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27 BCAD 476 Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...

Principate
Western Empire
The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...

Dominate
Eastern Empire
The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

Ordinary Magistrates

Consul
Praetor
Quaestor
Promagistrate This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ...

Aedile
Tribune
Censor
Governor Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ...

Extraordinary Magistrates

Dictator
Magister Equitum
Consular tribune Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE to 394 BCE, and again from 391 BCE to 367 BCE. According the the histories of...

Rex
Triumviri
Decemviri Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ...

Titles and Honors
Emperor

Legatus
Dux
Officium
Praefectus
Vicarius
Vigintisexviri
Lictor This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ...

Magister Militum
Imperator
Princeps senatus
Pontifex Maximus
Augustus
Caesar
Tetrarch Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... A tetrarch is a Greek term that strictly identifies one of four governors of a divided province. ...

Politics and Law

Roman Senate
Cursus honorum
Roman assemblies
Collegiality This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honour) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Roman law
Roman citizenship
Auctoritas
Imperium Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...

Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected magistrate assigned duties that varied depending on the historical period. The magistracy was called the praetura (praetorship). Its functions were described by the adjective: the praetoria potestas and perium (praetorian power and authority) and the praetoria ius, a body of legal precedents set down by the praetors. Praetorium as a substantive meant the location from which the praetor exercised his authority, either the headquarters of his castra, the courthouse (tribunal) of his judiciary, or the city hall of his provincial governorship.[1] A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ...

Contents

History of the title

The events leading to the origin of the title are not described by the classical authors. The title and the magistracy existed in the time of the chief Republican historian, Titus Livius. The Republican statesman and attorney, Marcus Tullius Cicero, explored the uses and philosophy of the term in his writings. Titus Livius (around 59 BC - 17 AD), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC). ... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ...


The prefix prae is a good indication that the title-holder was prior in some way in society. Livy mentions that the Latini were led and governed in warfare by two of them.[2] and the Samnites by one[3] A dictator was called the praetor maximus. The use of the adjectives (praetorius, praetoricius, praetorianus) in a large number of circumstances testify to a general sense. The leadership functions of any corporate body at Rome might be termed praetorial. The Latins were an ancient people of Italy, in and around Latium. ... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


The praetoria potestas in Republican Rome was at first held by the consuls. These two officials, elected on a yearly basis, inherited the power of the king.[4] Very likely, the king himself was the first praetor, but in what sense? The best explanation available is that of Cicero in De legibus, in which he proposes ideal laws based on Roman constitutional theory:[5] Consul (abbrev. ...

Regio imperio duo sunto, iique <a> praeeundo iudicando consulendo praetores iudices consules appellamino. Militiae summum ius habento,...
"Let there be two with the authority of the king, and let them be called praetors, judges and consuls from their going before, judging and consulting. Let them have the supreme law of the militia..."

This etymology of praetor became and remains the standard. Cicero considers the word to contain the same elemental parts as the verb praeire (praeeo: "to go before, to precede, to lead the way"). In exactly what way he goes before did not survive, but if we interpret praetor as leader we shall probably not go far wrong.


Livy explains[6] that in the year 366 BC the praetura was created to relieve the consuls of their judicial duties. The praetor was, in English, the chief justice, and yet more than that. The consuls were his peers; he was elected by the same electorate and sworn in on the same day with the same oath.[7] With them he retained the ius militiae. The constitution was amended in this way to satisfy the patricians. One position of consul had to be opened to the plebeians. Until 337 BC the praetor was chosen only from the patricians.[8] The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... This is an article about the privileged class in ancient Rome. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ...


From then on praetors appear frequently in Roman history, first as generals and judges, then as provincial governors. Beginning in the late Republic, a former Praetor could serve as a Propraetor ("in place of the Praetor") and act as the governor of one of Rome's provinces. Propraetors were much in demand. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120 AD. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. ...


