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Encyclopedia > PowerPC

PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 AppleIBMMotorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s, but the architecture found the most success in the personal computer market in Apple's Macintosh lines from 1994 to 2006 (before Apple's transition to Intel). Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Apple Inc. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Motorola Inc. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... Look up prep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) was an early PowerPC hardware reference design. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ...


PowerPC is largely based on IBM's earlier POWER architecture, and retains a high level of compatibility with it; the architectures have remained close enough that the same programs and operating systems will run on both if some care is taken in preparation; newer chips in the POWER series implement the full PowerPC instruction set. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... POWER is a RISC instruction set architecture designed by IBM. The name is a acronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. POWER is also the name of a series of microprocessors that implements the instruction set architecture. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...

Power Architecture

CPU architecture The Power Architecture logo Power Architecture is a broad term to describe similar instruction sets for RISC microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AMCC, Tundra and P.A. Semi. ... To a large extent, the design of a CPU, or central processing unit, is the design of its control unit. ...

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Historical

POWERPPC6xxPowerPC-ASPOWER2POWER3G4POWER4AIM alliance POWER is a RISC instruction set architecture designed by IBM. The name is a acronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. POWER is also the name of a series of microprocessors that implements the instruction set architecture. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... The IBM RS64 family of processors is used in the RS/6000 and AS/400 server product lines. ... Released in September 1993 and in use until 1998: 15 million transistors per chip The POWER2 added a second floating-point unit (FPU) and more cache. ... Released in 1998: 15 million transistors per chip The first 64-bit symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), POWER3 is completely compatible with the original POWER instruction set -- and compatible with the PowerPC instruction set as well. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ...

Current

PowerPCe200 • e300 • e500 • e600 • PA6TPOWER5POWER6PPC4xxPPC750PPC970CBEAXenonBroadway The PowerPC e200 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in automotive and industrial control systems. ... The PowerPC e300 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in system-on-a-chip (SoC) designs with speed ranging up to 667 MHz, thus making them ideal for embedded applications. ... The PowerPC e500 is a 32-bit Power Architecture based microprocessor core from Freescale. ... The PowerPC e600 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in high performance system-on-a-chip (SoC) designs with speed ranging over 2 GHz, thus making them ideal for high performace routing and telecommunications applications. ... PWRficient is the name of a series of microprocessors designed by P.A. Semi. ... POWER5 dual-MCM POWER5 quad-MCM POWER5 is a microprocessor developed by IBM. It is an improved variant of the highly successful POWER4. ... The POWER6 microprocessor is IBMs follow on to the POWER5. ... The PowerPC 400 family is a line of 32-bit embedded RISC-processor cores built using Power Architecture technology. ... 300 MHz Motorola PowerPC 750 processor with off-die L2 cache on the CPU module of a PowerMac G3. ... PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ... Layout of the IBM Cell die Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by a Sony, Toshiba, and IBM, an alliance known as STI. The architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported... Not to be confused with the Intel Xeon. ... IBM Broadway microprocessor Broadway is the name of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in Nintendos Wii video game console. ...

Future

POWER7e700Titan POWER7 is a microprocessor currently under development at IBM Research as of April 2005. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... Titan is a family 32-bit Power Architecture based microprocessors designed by AMCC. It is designed to be the foundation of embedded processors and system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions. ...

Related Links

RISCSystem pPower.orgPAPRPRePCHRP • more... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... IBM logo The RS/6000 (for RISC System/6000), now System p5, is IBMs current RISC/UNIX-based server and workstation product line. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Power Architecture Platform Reference (PAPR) is an initiative from Power. ... PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) was a PowerPC hardware reference design. ... Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) was an early PowerPC hardware reference design. ...

