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Encyclopedia > PowerPC G4
Power Architecture

The Power Architecture logo Power Architecture is a broad term to describe similar instruction sets for RISC microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AMCC, Tundra and P.A. Semi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (492x622, 35 KB) Power Architecture logo. ...


CPU architecture To a large extent, the design of a CPU, or central processing unit, is the design of its control unit. ...

Historical

POWERPPC6xxPowerPC-ASPOWER2POWER3POWER4 POWER is a RISC instruction set architecture designed by IBM. The name is a acronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. POWER is also the name of a series of microprocessors that implements the instruction set architecture. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... The IBM RS64 family of processors is used in the RS/6000 and AS/400 server product lines. ... Released in September 1993 and in use until 1998: 15 million transistors per chip The POWER2 added a second floating-point unit (FPU) and more cache. ... Released in 1998: 15 million transistors per chip The first 64-bit symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), POWER3 is completely compatible with the original POWER instruction set -- and compatible with the PowerPC instruction set as well. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Current

PowerPCe200e600PA6TPOWER5PPC970Cell PPE IBM PowerPC 601 Microprocessor PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The PowerPC e200 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in automotive and industrial control systems. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... PWRficient is the name of a series of microprocessors designed by P.A. Semi. ... POWER5 dual-MCM POWER5 quad-MCM POWER5 is a microprocessor developed by IBM. It is an improved variant of the highly successful POWER4. ... In computing, the PowerPC 970 and the PowerPC 970FX, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ... Layout of the IBM Cell die Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by a Sony, Toshiba, and IBM alliance known as STI. The architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported by...

Future

POWER6POWER7e700 The POWER6 microprocessor is IBMs follow on to the POWER5. ... POWER7 is a microprocessor currently under development at IBM Research as of April 2005. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ...

Related Links

RISCAltiVecIBM System pIBM System iPlaystation 3Xbox 360 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ... IBM logo The RS/6000 (for RISC System/6000), now System p5, is IBMs current RISC/UNIX-based server and workstation product line. ... i5 Model 570 (2006) The Application System/400 (also known as AS/400), now System i (also known as iSeries), is a type of computer produced by IBM. It was first produced in 1988. ... “PS3” redirects here. ... The Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console, developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. Information on the console first came through viral marketing campaigns and it was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged...

PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. Apple has applied this name to various different (though closely related) processor models from Freescale, a former part of Motorola. Apple Inc. ... IBM PowerPC 601 Microprocessor PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated µP) is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... American corporation Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an American multinational communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ...


Macintosh computers such as the PowerBook G4 and iBook G4 laptops and the Power Mac G4 and Power Mac G4 Cube desktops all took their name from the processor. A PowerPC G4 was also used in the eMac, first-generation Xserves, first-generation Mac minis, and the flat-panel iMac before the introduction of the G5 processor. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The PowerBook G4 is a series of notebook computers that was manufactured, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... The original Blueberry iBook The iBook was a line of laptop computers sold by Apple Computer between 1999 and 2006. ... The Power Mac G4 (sometimes erroneously referred to as the Power Macintosh G4) was a series of personal computers made by Apple. ... Power Mac G4 Cube (sometimes erroneously referred to as the Power Macintosh G4 Cube) was a quiet, fanless, compact Macintosh personal computer from Apple Computer (now Apple Inc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A small Xserve cluster with an Xserve RAID. Xserve is the name of Apple Computers Macintosh 1U rackmount line of server computers. ... The Mac mini is the smallest desktop computer marketed by Apple Inc. ... The correct title of this article is . ... PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ...


Apple completely phased out the G4 series for desktop models after it selected the 64-bit IBM-produced PowerPC 970 processor as the basis for its PowerPC G5 series. The last desktop model that used the G4 was the Mac Mini which now comes with an Intel Core Duo processor. The last portable to use the G4 was the iBook G4 but now has been replaced by the Macbook. The PowerBook G4 has been replaced by the Intel based MacBook Pro. PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ... The Mac mini is the smallest desktop computer marketed by Apple Inc. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intel Core. ... The original Blueberry iBook The iBook was a line of laptop computers sold by Apple Computer between 1999 and 2006. ... The MacBook is a line of Macintosh notebook computers developed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh notebook computers developed by Apple for the professional market. ...


