) invaded the country. Image File history File links Czechs in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past during the Prague Spring. ... Image File history File links Czechs in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past during the Prague Spring. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


The term Prague Spring was coined by Western media after the event became known worldwide, and was eventually adopted in Czechoslovakia itself. It made reference to the Springtime of Peoples, a lyrical title given to the Revolutions of 1848. It has been suggested that The Gathering Storm: Before the Revolutions of 1848 be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents


Spring reforms

Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček

In the early 1960s, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR) underwent an economic downturn, and in early 1968, Antonín Novotný lost control of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) to Alexander Dubček. On 22nd March 1968, Novotný resigned as president, to be replaced by Ludvik Svoboda. Alexander Dubček, leader of Czechoslovakia from 1968 to 1969 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Alexander Dubček, leader of Czechoslovakia from 1968 to 1969 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ... Antonín Novotný was a president of Czechoslovakia. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Antonín Novotný was a president of Czechoslovakia. ... Ludvík Svoboda was born 24 November 1895 in Hroznatin, Moravia, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic) and died on 20 September 1979, Prague, Czechoslovakia. ...


In April, Dubček launched an "Action Programme" of liberalisations which included increased freedom of the press, emphasis on consumer goods, and the possibilty of a more democratic multi-party government. It also planned the federalisation of the ČSSR into two equal nations. ζ This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom of speech. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Constitutional Law of Federation was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 – 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation. ... Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ...


Although the Action Programme stipulated that reform must proceed under KSČ direction, popular pressure mounted to implement reforms forthwith. Radical elements found expression: anti-Soviet polemics appeared in the press; the Social Democrats began to form a separate party; new unaffiliated political clubs were created. Party conservatives urged the implementation of repressive measures, but Dubček counselled moderation and reemphasized KSČ leadership. In May, he announced that the Fourteenth Party Congress would convene in an early session on September 9. The congress would incorporate the Action Program into the party statutes, draft a federalization law, and elect a new Central Committee. ζ This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ...


On June 27, Ludvík Vaculík, a lifelong communist and a candidate member of the Central Committee, published a manifesto entitled "Two Thousand Words". The manifesto expressed concern about conservative elements within the KSČ and "foreign" forces as well. Warsaw Pact military practice maneuvers were being held in Czechoslovakia in late June. It called on the "people" to take the initiative in implementing the reform program. Dubček, the party Presidium, the National Front, and the cabinet sharply denounced the manifesto. This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ...


Negotiations with the Soviets

Leonid Brezhnev and the leadership of the Warsaw Pact countries (except Romania), were concerned about Dubček's reforms, which they feared weakened the position of the Communist Bloc in the middle of the Cold War. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: ; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ...


The Soviet leadership at first tried to stop or limit the changes in the ČSSR through a series of negotiations . The Soviet Union agreed to bilateral talks with Czechoslovakia to be held in July at Čierna nad Tisou, near the Slovak-Soviet border. At the meeting, Dubček defended the program of the reformist wing of the KSČ while pledging commitment to the Warsaw Pact and Comecon. The KSČ leadership, however, was divided between vigorous reformers (Josef Smrkovský, Oldřich Černík, and František Kriegel) who supported Dubček, and conservatives (Vasil Biľak, Drahomír Kolder, and Oldřich Švestka) who adopted an anti-reformist stance. Brezhnev decided on compromise. The KSČ delegates reaffirmed their loyalty to the Warsaw Pact and promised to curb "antisocialist" tendencies, prevent the revival of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, and control the press more effectively. The Soviets agreed to withdraw their troops (still stationed in Czechoslovakia since the June maneuvers) and permit the September 9 party congress. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... RSDr. Vasil Biľak (born 11 August 1917 in Krajná Bystrá) was Slovak Communist leader of Rusyn origin. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: ; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


On August 3, representatives from the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia met in Bratislava and signed the Bratislava Declaration. The declaration affirmed unshakable fidelity to Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism and declared an implacable struggle against "bourgeois" ideology and all "antisocialist" forces. The Soviet Union expressed its intention to intervene in a Warsaw Pact country if a "bourgeois" system—a pluralist system of several political parties—was ever established. After the Bratislava conference, Soviet troops left Czechoslovak territory but remained along Czechoslovak borders. GDR redirects here. ... Bratislava (until 1919: PreÅ¡porok in Slovak, Pressburg in German and English, Pozsony in Hungarian, Požun in Croatian) is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 450,000. ...