Praetura

The first man to be elected to the new praetura was the patrician Spurius Furius, the son of Marcus Furius Camillus,[9] in exchange for the election of Lucius Sextius, Plebeian leader, as one of the consuls for the year. The elections were given a highly probable outcome by partisan politics, the parties being in this case the classes. Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ... Lucius Sextius Lateranus was a Roman Consular tribune and is noted for having been one of two men (the other being Gaius Licinius) behind the Lex Licinia Sextia, permitting him in 366 BC to become what is often considered the first plebeian consul. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


The elected Praetor was a Magistratus Curulis, exercised the Imperium, and consequently was one of the Magistratus Majores. He had the right to sit in the sella curulis and wear the toga praetexta.[10] He was attended by six lictors. Magistratus Curulis was a magistrate in Ancient Rome entitled to use sella curulis, a chair of office made of ivory. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ...


The potestas and the imperium of the consuls and the praetors under the republic should not be exaggerated. They did not use independent judgement in resolving matters of state. Unlike today's executive branches, they were assigned high-level tasks directly by senatorial decree under the authority of the SPQR. They were of senatorial rank and served in the senate both before and after holding their office. The government, or res publica, was solidly vested in the senate. The praetors did not owe any special obedience to republican consuls, or any more respect than the consuls owed them. They all worked for the Senate and could be prosecuted for not executing its decrees. A few praetors in Roman history were charged with treason. The inscription in the Arch of Titus Modern coat of arms of Rome Manhole cover in Rome with SPQR inscription SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senatus Populusque Romanus (The Senate and the Roman people), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an...


Livy describes the assignments given to either consuls or praetors in some detail. As magistrates they had standing duties to perform, especially of a religious nature. The senate defined what senior positions were to exist before the elections. Immediately after the elections, the new officials cast lots for the assignments, which were mainly provincial governorships. As there came to be considerably more praetors than there were consuls, the praetors took most of the provinces. A province given to consuls was termed consular. Proconsuls and propraetors joined in the lottery as well. The entire population of these elected officials were the department heads of the government.


Any consul or any praetor could at any time be pulled away from his duties of the moment to head a task force, and there were many, especially military. The Roman government worked hard and was always understaffed. Livy mentions that, among other tasks, these executive officers were told to lead troops to a threat, foreign or domestic, investigate possible subversion, raise troops, conduct special sacrifices, distribute windfall money, appoint commissioners and exterminate locusts. The one principle that limited what could be assigned to them was that it must not be minima, "little things."[11] They were by definition doers of maxima. Thus, on a military assignment, the praetor was always the commanding general, never a lesser officer. Praetors could delegate at will.


Additional Praetors and their Duties

Republican

In the year 246 BC the Senate created a second Praetura. There were two reasons for this: to relieve the crush of judicial business and to give the Republic a magistrate with Imperium who could field an army in an emergency when both consuls were fighting a far-off war. He was to administer justice in disputes between peregrini, or between peregrini and Roman citizens. Accordingly he was called the Praetor Peregrinus. The other Praetor was then called Praetor Urbanus. He presided in cases between citizens. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Consul (abbrev. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ...


The Senate required that some senior officer remain in Rome at all times. This duty now fell to the Praetor Urbanus. As is implied by the name, he was allowed to leave the city only for up to ten days at a time. He was therefore given appropriate duties at Rome. He superintended the Ludi Apollinares. He was also the chief magistrate for the administration of justice and the promulgation of Edicta, which formed a corpus of precedents.[12] The development and improvement of Roman Law owes much to these precedents. The Apollinarian games, or Ludi Apollinares, in ancient Rome, were solemn games held annually by the Romans in honor of the god Apollo. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...


The expansion of Roman authority over other lands required the addition of praetors. Two were created in 227 BC, for the administration of Sicily and Sardinia, and two more when the two Spanish provinces were formed in 197 BC. Lucius Cornelius Sulla increased the number of Praetors to eight, which Julius Caesar raised successively to ten, then fourteen, and finally to sixteen.[13] style=color: #FFFFFF;>Your Role in the Fantasy <input type=hidden name=un value=TheBlueParadox><input type=hidden name=meme value=1073256105></form> ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC - 197 BC - 196 BC 195 BC... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ...


Imperial

Augustus made changes that were designed to reduce the Praetor to being an imperial administrator rather than a magistrate. The electoral body was changed to the Senate, which was now (through personal terror) an instrument of imperial ratification. The establishment of the principate was the restoration of monarchy under another name. The emperor therefore assumed the powers once held by the kings, but he used the apparatus of the republic to exercise them. For example, the emperor presided over the highest courts of appeal. For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ...


