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Encyclopedia > Pragmatics
Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
Lexical semantics
Statistical semantics
Structural semantics
Prototype semantics
Pragmatics
Applied linguistics
Language acquisition
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Linguistic anthropology
Generative linguistics
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Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence. An utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic. one thing we might add, is that pragmatics deals about how to reach our goal in communcation. Suppose, we want to ask someone beside us to stop smoking. we can achieve that goals in by using several utterances. We can say, 'stop smoking, please!' which is direct. We can also say in an indirect way, just like 'sir, this room has air conditioners'. In this way, we want the smoker to understand, that it is not allowed to smoke in air conditioned room. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Theoretical linguistics is that branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... Metapragmatics is a term from linguistics describing language that characterizes or describes the pragmatic function of some speech. ...


Pragmatics is regarded as one of the most challenging aspects for language learners to grasp, and can only truly be learned with experience.

Contents

Origins

Pragmatics was a reaction to structuralist linguistics outlined by Ferdinand de Saussure. In many cases, it expanded upon his idea that language has an analyzable structure, comprised of parts that can be defined in relation to others. Pragmatics engages in synchronic study, as opposed to examining the historical development of language. However, it rejected the notion that all meaning comes from signs existing purely in the abstract space of langue. Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Ferdinand de Saussures Cours de linguistique générale was published posthumously in 1916 by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye based on lecture notes. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ...


While Chomskyan linguistics famously repudiated Bloomfieldian anthropological linguistics, pragmatics continues its tradition. Also influential were Franz Boas, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 - April 18, 1949) was an American linguist, whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Edward Sapir. ... Photo of Benjamin Lee Whorf as a young man. ...


Non-referential uses of language

Roman Jakobson identified six functions of language, only one of which is the traditional system of reference. Roman Osipovich Jakobson (October 11, 1896 - July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. ... In general, a reference is something that refers to or designates something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things. ...

  • referential: conveys information about some real phenomenon
  • expressive: describes feelings of the speaker
  • conative: attempts to elicit some behavior from the addressee
  • phatic: builds a relationship between both parties in a conversation
  • metalingual: self-references
  • poetic: focuses on the text independent of reference

Émile Benveniste discussed pronouns "I" and "you", arguing that they are fundamentally distinct from other pronouns because of their role in creating the subject. In linguistics, a phatic expression is one whose only function is to perform a social task. ... This article is about the art form. ... Emile Benveniste (1902 - 1976) was a French linguist best known for his work on Indo-European languages and his work expanding the linguistic paradigm established by Ferdinand de Saussure. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that usually takes the place of a noun or noun phrase that was previously mentioned (such as she, it) or that refers to something or someone (I, me, you). Pronouns are often one of the basic parts of speech of the... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Michael Silverstein has argued that the "non-referential index" communicates meaning without being explicitly attached to semantic content. Michael Silverstein is a professor of anthropology, linguistics, and psychology at the University of Chicago. ...


Related fields

There is a considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community. However, sociolinguists tend to be more oriented towards variations within such communities. This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...


According to Charles W. Morris, pragmatics tries to understand the relationship between signs and their users, while semantics tends to focus on the actual objects or ideas to which a word refers, and syntax (or "syntactics") examines the relationship between signs.
Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) was an American semiotician and philosopher. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...


Semantics is the literal meaning of an idea whereas pragmatics is the implied meaning of the given idea.


Linguistic Anthropology

Pragmatics helps anthropologists relate elements of language to broader social phenomena; it thus pervades the field of linguistic anthropology. Because pragmatics describes generally the forces in play for a given utterance, it includes the study of power, gender, race, identity, and their interactions with individual speech acts. For example, the study of code switching directly relates to pragmatics, since a switch in code effects a shift in pragmatic force.[1] Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Pragmatics in Philosophy

Jaques Derrida once remarked that some of linguistic pragmatics aligned well with the program he outlined in Of Grammatology. Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time...


Linguistic pragmatics underpins Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity. In Gender Trouble, she describes how gender and sex are not natural categories, but called into being by discourse. In Excitable Speech she extends her theory of performativity to hate speech, arguing that the designation of certain utterances as "hate speech" affects their pragmatic function. Image:J Butler. ... Gender Performativity is a term created by feminist philosopher Judith Butler in her 1990 book Gender Trouble. ... Gender Trouble is a 1990 book by Judith Butler that is highly influential in academic feminism and queer theory. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Performativity is a concept that is related to speech act theory, to the pragmatics of language, and to the work of John L. Austin. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance...


Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari discuss linguistic pragmatics in the fourth chapter of A Thousand Plateaus ("November 20, 1923--Postulates of Linguistics"). They draw three conclusions from Austin: (1) A performative utterance doesn't communicate information about an act second-hand—it does the act; (2) Every aspect of language ("semantics, syntactics, or even phonematics") functionally interacts with pragmatics; (3) The distinction between language and speech is untenable. This last conclusion attempts to simultaneously refute Saussure's division between langue and parole and Chomsky's distinction between surface structure and deep structure. [2] Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Performative. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... In linguistics and syntax, surface structure refers to the representation derived from deep structure of a linguistic expression by transformational rules. ... In linguistics, and especially the study of syntax, the deep structure of a linguistic expression is a theoretical construct that seeks to unify several related structures. ...


