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Encyclopedia > Power station
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A power station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.[1][2][3] The term power station has several meanings: A power station is an installation for generating electricity; Power Station is a band; Avatar Studios is colloquially known as the Power Station; The name of the German band Kraftwerk is sometimes translated as Power Station. This is a disambiguation page — a... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A fossil fuel power plant (FFPP) (also known as steam electric power plant in the US, thermal power plant in Asia, or power station in the UK) is an energy conversion center designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...


Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other large vehicles. Some prefer to use the term energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy. However, power plant is the most common term in the U.S., while elsewhere power station and power plant are both widely used, power station prevailing in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... Potential energy (U, or Ep), a kind of scalar potential, is energy by virtue of matter being able to move to a lower-energy state, releasing energy in some form. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and the types of technology that the power company has access to. This article is about machines that produce electricity. ...

Contents

Thermal power stations

Rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in power station
Main article: Thermal power station

In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine, which transforms thermal energy, often from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, and these are sometimes called steam power stations. About 86% of all electric power is generated by use of steam turbines.[citation needed] Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, there is always heat lost to the environment. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations. An important class of power stations in the Middle East uses byproduct heat for desalination of water. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x2126, 1707 KB) Steam turbine rotor produced by Siemens, Germany Photo taken from [1] with the friendly permission of Siemens Germany by Christian Kuhna, E-Mail: christian. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x2126, 1707 KB) Steam turbine rotor produced by Siemens, Germany Photo taken from [1] with the friendly permission of Siemens Germany by Christian Kuhna, E-Mail: christian. ... A thermal power station near Sofia, Bulgaria A thermal power station comprises all of the equipment and systems required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or biofuels to drive an electrical generator. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... In thermal physics, thermal energy is the energy portion of a system that increases with its temperature. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... Not to be confused with California Highway Patrol. ... A heat-only boiler station generates thermal energy in the form of hot water for use in district heating applications. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Classification

CHP plant in Warsaw, Poland
Geothermal power station in Iceland
Coal Power Station in Tampa FL
480 megawatt GE H series power generation gas turbine

Thermal power plants are classified by the type of fuel and the type of prime mover installed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1313 KB) Żerań power station, Warsaw, Poland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1313 KB) Żerań power station, Warsaw, Poland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... Image File history File links SSPX0347. ... Image File history File links SSPX0347. ... GE H Series Gas Turbine, electrical power generation This image is from: http://www. ... GE H Series Gas Turbine, electrical power generation This image is from: http://www. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ...


By fuel

A nuclear power station. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Bagasse (sometimes spelled bagass) is the biomass remaining after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Not to be confused with California Highway Patrol. ...

By prime mover

  • Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non-hydro plants use this system.
  • Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases to directly operate the turbine. Natural-gas fuelled turbine plants can start rapidly and so are used to supply "peak" energy during periods of high demand, though at higher cost than base-loaded plants. These may be comparatively small units, and sometimes completely unmanned, being remotely operated. This type was pioneered by the UK, Princetown[5] being the world's first, commissioned in 1959.
  • Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity. This greatly increases the overall efficiency of the plant, and many new baseload power plants are combined cycle plants fired by natural gas.
  • Internal combustion Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage. These are usually fuelled by diesel oil, heavy oil, natural gas and landfill gas.
  • Microturbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are low cost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production.

A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. ... Internal combustion piston engine Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Cut away diagram of a Rhombic Drive Beta Stirling Engine Design Pink - Hot cylinder wall Dark Grey - Cold cylinder wall (with coolant inlet and outlet pipes in Yellow) Dark Green - Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Light Green - Displacer piston Dark Blue - Power piston Light Blue - Flywheels Not Shown...

Cooling towers

Coal power plant in China with a hyperbolic cooling tower

Because of the fundamental limits to thermodynamic efficiency of any heat engine, all thermal power plants produce waste heat as a byproduct of the useful electrical energy produced. Natural draft wet cooling towers at nuclear power plants and at some large thermal power plants are large hyperbolic chimney-like structures (as seen in the image at the left) that release the waste heat to the ambient atmosphere by the evaporation of water (lower left image). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2874 KB) A Chinese power plant. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2874 KB) A Chinese power plant. ... A fossil fuel power plant (FFPP) (also known as steam electric power plant in the US, thermal power plant in Asia, or power station in the UK) is an energy conversion center designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... Image 1: Natural draft wet cooling towers at Didcot Power Station, UK Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. ... Look up Chimney in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A Marley mechanical induced-draft cooling tower

However, the mechanical induced-draft or forced-draft wet cooling towers (as seen in the image to the right) in many large thermal power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, geothermal, biomass and waste to energy plants use fans to provide air movement upward through downcoming water and are not hyperbolic chimney-like structures. The induced or forced-draft cooling towers are rectangular, box-like structures filled with a material that enhances the contacting of the upflowing air and the downflowing water.[6][7] Image File history File links A_Marley_industrial_cooling_tower. ... Image File history File links A_Marley_industrial_cooling_tower. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... A waste-to-energy plant is a waste management facility which combusts wastes to produce electricity. ... For other uses, see Fan. ...

Cooling towers evaporating water at Ratcliffe Power Plant, UK

In desert areas a dry cooling tower or radiator may be necessary, since the cost of make-up water for evaporative cooling would be prohibitive. These have lower efficiency and higher energy consumption in fans than a wet, evaporative cooling tower. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2600x1860, 1449 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Power station Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2600x1860, 1449 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Power station Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image 1: Natural draft wet cooling towers at Didcot Power Station, UK Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. ...