Contents

History

IBM PowerPC 601 Microprocessor

The history of the PowerPC begins with IBM's 801 prototype chip of John Cocke's RISC ideas in the late 1970s. 801-based cores were used in a number of IBM embedded products, eventually becoming the 16-register ROMP processor used in the IBM RT. The RT had disappointing performance and IBM started the America Project to build the fastest processor on the market. The result was the POWER architecture, introduced with the RISC System/6000 in early 1990. Download high resolution version (678x678, 37 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (678x678, 37 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The 801 was a RISC microprocessor architecture designed by IBM in the 1970s, and used in various roles in IBM until the 1980s. ... John Cocke (May 30, 1925 - July 16, 2002) was an American computer scientist recognised for his large contribution to computer architecture and optimizing compiler design. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... The ROMP or Research (Office Products Division) Micro Processor chip, also known in some circles as 032, was first in silicon in 1981 and was originally designed to be used in office products. ... The IBM RT was a computer based around the PC-AT bus and IBMs ROMP processor, a spin-off of the IBM 801. ... POWER is a RISC instruction set architecture designed by IBM. The name is a acronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. POWER is also the name of a series of microprocessors that implements the instruction set architecture. ... The IBM pSeries, formerly called RS/6000 (for RISC System/6000), is IBMs current RISC/UNIX-based workstation and server computer line. ...


The original POWER microprocessor, one of the first superscalar RISC implementations, was a high performance, multi-chip design. IBM soon realized that they would need a single-chip microprocessor and to eliminate some POWER processor instructions to scale their RS/6000 line from lower-end to high-end machines, and work on a single-chip POWER microprocessor, called the RSC (RISC Single Chip) began. In early 1991 IBM realized that their design could potentially become a high-volume microprocessor used across the industry. A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... RISC Single Chip (RSC) is a microprocessor used in IBM RS/6000 models 220 and 230. ...


IBM approached Apple with the goal of collaborating on the development of a family of single-chip microprocessors based on the POWER architecture. Soon after, Apple, as one of Motorola's largest customers of desktop-class microprocessors, asked Motorola to join the discussions because of their long relationship, their more extensive experience with manufacturing high-volume microprocessors than IBM and to serve as a second source for the microprocessors. This three-way collaboration became known as AIM alliance, for Apple, IBM, Motorola.


In 1991, the PowerPC was just one facet of a larger alliance between these three companies. On the other side was the growing dominance of Microsoft and Windows in personal computing, and of Intel processors. At the time, most of the personal computer industry was shipping systems based on the Intel 80386 and 80486 chips, which had a CISC architecture, and development of the Pentium processor was well underway. The PowerPC chip was one of several joint ventures involving the three, in their efforts to counter the growing Microsoft-Intel dominance of personal computing. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


To Motorola, POWER looked like an unbelievable deal. It allowed them to sell a widely tested and powerful RISC CPU for little design cash on their own part. It also maintained ties with an important customer, Apple, and seemed to offer the possibility of adding another in IBM who might buy smaller versions from them instead of making their own.


At this point Motorola already had its own RISC design in the form of the 88000 which was doing poorly in the market. Motorola was doing well with their 68000 family and the majority of the funding was focused on this. The 88000 effort was somewhat starved for resources. The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ...


However, the 88000 was already in production; Data General was shipping 88k machines and Apple already had 88k prototype machines running. The 88000 had also achieved a number of embedded design wins in telecom applications. If the new POWER single-chip solution could be made bus-compatible at a hardware level with the 88000, that would allow both Apple and Motorola to bring machines to market much faster since they would not have to redesign their board architecture. Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s. ...


The result of these various requirements was the PowerPC (Performance Computing) specification.


When the first PowerPC products reached the market, they were met with enthusiasm. In addition to Apple, both IBM and the Motorola Computer Group offered systems built around the processors. Microsoft released Windows NT 3.51 for the architecture, which was used in Motorola's PowerPC servers, and Sun Microsystems offered a version of its Solaris OS. IBM ported its AIX Unix and planned a release of OS/2. Throughout the mid-1990s, PowerPC processors achieved Benchmark test scores that matched or exceeded those of the fastest x86 CPUs. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows NT 3. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. ...


Ultimately, demand for the new architecture on the desktop never truly materialized. Windows, OS/2 and Sun customers, faced with the lack of application software for the PowerPC, almost universally ignored the chip. The PowerPC versions of Solaris, OS/2, and Windows were discontinued after only a brief period on the market. Only on the Macintosh, due to Apple's persistence, did the PowerPC gain traction. To Apple, the performance of the PowerPC was a bright spot in the face of increased competition from Windows 95 and Windows NT-based PCs.


In parallel with the alliance between IBM and Motorola, both companies had development efforts underway internally. The PowerQUICC line was the result of this work inside Motorola. The 4xx series of embedded processors was underway inside IBM. The IBM embedded processor business grew to nearly 100 million in revenue and attracted hundreds of customers.