Significant works

Herbert Paul Grice (1913 - 1988), usually publishing under the name Paul Grice, was a British educated philosopher of language, who spent the last two decades of his career in the U.S. // Life Born and raised in the United Kingdom, Grice was educated first at Clifton College and then at... The Co-operative Principle was described by Paul Grice, and refers to how people interact with one another. ... Paul Grice, the philosopher, proposed four conversational maxims that arise from the pragmatics of natural language. ... Politeness is the expression of the speakers’ intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another (Mills, 2003, p. ... Image:Geoff2. ... According to Geoffrey Leech, there is a politeness principle with conversational maxims similar to those formulated by Paul Grice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Universal pragmatics (more recently known as formal pragmatics) is a program that tries to explain all of the conditions that are necessary for an understanding between people to be reached. ... Dan Sperber is a French anthropologist, linguist and cognitive scientist, currently a Research Director at the Jean Nicod Institute, CNRS. He is known, amongst other things, for his work on pragmatics and in particular relevance theory; and also for his theory on “epidemiology of representations”. In the early Seventies, Sperber... There are two ways to conceive of how thoughts can be communicated from one person to another. ...

Topics in pragmatics


This article is about logical implication. ... In pragmatics and linguistics, deixis (Greek: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a process whereby words or expressions rely absolutely on context. ... Definition An implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance. ... -- Jan L. A. van de Snepscheut In philosophy, practical reason is the application of reason to real-world decision-making (ie. ... In linguistics, a presupposition is background belief, relating to an utterance, that: must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context Will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial... The speech act is a concept in linguistics and the philosophy of language. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Duranti, Alessandro (1997). Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari (1987) [1980]. A Thousand Plateaus. University of Minnesota Press.

Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ...

Bibliography

  • Austin, J. L. (1962) How to Do Things With Words. Oxford University Press.
  • Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. (1978) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carston, Robyn (2002) Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Clark, Herbert H. (1996) "Using Language". Cambridge University Press.
  • Cole, Peter, ed.. (1978) Pragmatics. (Syntax and Semantics, 9). New York: Academic Press.
  • Dijk, Teun A. van. (1977) Text and Context. Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse. London: Longman.
  • Grice, H. Paul. (1989) Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
  • Laurence R. Horn and Gregory Ward. (2005) The Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell.
  • Leech, Geoffrey N. (1983) Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
  • Levinson, Stephen C. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Levinson, Stephen C. (2000). Presumptive meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature. MIT Press.
  • Mey, Jacob L. (1993) Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell (2nd ed. 2001).
  • Kepa Korta and John Perry. (2006) Pragmatics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Potts, Christopher. (2005) The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sperber, Dan and Wilson, Deirdre. (2005) Pragmatics. In F. Jackson and M. Smith (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. OUP, Oxford, 468-501. (Also available here.)
  • Thomas, Jenny (1995) Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. Longman.
  • Verschueren, Jef. (1999) Understanding Pragmatics. London, New York: Arnold Publishers.
  • Verschueren, Jef, Jan-Ola Östman, Jan Blommaert, eds. (1995) Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Watzlawick, Paul, Janet Helmick Beavin and Don D. Jackson (1967) Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York: Norton.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna (1991) Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Yule, George (1996) Pragmatics (Oxford Introductions to Language Study). Oxford University Press.

John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 - February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory of speech acts. ... John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 – February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory and terminology of speech acts. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Herbert H. Clark (Herb Clark) is an eminent psycholinguist, who works as a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Stanford University. ... Herbert Paul Grice (1913 - 1988), usually publishing under the name Paul Grice, was a British educated philosopher of language, who spent the last two decades of his career in the U.S. H. P. Grice // Born and raised in the United Kingdom, Grice was educated first at Clifton College and... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Anna Wierzbicka (b. ...

See also

Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Charles Peirce (Bibliography). ... Herbert Paul Grice (1913 - 1988), usually publishing under the name Paul Grice, was a British educated philosopher of language, who spent the last two decades of his career in the U.S. // Life Born and raised in the United Kingdom, Grice was educated first at Clifton College and then at... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... A sign relation is the basic construct in the theory of signs, or semiotic theory, as developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). ... In Biblical criticism, Sitz im Leben is a German phrase roughly translating to setting in life. At its simplest, it describes what occasions certain passages in the Bible were written for, and is often called the genres of the Bible. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

External links

  • Liu, Shaozhong, "What is Pragmatics?", Eprint
  • Dan Sperber discusses Pragmatics from Philosophy Talk Radio Program
  • wiki project in comparative pragmatics: European Communicative Strategies (ECSTRA) (directed by Joachim Grzega)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pragmatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (265 words)
Pragmatics is concerned with bridging the explanatory gap between sentence meaning and speaker’s meaning.
Pragmatics is interested predominantly in utterances, made up of sentences, and usually in the context of conversations.
Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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