The need for administrators remained just as acute. After several changes Augustus fixed the number at twelve. Under Tiberius there were sixteen. As imperial administrators their duties extended to matters the republic would have considered minima. Two praetors were appointed by Claudius for matters relating to Fideicommissa (trusts), when the business in that department of the law had become considerable, but Titus reduced the number to one; and Nerva added a Praetor for the decision of matters between the Fiscus (treasury) and individuals. Marcus Aurelius[14] appointed a Praetor for matters relating to tutela (guardianship). Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Fiscus was the name of the personal treasury of the emperors of Rome. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ...


Praetors as judges

Roman court cases fell into the two broad categories of civil or criminal trials. The involvement of a Praetor in either was as follows.


Actiones

In an actio, which was civil, the Praetor could either issue an interdictum (interdict) forbidding some circumstance or appoint a iudex (judge). Proceedings before the praetor were technically said to be in iure. After they were handed over to the iudex, they were no longer in iure before the Praetor. The iudicium of the iudex was binding. The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Quaestiones perpetuae

The Praetors also presided at the Quaestiones perpetuae (which were criminal proceedings), so-called because they were of certain types, with a Praetor being assigned to one type on a permanent basis. The Praetors appointed judges who acted as jurors in voting for guilt or innocence. The verdict was either acquittal or condemnation.


These quaestiones looked into crimina publica, "crimes against the public", such as were worthy of the attention of a Praetor. The penalty on conviction was usually death, but sometimes other severe penalties were used. In the late Republic the public crimes were Repetundae,[15] Ambitus,[16] Majestas,[17] and Peculatus,[18] which, when there were six Praetors, were assigned to four out of the number. Sulla added to these Quaestiones those of Falsum,[19] De Sicariis et Veneficis,[20] and De Parricidis[21] and for this purpose he added two or according to some accounts four praetors. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ...


Outdoor actions

The Praetor when he administered justice sat on a sella Curulis in a Tribunal, which was that part of the Court which was appropriated to the Praetor and his assessors and friends, and is opposed to the Subsellia, or part occupied by the Judices, and others who were present. But the Praetor could do many ministerial acts out of court, or as it was expressed e plano, or ex aequo loco, which terms are opposed to e tribunali or ex superiore loco: for instance, he could in certain cases give validity to the act of manumission when he was out-of-doors, as on his road to the bath or to the theatre. A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ...


Later Roman era

By the time of the permanent division of the Roman Empire in 395, Praetors' responsibilities had been reduced to a purely municipal role.[22] Their sole duty was to manage the spending of money on the exhibition of games or on public works. However with the decline of the other traditional Roman offices such as that of tribune the Praetorship remained an important portal through which aristocrats could gain access to either the Western or Eastern Senates. The Praetorship was a costly position to hold as Praetors were expected to possess a treasury from which they could draw funds for their municipal duties. There is known to have been 8 Praetors in the Eastern Empire who shared the financial burden between them. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Byzantine Senate was a nominal continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries but was increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance in the 13th century. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Recent Praetors

Until recently some German cities retained an office entitled Praetor.[citation needed] Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Italy, until 1998, Praetor was a magistrate with particular duty (especially in civil branch).


Classical Latin Praetor became medieval Latin Pretor; Praetura, Pretura, etc.


Trivia

In the Star Trek fictional universe, Praetor is also the title given to the Romulan head of government (by analogy with Rome). The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Romulans are a fictional alien species in the Star Trek universe related to Vulcans. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


In the StarCraft fictional universe, Praetor is a title used by the Protoss to denote the leader of their planet-based defense armies. Protoss Praetors should not be confused with Executors, who command the space fleets, analogous to the difference between a General and Admiral. StarCraft is a real-time strategy game by Blizzard Entertainment. ... Artanis, a young Protoss Praetor in the StarCraft universe. ... An executor is a person named by a maker of a will to carry out the directions of the will. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ...


