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Encyclopedia > Praetorian prefect

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ...


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800 BC - AD 476 The Military of ancient Rome (known to the Romans as the militia) relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city of Rome to the end of the Western Roman Empire. ...

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Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The history of ancient Rome - originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD - was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is that Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... robert galusha is mad ass fucking hot Root directory at Strategy of the Roman military Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ...


The praetorian prefect was commander of the Praetorian Guard until Constantine abolished the guard in 314. Praetorian prefects continued to be appointed until the reign of Heraclius, but the office developed into head of the civil and judicial administration of the empire. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ...


The term praefectus praetorio was often abbreviated in inscriptions as 'PR PR'.[1]

Contents

Praetorian guards commander

Under the empire the praetorians or imperial guards were commanded by one, two, or even three praefects (praefecti praetorio), who were chosen by the emperor from among the equites and held office at his pleasure. From the time of Alexander Severus the post was open to senators also, and if an equite was appointed he was at the same time raised to the senate. Down to the time of Constantine, who deprived the office of its military character, the prefecture of the guards was regularly held by tried soldiers, often by men who had fought their way up from the ranks. In course of time the command seems to have been enlarged so as to include all the troops in Italy except the corps commanded by the city praefect (cohortes urbanae). An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ...


The special position of the Praetorians made them become a power in their own right in the Roman state, and their prefect, praefectus praetorio, soon became one of the more powerful men in this society. The emperors tried to flatter and control the praetorians, but they staged many coups d'etat and contributed to a rapid rate of turnover in the imperial succession. The praetorians thus came to destabilize the Roman state, contrary to their purpose. The Praetorian prefect became a major administrative figure in the later empire, when the post combined in one individual the duties of an imperial chief of staff with direct command over the guard also. Diocletian greatly reduced the power of these prefects as part of his sweeping reform of the empire's administrative and military structures. A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


List of known Guard Prefects

Known Prefects of the Praetorian Guard 2 BC - AD 312
Name
Emperor Served
Publius Aper
Augustus
Quintus Ostoriius Scapula
Augustus
Valerius Ligur
Augustus
Lucius Strabo
Augustus, Tiberius
Lucius Aelius Sejanus
Tiberius
Quintus Sutorius Macro
Tiberius, Caligula
Marcus Arrecinus Clemens
Caligula
Rufrius Pollio
Claudius
Cantonius Justus
Claudius
Rufius Crispinus
Claudius
Lusius Geta
Claudius
Sextus Afranius Burrus
Claudius, Nero
Faenius Rufus
Nero
Gaius Ophonius Tigellinus
Nero
Nymphidius Sabinus
Nero
Cornelius Laco
Galba
Plotius Firmus
Otho
Licinius Proculus
Otho
Publius Sabinus
Vitellius
Junius Priscus
Vitellius
Tiberius Julius Alexander[2]
Vespasian
Arrius Varus
Vespasian
Arrecinus Clemens
Vespasian
Titus Flavius Vespasianus
Vespasian
Cornelius Fuscus
Domitian
Casperius Aelianus
Domitian
Norbanus Domitian
Petronius Secundus Domitian
Casperius Aelianus Nerva
Suburanus Trajan
Claudius Livianus Trajan
S. Sulpicius Similis Trajan
C. Septicius Clarus Hadrian
Marcius Turbo Hadrian
Gaius Maximus
Hadrian, Antoninus Pius
Tattius Maximus
Antoninus Pius
Fabius Cornelius
Antoninus Pius
Furius Victorinus
Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius
Macrinus Vindex
Marcus Aurelius
Bassaeus Rufus
Marcus Aurelius
Tarutenius Paternus
Marcus Aurelius, Commodus
Tigidius Perennis
Commodus
Cleander
Commodus
Lucius Julianus
Commodus
Aemilius Laetus
Commodus, Pertinax, Didius Julianus
Flavius Genialis
Didius Julianus
Tullius Crispinus
Didius Julianus
Veterius Macrinus
Septimius Severus
Gaius Fulvius Plautianus
Septimius Severus
Papinian
Septimius Severus, Caracalla
Oclatinius Adventus
Caracalla
Marcus Opellius Macrinus
Caracalla
Ulpius Julianus
Macrinus
Julianus Nestor
Macrinus
Valerius Comazon Eutychchianus
Elagabalus
Antiochianus
Elagabalus
Ulpian
Severus Alexander
Iulius Paulus
Severus Alexander
P. Aelius Vitalianus
Maximinus
Philip the Arab
Gordian III
Gaius Julius Priscus
Philip the Arab
Silvanus (praetorian prefect)|Silvanus
Gallienus
Aurelius Heraclianus
Gallienus
Florianus
Tacitus
Carus
Probus
Aper
Carus, Carinus, Numerian
Aristobulus
Numerian, Diocletian
Afranius Hannibalianus
Diocletian
Constantius Chlorus
Diocletian
Asclepiodotus
Diocletian
Rufius Volusianus
Maxentius
Publius Cornelius Anullinus
Maxentius

