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Encyclopedia > PowerPC 970
PowerPC 970FX Processor
PowerPC 970FX Processor

In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 592 KB) PowerPC 970fx. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 592 KB) PowerPC 970fx. ... Memory (Random Access Memory) Look up computing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... IBM PowerPC 601 Microprocessor PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ...


The 970 family was created through a collaboration between IBM Microelectronics and Cisco Systems. The project went under the codename GP-UL or Giga Processor Ultra Light, where Giga Processor was the codename for the POWER4. When Apple introduced the Power Mac G5 they stated that this was a five year collaborative effort, with multiple future generations, but it didn't last that long. Apple had to retract the promise to deliver a 3 GHz processor one year after its introduction and IBM could never get the power consumption down far enough for these processors to fit into a portable computer. Apple only used three variants of the processor.


Apple wasn't the only customer though. IBM offers its JS20/JS21 blade modules, Mercury the Momentum XSA-200 and Genesi the TetraPower platform using the PowerPC 970MP. IBM is also licensing the PowerPC 970 core for use in custom applications. It has been suggested that Computing blade be merged into this article or section. ... Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. ... Genesi is computer company focused on building Power Architecture computers. ...


A common misconception is that the PowerPC 970 was the core in IBM's Xenon processor in Microsoft's Xbox 360, but this is false[citation needed]. International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... Waternoose processor (with remaining thermal paste) Xenon is a CPU that is used in the Xbox 360 game console. ... Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... The Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console, developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. Information on the console first came through viral marketing campaigns and it was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged...

Contents

Design

The PowerPC 970 is built using a 130 nm manufacturing process, and the PowerPC 970FX and 970MP are built using a 90 nm fabrication process. They are based on the core from IBM's POWER4 processor. The 970 and 970FX feature over 58 million transistors, while the 970MP contains two cores, consisting of over 116 million transistors. The 90 nm node refers to the level of semiconductor process technology that was reached in the 2002-2003 timeframe, by most leading semiconductor companies, like Intel, Texas Instruments, IBM, and TSMC. The origin of the 90 nm value is historical, as it represents a 70% scaling every 2-3... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier. ...


They feature IBM's VMX vector engine (a.k.a. AltiVec or Velocity Engine, also used in Freescale's PowerPC 7400). They are able to process both 32-bit and 64-bit PowerPC instructions natively. AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ... Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... In computer science, an instruction typically refers to a single operation of a processor within a computer architecture. ...


Problems

  • The PowerPC 970 ran at higher temperatures than older models, meaning it could not be fitted into Apple's current at the time PowerPC based PowerBook or iBook which were using the 130nm G4 microprocessor rated between 5-6 watts. As a result, Apple's laptops continued to be fitted with the older G4 chip until the Apple-Intel transition utilizing INTEL 65nm chips rated between 25-35 watts, many users complained of excessive heat from there new Apple-Intel laptops, yet it created a whole new industry for laptop cooling devices to protect the consumer.
  • All PowerPC 970 models lack the instruction to do little/big endian swapping. This proved to be a problem for Microsoft Virtual PC, which relied on this feature in G3 and G4 processors to accelerate performance.
  • The PowerPC 970 lacks certain features that the POWER5 processors have, such as virtualization, and microcode necessary to run i5/OS; as a result, IBM cannot make PowerPC 970-equipped blade modules for its System i server line.[1]

The PowerBook is a line of Apple Macintosh laptop computers that was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from 1991 to 2006. ... The original Blueberry iBook The iBook was a line of laptop computers sold by Apple Computer between 1999 and 2006. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ... In computing, endianness is the ordering used to represent some kind of data as a sequence of smaller units. ... Virtual PC is an emulation suite for Apple Mac OS X, and a virtualization suite for Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... 300 MHz Motorola PowerPC 750 processor with off-die L2 cache on the CPU module of a PowerMac G3. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... POWER5 dual-MCM POWER5 quad-MCM POWER5 is a microprocessor developed by IBM. It is an improved variant of the highly successful POWER4. ... In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ... A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ... OS/400 is an operating system used on IBMs line of AS/400 (now called iSeries) minicomputers. ... It has been suggested that Computing blade be merged into this article or section. ... i5 Model 570 (2006) The Application System/400 (also known as AS/400), now System i (also known as iSeries), is a type of computer produced by IBM. It was first produced in 1988. ...

Processors

PowerPC 970

The PowerPC 970 was announced by IBM in October 2002. It was released in Apple Computer's Power Mac G5 in June 2003 (in keeping with its previous naming conventions, Apple termed the PowerPC 970 based products G5, for the fifth generation of PowerPC microprocessors). IBM released its first PowerPC 970 blade servers, the BladeCenter JS20, in November 2003. Apple Inc. ... The Power Mac G5 was Apples marketing name for models of the Power Macintosh which contain the PowerPC 970 CPU. The professional-grade computer was the most powerful in Apples lineup when it was introduced, and was touted by Apple as the fastest personal computer ever built. ... The IBM BladeCenter is IBMs blade server architecture. ...


The PowerPC 970 had 512 KB of full-speed L2 cache and clock speeds from 1.6 to 2.0 GHz. The front side bus ran at half the processor's clock speed. Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards...