As these talks proved unsatisfactory, the Soviets began to consider a military alternative.


The policy of the Soviet Union to demand the socialist governments of its Satellite states subordinate their national interests to those of the "Communist Commonwealth" (through military force if needed) became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine. Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it...


Occupation

The memorial plate in Košice, Slovakia
The memorial plate in Košice, Slovakia

Between the nights of August 20 and August 21 1968, Eastern Bloc armies from five Warsaw Pact countries invaded the ČSSR. During the invasion, Soviet tanks ranging in numbers from 5,000 to 7,000 occupied the streets. They were followed by a large number of Warsaw Pact troops ranging from 200,000 to 600,000. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (964x1287, 464 KB) Summary Author: Marian Gladis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (964x1287, 464 KB) Summary Author: Marian Gladis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ...


During the attack of the Warsaw Pact armies, 72 Czechs and Slovaks were killed (19 of those in Slovakia) and hundreds were wounded (up to September 3, 1968). Alexander Dubček called upon his people not to resist. He was arrested and taken to Moscow, along with several of his colleagues. Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ...


The occupation was followed by a wave of emigration (estimate: 70,000 immediately, 300,000 in total[1]), typically of highly qualified people. Western countries allowed these people to stay and work without complications.


Letter of invitation

Although on the night of the invasion, the Czechoslovak Presidium declared that Warsaw Pact troops had crossed the border without knowledge of the ČSSR Government, the Soviet Press printed an unsigned request, allegedly by Czechoslovak party and state leaders, for "immediate assistance, including assistance with armed forces." [2]At the 14th CPCz Party Congress (conducted secretly, immediately following the intervention), it was emphasised that no member of the leadership had invited the intervention. At the time, a number of commentators believed the letter was fake or non-existent. The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ... The following publictions were known as central newspapers in the Soviet Union. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... A Party Congress is a general conference of a political party. ...


In the early 1990s, however, the Russian government gave the new Czech President, Vaclav Havel, a copy of a letter of invitation addressed to Soviet authorities and signed by CPCz members Bil’ak, Švestka, Kolder, Indra, and Kapek. It claimed that “right-wing” media were “fomenting a wave of nationalism and chauvinism, and are provoking an anti-communist and anti-Soviet psychosis.” It formally asked the Soviets to “lend support and assistance with all means at your disposal” to save the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic “from the imminent danger of counterrevolution.”[3] A 1992 Izvestia article claimed that candidate Presidium member Antonin Kapek gave Leonid Brezhnev a letter at the Soviet-Czechoslovak Čierná nad Tisou talks in late July which appealed for “fraternal help.” A second letter was supposedly delivered by Bil’ak to Ukrainian Party leader Petro Shelest during the August Bratislava conference “in a lavatory rendezvous arranged through the KGB station chief.”[4] This letter was signed by the same five as Havel’s letter, mentioned above. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Václav Havel [VAWTS-lav HA-vel] (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... RSDr. Vasil Biľak (born 11 August 1917 in Krajná Bystrá) was Slovak Communist leader of Rusyn origin. ... Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ÄŒeskoslovenská socialistická republika (ÄŒSSR) in Czech and Slovak) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until April 1990. ... Izvestia (the name in Russian means news and is short for Izvestiya Sovetov Narodnykh Deputatov SSSR, Известия Советов народных депутатов СССР, the Reports of Soviets of Peoples Deputies of the USSR) functioned as a long-running high-circulation daily newspaper in the Soviet Union. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: ; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... RSDr. Vasil Biľak (born 11 August 1917 in Krajná Bystrá) was Slovak Communist leader of Rusyn origin. ... Petro Shelest (Ukrainian: Петро Шелест) (14 February 1908 - 22 January 1996) - First secretary of the Communist party in Ukrainian SSR, member of Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and deputy of the Supreme Soviet. ... Bratislava (until 1919: PreÅ¡porok in Slovak, Pressburg in German and English, Pozsony in Hungarian, Požun in Croatian) is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 450,000. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Václav Havel [VAWTS-lav HA-vel] (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ...