For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Lucius Aelius Sejanus (or Seianus) (20 BC– October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of Tiberius, and for a time the most influential and feared citizen of Rome. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro (or Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro) (21 BC - 38 AD) was the Prefect of the Roman Praetorian Guard after the execution of Aelius Sejanus in October, 31. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Sextus Afranius Burrus , Pretorian Prefect, was Neros tutor and later advisor. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Faenius Rufus, Roman senator, praefectus annonae, 55-62AD. Tacitus reports that (unlike most holders of that office) he did not profit from it. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Ophonius Tigellinus, also known as Sophonius Tigellinus, was a minister and favourite of the emperor Nero. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Nymphidius Sabinus (d. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Emperor Otho. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Tiberius Julius Alexander ( 1st century AD) was a prominent equestrian governor and general of the Roman Empire. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... 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Gaius or Lucius Fulvius Plautianus (? - 22 January 205 AD) was a Roman who lived in the second and third century AD. Plautianus was a member of gens Fulvius, a family of plebs status and the family were active in politics since the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Papinian (Aemilius Papinianus) (died AD 212), was a Roman jurist, magister libellorum and afterwards praetorian prefect under Septimius Severus. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... A bust depicting Elagabalus. ... A bust depicting Elagabalus. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from AD 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from AD 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. ... Gaius Iulius Priscus (3rd century) was military man and member of the Praetorian guard in the reign of Gordian III. Priscus was born in the Roman province of Syria, possibly in Damascus, son of a Julius Marinus a local Roman citizen, possibly of some importance. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... 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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Asclepiodotus (Welsh language: Alyssglapitwlws) was a Roman praetorian prefect who re-established Roman rule in Britain following the illegal rules of Carausius and Allectus. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ...

Transformation to administrator

In addition to his military functions, the praetorian prefect came to acquire jurisdiction over criminal affairs, which he exercized not as the delegate but as the representative of the emperor. It was decreed by Constantine 331 that from the sentence of the praetorian praefect there should be no appeal. A similar jurisdiction in civil cases was acquired by him not later than the time of Septimius Severus. Hence a knowledge of law became a qualification for the post, which under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, but especially from the time of Severus, was held by the first jurists of the age, (e.g. Papinian, Ulpian, Paullus) and John the Cappadocian, while the military qualification fell more and more into the background. Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Papinian (Aemilius Papinianus) (died AD 212), was a Roman jurist, magister libellorum and afterwards praetorian prefect under Septimius Severus. ... Domitius Ulpianus, Anglicized as Ulpian, (died 228) was a Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. ... Paullus is a cognomen of ancient Rome, also appearing as an apparent praenomen of several Romans. ... John the Cappadocian was a prefect in the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Justinian I. John was appointed to lead the first commission on Justinians new legal code, the Corpus Juris Civilis, and became Justinians chief legal advisor. ...


The tetrarchy reform of Diocletian (circa 296) multiplied the office, as there was now one pretorian prefect as chief of staff (military and administrative) --rather than commander of the guard-- for each of the two Augusti and two Caesares. Each one of the pretorian perfects oversaw one of the four quarters created by Diocletian, which would become praetorian prefectures under Constantine. Their masters were soon reduced to two imperial courts, at Rome (later Ravenna) and Constantinople, but the four prefectures remained as the highest level of administrative division, in charge of several so-called dioceses (groups of Roman provinces), each of which was headed by a Vicarius. The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The division of the Roman Empire into four Praetorian prefectures originated in the age of the Tetrarchy yet outlived that period. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Under Constantine the Great, the institution of the Magister militum deprived the praetorian prefecture altogether of its military character but left it the highest civil office of the empire. Constantine. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ...


Germanic era

The office was among the many maintained after the Western Roman empire had succombed to the Germanic invasion in Italy, notably at the royal court of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great. Tomb of Theodoric in Ravenna Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the East Goths, the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


Sources and references

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Lesley and Roy Adkins. Handbook to life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-512332-8. page 241
  2. ^ Disputed; see Tiberius Julius Alexander#Later career.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Prefect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (919 words)
The Praetorian prefect (Praefectus praetorio) began as the military commander of a general's guard company in the field, then grew in importance as the Praetorian Guard became a potential kingmaker during the Empire.
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Praetorian prefect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (549 words)
The praetorian prefect was commander of the Praetorian Guard until Constantine abolished it in 314.
Praetorian prefects continued to be appointed until the reign of Heraclius, but the office developed into head of the civil and judicial administration of the empire.
Further, the praetorian praefect acquired, in addition to his military functions, a criminal jurisdiction, which he exercised not as the delegate but as the representative of the emperor, and hence it was decreed by Constantine 331 that from the sentence of the praetorian praefect there should be no appeal.
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