However, toward the close of the decade, the same manufacturing issues began plaguing the AIM alliance in much the same way it did Motorola, which consistently pushed back deployments of new processors for Apple and other vendors: first from Motorola in the 1990s with the G3 and G4 processors, and IBM with the 64-bit G5 processor in 2003. In 2004, Motorola exited the chip manufacturing business by spinning off its semiconductor business as an independent company called Freescale Semiconductor. Around the same time, IBM exited the embedded processor market by selling its line of PowerPC products to Applied Micro Circuits Corporation (AMCC) and focused their chip designs for PowerPC CPUs towards game machine makers such as Nintendo's GameCube and Wii, Sony's PlayStation 3 and Microsoft's Xbox 360. In 2005 Apple announced they would no longer use PowerPC processors in their Apple Macintosh computers, favoring Intel produced processors instead, citing the performance limitations of the chip for future personal computer hardware specifically related to heat generation and energy usage in future products, as well as the inability of IBM to move the 970 (PowerPC G5) processor to the 3 GHz range. The IBM-Freescale alliance was replaced by an open standards body called Power.org. Power.org operates under the governance of the IEEE with IBM continuing to use and evolve the PowerPC processor on game consoles and Freescale Semiconductor focusing solely on embedded devices. Freescale sign Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... In computing, the PowerPC 970 and the PowerPC 970FX, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ...


IBM continues to develop PowerPC microprocessor cores for use in their ASIC offerings. Many high volume applications embed PowerPC cores.


The POWER architecture IBM developed is still very much alive on their server offerings for large businesses and continues to evolve to this day (and current POWER processors implement the full PowerPC instruction set architecture).


The PowerPC specification is now handled by the Power.org where IBM, Freescale, and AMCC are members. PowerPC, Cell and POWER processors are now jointly marketed as the Power Architecture. Power.org released a unified ISA, combining POWER and PowerPC ISAs into the new Power ISA v.2.03 specification and a new reference platform for servers called PAPR (Power Architecture Platform Reference). The Power Architecture logo Power Architecture is a broad term to describe similar instruction sets for RISC microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AMCC, Tundra and P.A. Semi. ...


Design features

The PowerPC is designed along RISC principles, and allows for a superscalar implementation. Versions of the design exist in both 32-bit and 64-bit implementations. Starting with the basic POWER specification, the PowerPC added: Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ...

  • Support for operation in both big-endian and little-endian modes; the PowerPC can switch from one mode to the other at run-time (see below). This feature is not supported in the PowerPC G5. This was the reason Virtual PC took so long to be made functional on G5-based Macintosh computers.
  • Single-precision forms of some floating point instructions, in addition to double-precision forms
  • Additional floating point instructions at the behest of Apple
  • A complete 64-bit specification, which is backward compatible with the 32-bit mode
  • Removal of some of the more esoteric POWER instructions, some of which could be emulated by the operating system if necessary.
  • A paged memory management architecture which is used extensively in server and PC systems.
  • Addition of a new memory management architecture called Book-E, replaced the conventional paged memory management architecture for embedded applications. Book-E is application software compatible with existing PowerPC implementations, but requires minor changes to the operating system.

In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... In computing, the PowerPC 970 and the PowerPC 970FX, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ... Virtual PC is a virtualization suite for Apple Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows operating systems, originally created by Connectix, subsequently acquired by Microsoft. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...

Endian-modes

Some of IBM's embedded PowerPC chips use a per-page endianness bit. None of the following applies to them. In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


Most PowerPC chips switch endianness via a bit in the MSR (Machine State Register), with a second bit provided to allow the OS to run with a different endianness. Accesses to the "inverted page table" (a hash table that functions as a TLB with off-chip storage) are always done in big-endian mode. The processor starts in big-endian mode. A Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a cache in a CPU that is used to improve the speed of virtual address translation. ...


In little-endian mode, the three lowest-order bits of the effective address are exclusive-ORed with a three bit value selected by the length of the operand. This is enough to appear fully little-endian to normal software. An operating system will see a warped view of the world when it accesses external chips such as video and network hardware. Fixing this warped view of the world requires that the motherboard perform an unconditional 64-bit byte swap on all data entering or leaving the processor. Endianness thus becomes a property of the motherboard. An OS that operates in little-endian mode on a big-endian motherboard must both swap bytes and undo the exclusive-OR when accessing little-endian chips. Exclusive disjunction, also known as exclusive or and symbolized by XOR or EOR, is a logical operation on two operands that results in a logical value of true if and only if one of the operands, but not both, has a value of true. ...