The PowerPC G4 processors are also popular in other computer systems, such as Amiga clones, like the Pegasos from Genesi. Besides desktop computers the PowerPC G4 is popular in embedded environments, like routers, telecom switches, imaging, media processing, avionics and military applications, where one can take advantage of the Altivec and its SMP capabilities. The original Amiga 1000 (1985) with various peripherals The Amiga is a family of home/personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation as an advanced home entertainment and productivity machine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genesi is computer company focused on building Power Architecture computers. ... AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ... Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...

Contents

PowerPC 7400

The 7400 (Codename: Max) debuted in late summer of 1999 and was the first processor to carry the G4 moniker. The chip operates at speeds ranging from 350 to 500 MHz and contains 10.5 million transistors, manufactured using Motorola's 0.20 μm HiPerMOS6 process. The chip die measures 83 mm² and features copper interconnects. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Copper-based chips are semiconductor integrated circuits, usually microprocessors, which use copper for interconnections. ...


Motorola had promised Apple to deliver parts with speed up to 500 MHz, but yields proved too low initially. This forced Apple to take back the advertised 500 MHz models of PowerMac G4. The Power Mac series was downgraded abruptly from 400, 450, and 500 MHz processor speeds to 350, 400, and 450 MHz. The incident generated a rift in the Apple-Motorola relationship, and reportedly caused Apple to ask IBM for assistance to get the production yields up on the Motorola 7400 series line. The 500 MHz model was reintroduced on February 16, 2000. Nasas Glenn Research Center clean room. ... The Power Macintosh G4 (Power Mac G4) was series of personal computers made by Apple. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Design

Much of the 7400 design was done by Motorola in close co-operation with Apple and IBM. IBM, the third member of the AIM alliance, did design the chip together with Motorola in its Somerset design center, but chose not to manufacture it, because it did not see the need back then for the Vector Processing Unit. Ultimately, the G4 architecture design contained a 128-bit vector processing unit labelled AltiVec by Motorola while Apple marketing referred to it as the "Velocity Engine". Apple Inc. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ... AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ...


The PowerPC 970 (G5) was the first IBM-manufactured CPU to implement VMX/Altivec, for which IBM reused the old 7400 design they still had from the design they did with Motorola in Somerset. The Xenon CPU in the Xbox 360 also features VMX, with added proprietary extensions made especially for Microsoft. POWER6, expected to be introduced in 2007, will be IBMs first "big iron" CPU to also implement VMX. PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ... AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ... Waternoose processor (with remaining thermal paste) Xenon is a CPU that is used in the Xbox 360 game console. ... The Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console, developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. Information on the console first came through viral marketing campaigns and it was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged... The POWER6 microprocessor is IBMs follow on to the POWER5. ... Big Iron is a country music ballad by Marty Robbins, originally released as an album track on Gunfighter Ballads and Trail Songs in September 1959, then as a single in February 1960. ...


With the AltiVec unit, the 7400 microprocessor can do four-way single precision (32-bit) floating point math, or 16-way 8-bit, 8-way 16-bit or four-way 32-bit integer math in a single cycle. Furthermore, the vector processing unit is superscalar, and can do two vector operations at the same time. Compared to Intel's x86 microprocessors at the time, this feature offered a substantial performance boost to applications designed to take advantage of the AltiVec unit. Some examples are Adobe Photoshop which utilises the AltiVec unit for faster rendering of effects and transitions, and Apple's iLife suite which takes advantage of the unit for importing and converting files on the fly. Simple superscalar pipeline. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... iLife 06 Box iLife is a collection of software products created by Apple, designed for Mac OS X, used to create, organize, view and manipulate digital content. ...


Additionally, the 7400 has enhanced support for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) thanks to an improved cache coherency protocol (MERSI) and a 64-bit floating point unit , derived in part from the 604 series. The 603 series had a 32-bit wide floating point unit, which took two clock cycles to accomplish 64-bit floating point arithmetic. Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


The PowerPC G4 family supports two bus technologies, the 60x bus which it shares with the PowerPC G3 family and the more advanced MPX bus. Since the G4 and G3 shares devices that utilizes the 60x bus, can use either G3 or G4 processors, enabling a wide variery of offerings and a clear and cheap upgrade path wile keeping compatibility issues at a minimum. There are primarily two companies manufacturing system controllers for G4/G3 computers, Tundra with their Tsi1xx controllers and Marvell with their Discovery controllers. 300 MHz Motorola PowerPC 750 processor with off-die L2 cache on the CPU module of a PowerMac G3. ... Tundra Semiconductor Corporation is an Ottawa, Ontario, Canada based designer and developer System Interconnect devices. ... Marvell (NASDAQ: MRVL) is an American producer of storage, communications and consumer semiconductor products. ...


