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Encyclopedia > Poxviridae
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Poxviruses
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Poxviridae
Genera

Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae
   Orthopoxvirus
   Parapoxvirus
   Avipoxvirus
   Capripoxvirus
   Leporipoxvirus
   Suipoxvirus
   Molluscipoxvirus
   Yatapoxvirus
Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae
   Entomopoxvirus A
   Entomopoxvirus B
   Entomopoxvirus C
Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. ... Species Bovine papular stomatitis virus Orf virus Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand Pseudocowpox virus Squirrel parapoxvirus Parapoxviruses belong to the Poxviridae family. ... Avipoxvirus is a memeber of the Poxviridae family that effects birds only. ...


Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Poxviridae viral particles (virions) are generally enveloped (external enveloped virion- EEV), though the intracellular mature virion (IMV) form of the virus, which contains different envelope, is also infectious. They vary in their shape depending upon the species but are generally shaped like a brick or as an oval form similar to a rounded brick. The virion size is around 200 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length and carries its genome in a single, linear, double-stranded segment of DNA.[1] By comparison, Rhinovirus is 1/10th as large as a typical Poxviridae virion.[2] Electron micrographs of Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus Genera, including the smallpox virus, have been collected by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in their Poxviridae picture gallery. The prototype of poxvirus family is vaccinia virus, which has been used as a successful vaccine to eradicate smallpox virus. Vaccinia virus is also used as an effective tool for foreign protein expression to elicite strong host immune response. Vaccinia virus enters cells mainly by cell fusion, although currently the receptor is not known. Virus contains three classes of genes, early, intermediate and late, that are transcribed by viral RNA polymerase and associated transcription factors. Vaccinia virus replicates its genome in cytoplasm of the infected cells and after late gene expression virion morphogenesis produces IMV that contains envelope, although the origin of the envelope membrane is still unknown. IMV is transported to Golgi to be wrapped additional two membrane to become intracellular enveloped virus (IEV). IEV transports along microtubules to reach cell periphery and fuse with plasma membrane to become cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) that triggers actin tails on cell surfaces or is releared as EEV. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand-millionth of a metre, which is the current SI base unit of length. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand-millionth of a metre, which is the current SI base unit of length. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... An electron micrograph is a micrograph made with an electron microscope. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ...


The name of the family, Poxviridae, is a legacy of the original grouping of viruses associated with diseases that produced poxs in the skin. Modern viral classification is based on the shape and molecular features of viruses, and the smallpox virus remains as the most notable member of the family. The only other poxvirus known to specifically infect humans is the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[3] Pox can refer to: Animal pox viruses. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Molluscum contagiosum are wart-like tumors of the skin caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV-1 to -4), a DNA poxvirus. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

The following genera are currently included here:

Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. ... Vaccinia is the condition resulting from infection with the Vaccinia virus. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Species Bovine papular stomatitis virus Orf virus Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand Pseudocowpox virus Squirrel parapoxvirus Parapoxviruses belong to the Poxviridae family. ... Orf is a disease caused by a parapox virus and occurring primarily in sheep and goats. ... Avipoxvirus is a memeber of the Poxviridae family that effects birds only. ... Fowlpox is a worldwide disease of poultry caused by viruses of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus. ... Sheeppox and goatpox are diseases caused by separate viruses of the family Poxviridae that are very similar in symptoms. ... Myxomatosis (from the Greek μύξα (mucus), and ματώνω (to bleed)) is a disease which infects only rabbits. ... Swinepox is a worldwide disease of pigs caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Suipoxvirus. ... Molluscum contagiosum are wart-like tumors of the skin caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV-1 to -4), a DNA poxvirus. ...

Replication

Replication of the poxvirus involves several stages. The first thing the virus does is to bind to a receptor on the host cell surface; the receptors for the poxvirus are currently unknown. After binding to the receptor, the virus enters the cell where it uncoats. Uncoating of the virus is a two step process. Firstly the outer membrane is removed as the particle enters the cell; secondly the virus particle (without the outer membrane) is uncoated further to release the core into the cytoplasm. The pox viral genes are expressed in two phases. The early genes are expressed first. These genes encode the non-structural protein, including proteins necessary for replication of the viral genome, and are expressed before the genome is replicated. The late genes are expressed after the genome has been replicated and encode the structural proteins to make the virus particle. The assembly of the virus particle occurs in the cytoskeleton of the cell and is a complex process that is poorly understood but is currently being researched. Considering the fact that this virus is large and complex replication is relatively quick taking only 12 hours approximately. The replication of this virus is unusual for a virus with double stranded DNA genome because it encodes its own machinery for genome replication and therefore the replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Most viruses with a double stranded DNA genome replicate in the nucleus and use the host cells genome replication machinery. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ...


History

Viruses, especially small pox have been known about for centuries. One of the earliest documented evidence is of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses V who is known to have died from smallpox nearly 2000 years BC. Smallpox was thought to have been transfered to Europe around the early 700s and then to the Americas in the early 1500s. It is widely accepted that the main defeat of the Aztecs was due to a smallpox epidemic and within two years over 3.2 million Aztecs died. This can attributed to lack of sensitization to the virus as a child and therefore the Aztecs had no immunity. After Edward Jenner showed that you could use the less potent cow pox to effectively vaccinate against the more deadly smallpox, a worldwide effort to vaccinate everyone against smallpox was started (a century later) with the final goal to rid the world of what had become a plague like epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the virus officially eradicated in 1977, with samples retained at laboratories within the two then global superpowers, United States and the Soviet Union. Post September 11 2001 the American and UK governments have had increased concern over the use of smallpox or small pox like disease, in bio-terrorism.


References

  1. ^ International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2004-06-15). ICTVdb Descriptions: 58. Poxviridae. Retrieved on 2005-02-26.
  2. ^ How Big is a ... ? at Cells Alive!. Retrieved 2005-02-26.
  3. ^ (August 1996) "Pathogenic Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Sequenced". Antiviral Agents Bulletin: 196-7. Retrieved on 2006-07-16. 

2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ...

External links

  • Buller, R.M.; Palumbo, G.J. (1991). Poxvirus pathogenesis. Microbiological Reviews 55 (1), 80-122. Full text link provided by PubMed Central. Retrieved 2005-02-27.
  • Detailed genomic and bioinformatic information on Poxviruses on NIH-funded database.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Poxviridae disease - Poxviridae disease (318 words)
Poxviridae viral particles (virions) are generally enveloped (external enveloped virion- EEV), though the internal mature virion (IMV) form of the virus, which contains no envelope, is also infectious.
The name of the family, Poxviridae, is a legacy of the original grouping of viruses associated with diseases that produced poxs in the skin.
Modern viral classification is based on the shape and molecular features of viruses, and the smallpox virus remains as the most notable member of the family.
Poxviridae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (667 words)
Poxviridae viral particles (virions) are generally enveloped (external enveloped virion- EEV), though the internal mature virion (IMV) form of the virus, which contains different envelope, is also infectious.
The prototype of poxvirus family is vaccinia virus, which has been used as a successful vaccine to eradicate smallpox virus.
IEV transports along microtubules to reach cell periphery and fuse with plasma membrane to become cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) that triggers actin tails on cell surfaces or is releared as EEV.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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