AltiVec operations, despite being 128-bit, are treated as if they were 64-bit. This allows for compatibility with little-endian motherboards that were designed prior to AltiVec. AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ...


An interesting side-effect of this implementation is that a program can store a 64-bit value (the longest operand format) to memory while in one endian mode, switch modes, and read back the same 64-bit value without seeing a change of byte order. This will not be the case if the motherboard is switched at the same time.


Mercury Computer Systems and Matrox ran the PowerPC in little-endian mode. This was done so that PowerPC devices serving as co-processors on PCI boards could share data structures with host computers based on x86. Both PCI and x86 are little-endian. Solaris and Windows NT for PowerPC also ran the processor in little-endian mode. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


Implementations

IBM PowerPC 604e 200 MHz

The first single-chip implementation of the design was the PowerPC 601, released in 1992, based on the RSC, implementing a hybrid of the POWER1 and PowerPC specifications. This allowed the chip to be used by IBM in their existing POWER1 based platforms, although it also meant some slight pain when switching to the 2nd generation "pure" PowerPC designs. Apple continued work on a new line of Macintosh computers based on the chip, and eventually released them as the 601-based Power Macintosh on March 14, 1994. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (852x852, 254 KB)200 MHz IBM PowerPC 604e processor on the CPU module of a Apple Network Server 700. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (852x852, 254 KB)200 MHz IBM PowerPC 604e processor on the CPU module of a Apple Network Server 700. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


IBM also had a full line of PowerPC based desktops built and ready to ship; unfortunately, the operating system which IBM had intended to run on these desktops—Microsoft Windows NT—was not complete by early 1993, when the machines were ready for marketing. Accordingly, and further because IBM had developed animosity toward Microsoft, IBM decided to rewrite OS/2 for the PowerPC. It took IBM two years to rewrite OS/2 for PowerPC, and by the time the operating system was ready, the market for OS/2 on PowerPC had evaporated. For this reason, the IBM PowerPC desktops did not ship, although the reference design (codenamed Sandalbow) based on the PowerPC 601 CPU was released as an RS/6000 model (Byte magazine 's April 1994 issue included an extensive article about the Apple and IBM PowerPC desktops). Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A rewrite in computer programming is the act or result of re-implementing a large portion of existing functionality without re-use of its source code. ... The front cover of the April 1981 issue of BYTE (Vol 6. ...


Apple, who also lacked a PowerPC based OS, took a different route. They rewrote the essential pieces of their Mac OS operating system for the PowerPC architecture, and further wrote a 680x0 emulator that could run 68K based applications and the parts of the OS that had not been rewritten. This article relates to both the original Classic Mac OS as well as Mac OS X, Apples more recent operating system. ... The Mac 68K emulator was a software emulator built into all versions of the Mac OS for PowerPC. This emulator permitted the running of applications and system code that were originally written for the 680x0 based Macintosh models. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ...


The second generation was "pure" and included the "low end" PowerPC 603 and "high end" PowerPC 604. The 603 is notable due to its very low cost and power consumption. This was a deliberate design goal on Motorola's part, who used the 603 project to build the basic core for all future generations of PPC chips. Apple tried to use the 603 in a new laptop design but was unable to due to the small 8 KiB level 1 cache. The 68000 emulator in the Mac OS could not fit in 8 KiB and thus slowed the computer drastically. The 603e solved this problem by having a 16 KiB L1 cache which allowed the emulator to run efficiently. The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... According to the International Electrotechnical Commission a kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...