PowerPC 7410 "Nitro"

The PowerPC 7410 uses the same design as the 7400 but it was manufactured at 180 nm instead of 200 nm. Like the 7400 it has 10.5 million transistors. It debuted in the first-generation PowerBook G4, introduced on January 9, 2001. The PowerBook G4 is a series of notebook computers that was manufactured, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This chip added the ability to lock all or half of the cache as high-speed non-cache memory, mapping it into the processor's physical address space as desired. The feature was used by embedded systems vendors such as Mercury Computer Systems. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. ...


PowerPC 7450 "Voyager"

800 MHz Motorola PowerPC 7450 processor on the CPU module of a PowerMac G4
800 MHz Motorola PowerPC 7450 processor on the CPU module of a PowerMac G4

The PowerPC 7450 was the first (and, as of April 2005, only) major redesign of the G4 processor. The 33 million transistor chip added a longer pipeline, 256 KB on-chip L2 cache, and introduced external L3 Cache (up to 2 MB). Altivec got improved with the 7450, instead of dispatching one permute instruction and one VALU instruction per cycle like its predecessors the 7450 and its Motorola/Freescale-followers can dispatch two arbitrary Altivec instructions at the same time. It was introduced with the 733 MHz Power Mac G4 on January 9, 2001. Motorola followed with an interim release, the 7451, codenamed "Apollo 6", just like the 7455. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 2048 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)800 MHz Motorola PowerPC 7450 processor on the CPU module of a PowerMac G4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 2048 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)800 MHz Motorola PowerPC 7450 processor on the CPU module of a PowerMac G4. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Power Mac G4 (sometimes erroneously referred to as the Power Macintosh G4) was a series of personal computers made by Apple. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The enhancements to the 745x design gave it the nicknames G4e or G4+ but these were never official designations.


PowerPC 7445/7455 "Apollo 6"

The PowerPC 7455 came with a wider, 256-bit on-chip cache path, and was made on a 180 nm, SOI process. It was the first processor in an Apple computer to break the 1 GHz barrier. The 7445 is the same chip without the L3 cache interface. The 7455 is used in the AmigaOne XE G4. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is a layered structure consisting of a thin layer of silicon, from 50 nm to 100 µm, which is created on an insulating substrate, which is usually sapphire or silicon with an insulating layer of silicon dioxide(SiO2) 80 nm to 3 µm thick on its... AmigaOne is the name used for a series of motherboards for PowerPC CPUs mainly intended to run AmigaOS version 4. ...


PowerPC 7447/7457 "Apollo 7"

As of early 2005 the fastest processor shipping in Apple's G4 lineup was the MPC 7447B, running at 1.67 GHz and found in the January 2005 revision PowerBooks. The 58-million-transistor 7447 is slightly improved from the 7450/55, it has 512 KB on-chip L2-Cache and was manufactured at 130 nm, hence drawing less power. With the 7447A, which introduced an integrated thermal diode as well as DFS (dynamic frequency scaling) Freescale was able to reach a slightly higher clock. The 7457 has an additional L3 Cache interface. However, its frequency scaling stagnated when Apple chose to use the 7447 instead of the L3 cache-enabled 7455 they used before. This decision was most likely taken because of cost concerns, since fast SRAM used for L3-Cache is fairly expensive. The only companies that offer the 7457 in the form of upgrades for the Power Mac G4 and Power Mac G4 Cube are Giga Designs, Daystar Technology (now [1], they use the 7457 only for iMac G4 upgrades) and [2]. The Pegasos computer platform from Genesi also uses 7447 in its Pegasos-II/G4. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Power Mac G4 (sometimes erroneously referred to as the Power Macintosh G4) was a series of personal computers made by Apple. ... Power Mac G4 Cube (sometimes erroneously referred to as the Power Macintosh G4 Cube) was a quiet, fanless, compact Macintosh personal computer from Apple Computer (now Apple Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genesi is computer company focused on building Power Architecture computers. ...