In the game Final Fantasy X-2, a Praetor is the leader of the New Yevon Party. It has been suggested that Characters of Final Fantasy X-2 be merged into this article or section. ...


In the Halo 2 machinima series The Codex, a Praetor is a commander of ground forces, and possibly of space forces as well, within the Covenant. One of the main characters of the series is a Praetor, and much of that character's story arc deals with the extent of a Praetor's authority within the larger military and religious structure of the Covenant. This article is about the video game. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Codex is a 20 episode online machinima series, set in the Halo video game universe following the story of a Covenant invasion of a Human world in order to recover a Forerunner artifact, and the story of the Humans resisting that invasion. ... The Covenant is a fictional militaristic and theocratic alliance of alien races who serve as the main antagonist body of the Halo science-fiction video game series. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the Sigma Chi Fraternity, a Grand Praetor governs areas known as provinces, which contain many chapters at various universities and colleges. Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities. ...


Notes

  1. ^ All Latin dictionaries of moderate size, such as can be obtained in any public library, list the praetorial nouns and adjectives, uses and major sources.
  2. ^ 8.3
  3. ^ 8.26
  4. ^ 8.32
  5. ^ 3.8
  6. ^ 6.42, 7.1
  7. ^ The Comitia Centuriata elected consuls and praetor(s) sometimes on the same day, sometimes taking two days.
  8. ^ In that year eligibility for the praetura was opened to the plebeians, and one of them, Quintus Publius Philo, won (Livy, 8.12).
  9. ^ Livy 7.1
  10. ^ Livy 7.1.
  11. ^ This principle of Roman law became a principle of later European law, Non curat minima praetor; that is, the details do not need to be legislated, they can be left up to the courts.
  12. ^ The edict was a statement of praetorial policy or decision. The praetor was careful not to attempt legislation with it. Failure in that regard would lead to a charge of treason.
  13. ^ In the late Republic the census was discovering a population of the city of Rome numbering in the millions.
  14. ^ Capitolinus, Vita Marci Antonini Chapter 10.
  15. ^ Approximately "remedy", the seeking of restitution of property taken illegally by a magistrate and conviction of the perpetrator. Example: an illegal confiscation.
  16. ^ "Canvassing", an attempt to influence voters illegally. Example: buying votes.
  17. ^ Against the "majesty" of the people; that is, treason. Example: plotting the murder of a magistrate.
  18. ^ "Embezzlement", the theft of public property. Example: the misappropriation of public money.
  19. ^ "False witness."
  20. ^ "Concerning stabbers and poisoners"; i.e., against professional assassins and their collaborators.
  21. ^ "Patricide", extended to the murder of relatives, presumably for property.
  22. ^ Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire, Volume 1, Chapter 1.

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ...

See also

This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ...

Books

  • Brennan, T. Corey (2001). The Praetorship in the Roman Republic. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513867-8

External links

  • Peck, Harry Thurston, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898), Praetor
  • Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Praetor.
  • Livy, Books 1-5, English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
  • Livy, Books 6-10, English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
  • Livy, Books 40-45, English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
  • Cicero, de legibus, Book 3, Latin. The Latin Library site.
  • The Roman Law Library by Professor Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev

History – Ancient History – Ancient Rome – Political institutions of Rome – Praetor HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Praetor d.o.o. (3139 words)
PRAETOR is not bound to execute the instructions if this meant violating legal regulations or good business practices or causing damage to an unculpable third entity.
PRAETOR is not late if it fails to meet the arranged execution deadlines because it has not received complete specifications and plans.
PRAETOR is not late if it fails to meet the arranged execution deadlines because it has not received complete specifications and plans or addenda.
Praetor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1166 words)
The praetor sometimes commanded the armies of the state; and while the consuls were absent with the armies, he exercised their functions within the city.
Two praetors were appointed by Claudius for matters relating to Fideicommissa, when the business in that department of the law had become considerable, but Titus reduced the number to one; and Nerva added a Praetor for the decision of matters between the Fiscus and individuals.
The Praetor when he administered justice sat on a sella Curulis in a Tribunal, which was that part of the Court which was appropriated to the Praetor and his assessors and friends, and is opposed to the Subsellia, or part occupied by the Judices, and others who were present.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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