Custom PowerPC CPU found in Nintendo's Wii video game console

In 1993, developers at IBM's Essex Junction, Burlington, Vermont facility started to work on a version of the PowerPC that would support the Intel x86 instruction set directly on the CPU. While the work was done by IBM without the support of the AIM alliance, this chip began to be known inside IBM and by the media as the PowerPC 615. However, profitability concerns and performance issues in the switching between the x86 and native PowerPC instruction sets resulted in the project being canceled in 1995 after only a limited number of chips were produced for in-house testing. However, conflicting reports were made that the switching process in fact took a mere 5 cycles, or the amount of time required for the processor to empty its instruction pipeline, and that Microsoft had a hand in the processor's downfall.[1] Image File history File links Broadwaycpu. ... Image File history File links Broadwaycpu. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Essex Junction is a village located in Chittenden County, Vermont. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first 64-bit implementation was the PowerPC 620, but it appears to have seen little use because Apple didn't want to buy it and because, with its large die area, it was too expensive for the embedded market. It was later and slower than promised, and IBM used their own POWER3 design instead, offering no 64-bit "small" solution until the late-2002 introduction of the PowerPC 970. The 970 is a 64-bit processor derived from the POWER4 server processor. To create it, the POWER4 core was modified to be backward-compatible with 32-bit PowerPC processors, and a vector unit (similar to the AltiVec extensions in Motorola's 74xx series) was added. The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... Released in 1998: 15 million transistors per chip The first 64-bit symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), POWER3 is completely compatible with the original POWER instruction set -- and compatible with the PowerPC instruction set as well. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola (the AIM alliance), and implemented on versions of the PowerPC including Motorolas G4 and IBMs G5 processors. ...


IBM's RS64 processors are a family of chips implementing the "Amazon" variant of the PowerPC architecture. These processors are used in the RS/6000 and AS/400 computer families; the Amazon architecture includes proprietary extensions used by AS/400. The POWER4 and later POWER processors implement the Amazon architecture and replaced the RS64 chips in the RS/6000 and AS/400 families. The IBM RS64 family of processors is used in the RS/6000 and AS/400 server product lines. ... The IBM pSeries, formerly called RS/6000 (for RISC System/6000), is IBMs current RISC/UNIX-based workstation and server computer line. ... i5 Model 570 (2006) The IBM System i (formerly known as iSeries, AS/400, and Application System/400) is a minicomputer platform produced by IBM. It was officially introduced as the AS/400 in 1988. ...


IBM developed a separate product line called the "4xx" line focused on the embedded market. These designs included the 401, 403, 405, 440, and 460. In 2004, IBM sold their 4xx product line to Applied Micro Circuits Corporation (AMCC). AMCC continues to develop new high performance products, partly based on IBM's technology, along with technology that was developed within AMCC. These products focus in a variety of applications including networking, wireless, storage, printing/imaging and industrial automation.


Numerically, the PowerPC is mostly found in controllers in cars. Almost half the worlds automobiles have at least one PowerPC controller in them.


For the automotive market, Freescale Semiconductor initially offered a large number of variations called the MPC5xx family such as the MPC555, built on a variation of the 601 core called the 8xx and designed in Israel by MSIL (Motorola Silicon Israel Limited). The 601 core is single issue, meaning it can only issue one instruction in a clock cycle. To this they add various bits of custom hardware, to allow for I/O on the single chip. In 2004, the next-generation four-digit 55xx devices were launched for the automotive market. These use the newer e200 series of PowerPC cores. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The PowerPC 5000 family is a series of Power Architecture microprocessors from Freescale (previously Motorola) designed for automotive and industrial microcontroller and system on a chip (SoC) use. ... The PowerPC e200 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in automotive and industrial control systems. ...

The Freescale XPC855T Service Processor of a Sun SunFire V20z

Networking is another area where embedded PowerPC processors are found in large numbers. MSIL took the QUICC engine from the MC68302 and made the PowerQUICC MPC860. This was a very famous processor used in many Cisco edge routers in the late 1990s. Variants of the PowerQUICC include the MPC850, and the MPC823/MPC823e. All variants include a separate RISC microengine called the CPM that offloads communications processing tasks from the central processor and has functions for DMA. The follow-on chip from this family, the MPC8260, has a 603e-based core and a different CPM. Image File history File links XPC855TZP66D4_3K20A.jpg‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): PowerPC User:Henriok PowerQUICC ... Image File history File links XPC855TZP66D4_3K20A.jpg‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): PowerPC User:Henriok PowerQUICC ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Sunfire (Shiro Yoshida )) is a Marvel Comics superhero,and former member of the X-Men. ... QUICC stands for QUad Integrated Communications Controller. ... The Freescale 683XX (formerly Motorola 683XX) is a family of compatible microcontrollers that use a Freescale 68000-based CPU core. ... PowerQUICC is the name for several Power Architecture based microcontrollers from Freescale Semiconductor. ... “Cisco” redirects here. ... Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. ...


Operating systems

Operating systems that work on the PowerPC architecture are generally divided into those which are oriented towards the general-purpose PowerPC systems, and those oriented towards the embedded PowerPC systems. A router, an example of an embedded system. ...