Internal plot

Long before the invasion, planning for a coup was understaken by Indra, Kolder and Bil’ak, among others, often at the Soviet embassy and at the Party recreation centre in Orlík.[5] When these men had managed to convince a majority of the Presidium (six of eleven voting members) to side with them against Alexander Dubček’s reformists, they asked the Soviets to launch a military invasion. The Soviets were even considering waiting until the August 26th Slovak Party Congress, but the Czechoslovak conspirators “specifically requested the night of the 20th.”[6] The plan was to unfold as follows. A debate would unfold in response to the Kašpar report on the state of the country, during which conservative members would insist that Dubček present two letters he had received from the Soviets, letters which listed promises he had made at the Čierná nad Tisou talks but had failed to keep. Dubček’s concealment of such important letters, and his unwillingess to keep his promises would lead to a vote of confidence which the now conservative majority would win, seizing power, and issue a request for Soviet assistance in preventing a counterrevolution. It was this formal request, drafted in Moscow, which was published in Pravda on August 22nd without the signatories. All the Soviets needed to do was suppress the Czechoslovak military and any violent resistance. With this plan in mind, the August 16-17th Politburo meeting passed a resolution to “provide help to the Communist Party and people of Czechoslovakia through military force.”[7] At the August 18th Warsaw Pact meeting, Brezhnev announced that the intervention would go ahead on the night of August 20th, and asked for "fraternal support", which the national leaders of Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland duly offered. Soviet redirects here. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Orlíks Oi! Orlík is a folk influenced Czech oi! and skinhead band founded in 1987 by Daniel Landa and David Matásek. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... This article describes the Soviet/Russian newspaper. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  listen? ( Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев) ( December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ...


Reactions in Czechoslovakia

Popular opposition was expressed in numerous spontaneous acts of nonviolent resistance. In Prague and other cities throughout the republic, Czechs and Slovaks greeted Warsaw Pact soldiers with arguments and reproaches. Every form of assistance, including the provision of food and water, was denied the invaders. Signs, placards, and graffiti drawn on walls and pavements denounced the invaders, the Soviet leaders, and suspected collaborators. Pictures of Dubček and Svoboda appeared everywhere. Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Graffiti on the banks of the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. ...


The generalized resistance caused the Soviet Union to abandon its original plan to oust the First Secretary. Dubček, who had been arrested on the night of August 20, was taken to Moscow for negotiations. It was agreed that Dubček would remain in office and that a program of moderate reform would continue. Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ...


On January 19, 1969, student Jan Palach set himself on fire in Prague's Wenceslas Square to protest the renewed suppression of free speech. Finally, in April 1969, Dubček was replaced as First Secretary by Gustáv Husák, and a period of "Normalisation" began. Husák reversed Dubček's reforms and purged the party of its liberal members. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Jan Palach (August 11, 1948 - January 19, 1969) was a Czech student who committed suicide in political protest by self-immolation. ... Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Wenceslas Square Wenceslas Square (Czech: Václavské námÄ›stí) is one of the main city squares and the centre of the business and cultural communities in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic. ... Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Gustáv Husák (January 10, 1913 Dúbravka (today part of Bratislava) - November 18, 1991 Bratislava) was a Slovak politician, a long-term Communist leader of Czechoslovakia and of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s. ... In the history of Czechoslovakia, normalization is a name commonly given to the period 1969 to about 1987. ...


Reactions around the world

The democratic countries offered only vocal criticism following the invasion — the reality of nuclear standoff in the Cold War meant the Western countries were in no position to challenge Soviet military force in Central Europe. A more pronounced effect took place in Communist Romania, where leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, already a staunch opponent of Soviet influences and one to have declared himself on Dubček's side, held a public speech in Bucharest on the day of the invasion, depicting Soviet policies in harsh terms. While Romania engaged briefly on the same side of the barricade as Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia, the alliance was purely conjectural (as Ceauşescu was already proving to be opposed on principle to Socialism with a human face). It did however consolidate Romania's independent voice the next decades, especially after Ceauşescu encouraged the population to take up arms in order to meet any similar manoeuvre in that country: he received an enthusiastic initial response, with many people who were by no means communist willing to enroll in the newly-formed paramilitary Patriotic Guards. The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romanias heretofore negligible Communist Party in the post-war government, while non-communist political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA ) (January 26, 1918 - December 25, 1989) was the leader of Communist Romania from 1965 until shortly before his execution. ... Bucharest (Romanian: BucureÅŸti ) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. ... Portrait of Tito by Paja Jovanović Tito redirects here. ... Official language Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Bosnian, Macedonian Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Area (1991)  - Total  - % water Ranked xxst 255,804 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked xxth 20,522,972 80/km² Currency Yugoslav dinar Time zone  - in summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) National anthem... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... The Patriotic Guards (Romanian: Gărzile patriotice) were paramilitary formations during Communist Romania, designed to form the additional defence in case of an attack from the outside. ...