e600

In 2004 Freescale renamed the G4 core e600 and changed focus from general CPUs to high end embedded SoC devices, and introduced a new naming scheme, MPC86xx. The 7448 was to be the the last pure G4 and it formed the base of the new e600 core with a seven stage pipeline, a powerful branch prediction which handles up to eight instructions out-of-order and issues three. It has an enhanced 128-bit AltiVec unit capable of limited out-of-order execution and 1 MB L2 cache. System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. ... In computer engineering, out-of-order execution, OoOE, is a paradigm used in most high-speed microprocessors in order to make use of cycles that would otherwise be wasted by a certain type of costly delay. ...


PowerPC 7448 "Apollo 8"

The 7448 is an evolution of the 7447A and is essentially a faster (up to 2 GHz) and more power-efficient version of the 7447A manufactured in 90 nm with 1 MB L2 cache and up to 200 MHz front side bus and it features Freescale's new standard core, the e600. Daystar ships a 7448 upgrade for Aluminium PowerBook G4s and NewerTech have similar upgrades for older PowerMac G4s.


MPC8641 & MPC8641D

The problems associated with the bandwidth constrained external MPX bus interface found on the 74xx series are relieved with the sporting a single or dual e600 cores, faster system interface via RapidIO, dual x8 PCI Express and an on die 667 MHz MPX interconnect between IO, the cores and the dual 64-bit DDR2-memorycontrollers (with ECC). On die is also four Gigabit ethernet controllers with TCP/UDP offloading features. The dual core MPC8641D have support for asymmetric multiprocessing, which enables two operating systems to run on the same device simultaneously, sharing resources but largely unaware of each other. The RapidIOâ„¢ architecture is a high-performance, packet-switched, interconnect technology for interconnecting chips on a circuit board and circuit boards using a backplane. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... It has been suggested that Error-correcting code be merged into this article or section. ... Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. ... The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... Asymmetric Multiprocessing or ASMP is a style of multiprocessing supported in DECs VMS V.3 as well as a number of older systems including TOPS-10 and OS-360. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ...


The MPC8641 (single core) and MPC8641D (dual core) are manufactured on a 90 nm SOI based process. 8641 draws less than 16W at 1.33 GHz and 8641D less than 25W at 1.5 GHz.


Future

e700

In 2004 Freescale announced a new high performance core, e700. Since then they have disclosed but a few details but it will be similar to e600 with the addition of being a 64-bit processor, running at speeds up to 3 GHz and beyond, and be named MPC87xx. In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ...

v  d  e
List of Motorola/Freescale microprocessors
The 6800 family : 6809 (see also: Hitachi 6309)
68000 family : 68000 | 68008 | 68010 | 68012 | 68020 | 68030 | 68040 | 68060 | ColdFire | DragonBall
Low-cost variants: 68EC000 | 68EC020 | 68EC030 | 68EC040 | 68LC040
Pre-PowerPC RISC : 88000
Floating-point coprocessors : 68881, 68882
PowerPC family  : PPC 75x ("PowerPC G3") | PPC 74xx ("PowerPC G4") | PowerQUICC

  Results from FactBites:
 
PowerPC G4 - definition of PowerPC G4 in Encyclopedia (751 words)
The PowerPC G4 is a RISC-based microprocessor belonging to the PowerPC family of processors.
It is used in Apple Macintosh computers such as the PowerBook G4, the iMac G4, the eMac, the 3rd generation iBook, and the desktop Power Macintosh G4.
The problems associated with the bandwidth constrained G4 MPX bus interface are believed to be releived with Freescale's proposed line of SoC devices, sporting an option for a faster system interface via a RapidIO or PCI-Express, and an onboard DDR memory controller.
PowerPC G4 (647 words)
PowerPC G4 The PowerPC G4 is a RISC-based microprocessor belonging to the PowerPC family of processors.
It is used in Apple Macintosh computers such as the G4 PowerBook, the 2002 2nd generation "Flat Panel" iMac, the eMac, the 3rd generation iBook, and the desktop G4 Power Mac.
Another big performance boost in the G4 microprocessor came from a 64-bit arithmetic logic unit, or ALU, derived in part from the 604 series ALU.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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