Note that a 64-bit PowerPC application which does not need 64-bit math will run much slower than if it were compiled in 32-bit mode. This is due to the fact that 64-bit pointers and longs consume twice as much memory. This is not true in general as, for example, on the EM64T/AMD64 architecture only 8 registers are available in "legacy" 32-bit mode, while 16 are available in the 64-bit mode. [2]. Therefore it is not necessary to run a fully 64-bit operating system on a 64-bit PowerPC system; you obtain virtually all of the advantages of the 64-bit architecture by using a 64-bit kernel with 32-bit system software. A tiny minority of software requires a 64-bit build, typically those dealing with >3 GB of virtual memory or 64-bit integer math. Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ...


General-purpose

System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Yellow Dog Linux (often abbreviated YDL) is a free software, open-source Linux distribution for Power Architecture hardware. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for workstations, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The Gentoo Linux operating system (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution named after the Gentoo penguin. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for workstations, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... CRUX is a lightweight, i686-optimized Linux distribution targeted at experienced Linux users. ... Ubuntu is a desktop Linux distribution, based on Debian GNU/Linux. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... MorphOS is a mixed proprietary and open source operating system produced for the Pegasos PowerPC (PPC)-processor-based computer, most models of PPC-accelerated classic Amiga computers, and the EFIKA PPC consumer device. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is the name given to a series of proprietary operating systems sold by IBM for several of its computer system platforms, based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. The latest scalable AIX 5L... i5/OS is an operating system used on IBMs line of System i (previously called AS/400) computers. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around Solaris Operating System technology. ...

Embedded

For Mac OS 9, see Mac OS 9. ... MontaVista Software develops systems software, development tools and Embedded Linux-based software targeting embedded systems such as automotive electronics, communications equipment, and television set-top boxes and other connected devices and infrastructure. ... QNX (pronounced either Q-N-X or Q-nix) is a commercial POSIX-compliant Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market. ... The LynxOS RTOS is a Unix-like real-time operating system from LynuxWorks (formerly Lynx Real-Time Systems). Sometimes known as the Lynx Operating System, LynxOS features POSIX compliance and, more recently, Linux compatibility. ... VxWorks is a Unix-like real-time operating system made and sold by Wind River Systems of Alameda, California, USA. Like most RTOSes, VxWorks includes a multitasking kernel with pre-emptive scheduling and fast interrupt response, extensive inter-process communications and synchronization facilities, and a file system. ... The correct title of this article is . ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... LynuxWorks, Inc. ... The Operating System Embedded (mostly known under the acronym OSE), a real-time embedded operating system created by the Swedish firm ENEA. OSE uses signaling in the form of messages passed to and from processes in the system. ... ENEA is a Swedish information techonology company from Täby working in the area of operating systems and consulting. ...

Licensees

Companies that have licensed PowerPC include:

Altera headquarters in San Jose Altera Corporation (NASDAQ: ALTR) is a leading manufacturer of programmable logic devices. ... Apple Inc. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Avago Technologies is an American company which was earlier the semiconductor products division of HP and later Agilent Technologies, before being spun off into a distinct legal entity. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds third largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... The RAD750 is a radiation-hardened single board computer, based on IBMs PowerPC 750. ... “Cisco” redirects here. ... The PowerPC 400 family is a line of 32-bit embedded RISC-processor cores built using Power Architecture technology. ... Exponential Technology was a vendor of PowerPC microprocessors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... LSI Logic was founded in Milpitas, CA by Wilfred Corrigan in 1981 after he left an executive position with Fairchild Semiconductor. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with the Intel Xeon. ... Motorola Inc. ... Freescale sign Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... P.A. Semi is a fabless semiconductor company founded in Santa Clara, California 2003 by Dan Dobberpuhl who was the lead designer for the DEC Alpha and StrongARM processors. ... Italic text:For other uses, see Rapport (disambiguation). ... Kilocore, from Rapport Inc. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Layout of the IBM Cell die Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by a Sony, Toshiba, and IBM, an alliance known as STI. The architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... Xilinx, Inc. ... An Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. A field-programmable gate array is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called logic blocks, and programmable interconnects. ...

Products and applications

Various products and applications related to PowerPC architecture: PowerPC Implementations // Apple Computer was the dominant player in the market of desktop computers based on PowerPC processors until 2006 when it switched to Intel-based processors. ...