In Finland, a country under huge Soviet political influence at that time, the occupation caused a major scandal. Like the Italian and French Communist Parties, the Communist Party of Finland denounced the occupation. Nonetheless, Finnish president Urho Kekkonen was the very first Western politician to officially visit Czechoslovakia after August 1968; he received the highest Czechoslovakian honours from the hands of president Ludvík Svoboda, on October 4, 1969. The Communist Party of Finland (Finnish: Suomen kommunistinen puolue, Swedish: Finlands kommunistiska parti, abbreviated SKP) is a former political party endorsing communism in Finland. ... The President of Finland (Suomen Tasavallan Presidentti; Republiken Finlands President) is the Head of State of Finland. ... Urho Kekkonen Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (September 3, 1900–August 31, 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland (1950-1953, 1954-1956) and later as President of Finland (1956–1981) and is many times referred as first dictator of Finland. ... Ludvík Svoboda Ludvík Svoboda (November 25, 1895 in Hroznatín, Moravia - September 20, 1979 in Prague) was a Czechoslovak national hero who fought in both World Wars and later the president of Czechoslovakia. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


Legacy

The events of the Prague Spring deepened the disillusion of many Western leftists with Leninist views, and contributed to the growth of Eurocommunist ideas in Western communist parties — leading to the eventual dissolution or break-up of many of these groups. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation, rejecting support of the Soviet Union, and expressing more clearly their fidelity to democratic institutions. ...


A decade later, the Prague Spring lent its name to an analogous period of Chinese political liberalization known as the Beijing Spring. It also partly influenced the Croatian Spring in Yugoslavia. The Beijing Spring was a brief period of political liberalization in the Peoples Republic of China which occurred in 1977 and 1978. ... The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for mass movement) was a political movement from the early 1970s that called for greater rights for Croatia which was then part of Yugoslavia. ...


Cultural references

Music for Prague 1968 is a program music written by Czech-born composer Karel Husa for a full orchestra or symphonic band, written shortly after the event of Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968. ... Karel Husa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Program music is music intended to musically represent, or accompany, an extra-musical theme, constrasting with absolute music. ... Jaromír Jágr (help· info) (born February 15, 1972 in Kladno, Czechoslovakia) is regarded as one of the top ice hockey players in the NHL today, and is one of the best European players that have ever worn an NHL uniform. ... The New York Rangers (NYR) are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City. ... The Unbearable Lightness of Being (Czech language: Nesnesitelná lehkost bytí) is a novel written by Milan Kundera in 1984. ... Milan Kundera Milan Kundera (born April 1, 1929 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Franco-Czech writer. ... Sir Tom Stoppard OM, CBE is a British playwright born in Czechoslovakia on 3 July 1937. ...

See also

Ota Šik (September 11, 1919 – August 22, 2004) was a Czech economist and politician. ...

References

  1. ^ Britské Listy article
  2. ^ Skilling, 716.
  3. ^ Williams, 324.
  4. ^ Williams, 121-2
  5. ^ Williams, 122
  6. ^ Williams, 122
  7. ^ Navratíl, 376-383

Sources

  • H. Gordon Skilling, “Czechoslovakia’s Interrupted Revolution,” (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976).
  • Kieran Williams, “The Prague Spring and its aftermath: Czechoslovak politics 1968-1970,” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
  • Jaromír Navratíl, et al, eds. “The Prague Spring 1968: A National Security Archive Documents Reader,” (Budapest: Central European University Press, 1998).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prague Spring - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1955 words)
The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies (except for Romania) invaded the country.
The events of the Prague Spring deepened the disillusion of many Western leftists with Leninist views, and contributed to the growth of Eurocommunist ideas in Western communist parties — leading to the eventual dissolution or break-up of many of these groups.
A decade later, the Prague Spring lent its name to an analogous period of Chinese political liberalization known as the Beijing Spring.
Prague - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3044 words)
Under Charles Prague was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, and its rank was elevated to that of archbishopric.
The expulsion of Jews from Prague by Maria Theresa of Austria in 1745 based on their alleged collaboration with the Prussian army was a severe blow to the flourishing Jewish community.
Prague was thenceforth the capital of a Communist Republic under the military and political control of Soviet Union, and in 1955 it entered the Warsaw Pact.
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