PowerPC 970FX

The PowerPC 970FX used a 90 nm manufacturing process and has a maximum power rating of 11 watts at 149 degrees Fahrenheit while clocked a 1Ghz and a maximum of 48 watts at 2Ghz.


Apple released their 970FX-powered machines throughout 2004: the Xserve G5 in January, the Power Mac G5 in June, and the iMac G5 in August. The Power Mac introduced a top clock speed of 2.5 GHz while liquid-cooled (eventually reaching as high as 2.7 GHz in April 2005). The iMac ran the front side bus at a third of the clock speed. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A small Xserve cluster with an Xserve RAID. Xserve is the name of Apple Computers Macintosh 1U rackmount line of server computers. ... The original iMac model The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This computer cooling article covers the many ways that potentially damaging heat is relieved from electronic computers. ...


PowerPC 970MP

IBM released the PowerPC 970MP, code-named "Antares", in the 3rd quarter of 2005. The 970MP is a dual-core processor with clock speeds between 1.4 and 2.5 GHz, and a maximum power usage of 37 watts at 1.7Ghz and 100 watts at 2.5Ghz. Each core has 1 MB of L2 cache, twice that of the 970FX. Like the 970FX, this chip was produced at the 90 nm process. When one of the cores is idle, it will enter a "doze" state and shut down. [2] The 970MP also includes partitioning and virtualization features. [3] Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


The PowerPC 970MP replaced the PowerPC 970FX in Apple's high-end Power Mac G5 computers, while the iMac G5 and the legacy PCI-X Power Mac G5 continued to use the PowerPC 970FX processor. The PowerPC 970MP is used in IBM's JS21 blade modules and in Genesi's Open Server Workstation. The Power Mac G5 was Apples marketing name for models of the Power Macintosh which contain the PowerPC 970 CPU. The professional-grade computer was the most powerful in Apples lineup when it was introduced, and was touted by Apple as the fastest personal computer ever built. ... The correct title of this article is . ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ...


PowerPC 970GX

The single core version of PowerPC 970MP, the PowerPC 970GX, was released in October 2006. The PowerPC 970MP and 970GX share characteristics such as 1 MB L2 cache and speeds from 1.2 to 2.5 GHz and power usage ranges from 16 watts at 1.6Ghz to 85 watts at 3Ghz. These were also manufactured using the same 90 nm fabrication process. [4]


Northbridges

There are three dedicated northbridges for PowerPC 970-based computers, all made by IBM: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • CPC925—Called U3 or U3H (with ECC) by Apple. Manufactured on a 130 nm process. Dual 550 MHz bi-directional processor buses, 400 MHz DDR-controller, x8 AGP and 400 MHz 16-bit HyperTransport-tunnel. Capable of managing up to 2 processors (2x 970/970FX).
  • CPC945—Called U4 by Apple. Manufactured on a 90 nm process. Dual 625 MHz bi-directional processor buses (1-4 processor cores), 533 MHz DDR2-controllers (up to 64 GB ECC RAM), x16 PCIe, and 800 MHz 16-bit HyperTransport-tunnel. Capable of handling up to 4 processors (2x 970MP).
  • CPC965—Will be released in 2007. Is a single-processor bridge. Features a 533 MHz DDR2 controller (up to 8 GB ECC RAM), x8 PCIe, 4x Gbit Ethernet, USB2, Flash-interface, IPv4 TCP/UDP offloading, integrated PowerPC 405 processor for management and configuration. [5]

In information theory and coding, an error-correcting code or ECC is a code in which each data signal conforms to specific rules of construction so that departures from this construction in the received signal can generally be automatically detected and corrected. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency computer bus that was introduced on April 2, 2001 [1]. The HyperTransport Technology Consortium is in charge of promoting and developing HyperTransport technology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... PCI Express, officially abbreviated as PCIe (and sometimes confused with PCI Extended, officially abbreviated as PCI-X), is a computer system bus/expansion card interface format. ... Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802. ... A USB flash drive. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. ... The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Power Architecture logo PowerPC 400 family is a line of 32-bit embedded RISC-processor cores built using Power Architecture technology. ...

See also

System X is a supercomputer assembled by Virginia Tech in the summer of 2003, comprising 1,100 Apple PowerMac G5 computers. ... MareNostrum Supercomputer - 3D rendered image. ... A supercomputer is a device for turning compute-bound problems into I/O-bound problems. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
PowerPC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2828 words)
They rewrote the essential pieces of their Mac OS operating system for the PowerPC architecture, and further wrote a 680x0 emulator which could run the remaining parts of the unrewritten OS and 68K based applications.
PowerPC processors have been used in many products, among which are the following: Apple Macintosh post-68k models (called PowerMacs), IBM RS/6000 UNIX workstations, Cisco routers, Amiga post-68k models (called the AmigaOne), Amiga "Classic" accelerator boards, Pegasos, the Nintendo GameCube video game console, and many embedded systems such as the TiVo personal video recorder.
PowerPC processors bring the processor's local bus to the chip's surface, and connect to a bridge chip that translate this into other on-board device buses that attach to RAM, PCI, and other devices.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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