Integrated circuit

Various types of Integrated Circuit (IC) related to PowerPC architecture: PowerPC/Types // [edit] General-purpose PowerPC processors [edit] IBM/Motorola 601 50 and 66 MHz 602 consumer products (multiplexed data/address bus) 603 notebooks, embedded devices 603e with enlaged cache 604 604e 620 the first 64-bit implementation 740/750 (PowerPC G3) (1997) 233–366 MHz [edit] Motorola/Freescale [edit] G3 740...


See also

PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) was a PowerPC hardware reference design. ... Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) was an early PowerPC hardware reference design. ... Power Architecture Platform Reference (PAPR) is an initiative from Power. ... The Power Architecture logo Power Architecture is a broad term to describe similar instruction sets for RISC microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AMCC, Tundra and P.A. Semi. ... The PowerOpen Environment (POE), created in 1991, is an open standard for running a Unix-based operating system on the PowerPC computer architecture. ...

References

  • May, Cathy (editor) et al. (1994). The PowerPC Architecture: A Specification for A New Family of RISC Processors. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 1-55860-316-6 (2nd ed.).
  • Hoxey, Steve (editor) et al. The PowerPC Compiler Writer's Guide. Warthman Associates. ISBN 0-9649654-0-2.
  • Motorola. Programming Environments Manual for 32-bit Implementations of the PowerPC Architecture, a 640 page PDF manual. P/N MPCFPE32B/AD .
  • IBM (2000). Book E: Enhanced PowerPC™ Architecture (3rd ed.)
  • Jeff Duntemann and Ron Pronk. (1994) Inside the PowerPC Revolution. Coriolis Group Books, ISBN 1-883577-04-7
  • PowerPC Architecture, an IBM article giving POWER and PowerPC history

External links

  • Power.org
  • PPC Overview - an overview of PowerPC processors
  • P.A. Semi - Power to Perform
  • IBM, Apple, RISC, and the roots of the Power Mac
  • OS/2 Warp, PowerPC Edition review by Michal Necasek 2005
  • A developer's guide to the PowerPC architecture– From IBM Developerworks.
  • A history of chipmaking at IBM– From IBM Developerworks.
  • Canadarm - Robotic arm (for International Space Station) with PowerPC controller created by MacDonald, Detwiller & Associates (MDA).
  • PowerPC images and descriptions at cpu-collection.de
  • Freescale - the creator of PowerPC CPU. Formerly Motorola Semiconductor division.
  • Genesi - The creator of EFIKA, Open Desktop Workstation (ODW), Open Server Workstation (OSW), and High Density Blade Server.
  • Global Graphics - The creator of Raster Image Processor (RIP) based on PowerPC.
  • Maxwell - Radiation hardened Single Board Computer (SBC) for space and military projects.
  • PowerPC FAQ
  • Momentum Corp. - the creator of Maple PowerPC 970 Evaluation Board.
  • Printer Controller - Motorola/Freescale System-On-Chip (SOC) Printer Controller.
  • IBM BlueGene - IBM Supercomputer with PowerPC 440 cores.
  • Green Hills RTOS For PowerPC List of Green Hills RTOS For PowerPC's customers (Boeing, Ford, NASA etc).
  • PowerPC on Submarine US Navy use Linux PowerPC for SONAR System on their Submarine.
  • BlackDog Plug-in USB mobile Linux Server.
  • Rapport - The creator of Kilocore 1025 CPU.
  • Soft3 - The creator of Samantha, a PowerPC motherboard based on AMCC 440EP System-on-chip (SOC).
  • Troika - The creator of Amy '05, a PowerPC motherboard based on Tundra TSI-107 chipset and AMD Geode CS5536 chipset.
  • Virginia Tech - Supercomputers based on Apple PowerMac and Xserve.
  • XenPPC Xen Virtual Machine For PowerPC 970
  • YARC - The creator of Raster Image Processor (RIP) based on PowerPC.
  • RTEMS real-time operating system
  • MPC BDM at hardware-hacking.com - page about BDM (background debug mode) interface for PowerPC single-chip microcontrollers
  • Yellow Dog Linux - a PPC-only Linux distro
  • GNU/Linux Crux PPC - GNU/Linux Crux for PowerPC
  • OpenSolaris PowerPC Community

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