Where economically and environmentally possible, electric companies prefer to use cooling water from the ocean, or a lake or river, or a cooling pond, instead of a cooling tower. This type of cooling can save the cost of a cooling tower and may have lower energy costs for pumping cooling water through the plant's heat exchangers. However, the waste heat can cause the temperature of the water to rise detectably. Power plants using natural bodies of water for cooling must be designed to prevent intake of organisms into the cooling cycle. A further environmental impact would be organisms that adapt to the warmer plant water and may be injured if the plant shuts down in cold weather. A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ...


In recent years, recycled wastewater, or grey water, has been used in cooling towers. The Calpine Riverside and the Calpine Fox power stations in Wisconsin as well as the Calpine Mankato power station in Minnesota are among these facilities. Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


Other sources of energy

Other power stations use the energy from wave or tidal motion, wind, sunlight or the energy of falling water, hydroelectricity. These types of energy sources are called renewable energy. Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


Hydroelectricity

A hydroelectric dam and plant on the Muskegon river in Michigan
Main article: Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectric dams impound a reservoir of water and release it through one or more water turbines to generate electricity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 750 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of area File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 750 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of area File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... A Hydroelectric Dam converts a River into a Large Reservoir and transforms the potential energy of the river into Electrical Power. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ...


Pumped storage

A pumped storage hydroelectric power plant is a net consumer of energy but decreases the price of electricity. Water is pumped to a high reservoir during the night when the demand, and price, for electricity is low. During hours of peak demand, when the price of electricity is high, the stored water is released to produce electric power. Some pumped storage plants are actually not net consumers of electricity because they release some of the water from the lower reservoir downstream, either continuously or in bursts. Diagram of the TVA pumped storage facility at Racoon Mountain Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ...


Solar

Main article: Solar power
A control room of a modern waste incineration power plant

A solar photovoltaic power plant converts sunlight into electrical energy, which may need conversion to alternating current for transmission to users. This type of plant does not use rotating machines for energy conversion. Solar thermal electric plants are another type of solar power plant. They direct sunlight using either parabolic troughs or heliostats. Parabolic troughs direct sunlight onto a pipe containing a heat transfer fluid, such as oil, which is then used to boil water, which turns the generator. The central tower type of power plant uses hundreds or thousands of mirrors, depending on size, to direct sunlight onto a receiver on top of a tower. Again, the heat is used to produce steam to turn turbines. There is yet another type of solar thermal electric plant. The sunlight strikes the bottom of the pond, warming the lowest layer which is prevented from rising by a salt gradient. A Rankine cycle engine exploits the temperature difference in the layers to produce electricity. Not many solar thermal electric plants have been built. Most of them can be found in the Mojave Desert, although Sandia National Laboratory, Israel and Spain have also built a few plants. Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2515x1387, 517 KB) Summary Control room of a power station Published with the permission of VGB Power Tech GmbH Germany Source of foto: Steag, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2515x1387, 517 KB) Summary Control room of a power station Published with the permission of VGB Power Tech GmbH Germany Source of foto: Steag, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... For other uses, see Inverter (logic gate) and Inverter. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... A Heliostat is a device that tracks the movement of the sun. ... The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle. ... Sandia National Laboratories is a major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratory with two locations, one in Albuquerque, New Mexico and the other in Livermore, California. ...


Wind

Main article: Wind power

Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity in areas with strong, steady winds. Many different designs have been used in the past, but almost all modern turbines being produced today use the Dutch six-bladed, upwind design. Grid-connected wind turbines now being built are much larger than the units installed during the 1970s, and so produce power more cheaply and reliably than earlier models. With larger turbines (on the order of one megawatt), the blades move more slowly than older, smaller, units, which makes them less visually distracting and safer for airborne animals. However, the old turbines can still be seen at some wind farms, particularly at Altamont Pass and Tehachapi Pass. An example of a wind turbine. ... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ... The Altamont Pass is a mountain pass in Northern California, United States, located between Livermore in the Livermore Valley and Tracy in the San Joaquin Valley. ... Tehachapi Pass Tehachapi Pass (elevation 3793 ft/1156 m, location 35°06′08″ N 118°16′58″ W) is a mountain pass in southern California in the United States. ...


See also

Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable Electric vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... The primary use of large, industrial wet cooling towers is to lower the temperature of the cooling water used in power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities. ... Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ... Flue gas stack at GRES-2 Power Plant in Ekibastus, Kazachstan is 420 meters tall Flue gas stacks are large vertical pipes, channels or similar structures through which combustion product gases (called flue gases) produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other fuel is combusted in an industrial... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station is a major power station in the Klang Valley region of Peninsular Malaysia. ...

References

  1. ^ British Electricity International (1991). Modern Power Station Practice: incorporating modern power system practice, 3rd Edition (12 volume set), Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-040510-X. 
  2. ^ Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use, 41st edition. ISBN 0-9634570-0-4. 
  3. ^ Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (coauthors) (1997). Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1. 
  4. ^ Nuclear Power Plants Information, by International Atomic Energy Agency
  5. ^ http://www.swehs.co.uk/docs/news13su.html
  6. ^ J.C. Hensley (Editor) (2006). Cooling Tower Fundamentals, 2nd Ed., SPX Cooling Technologies. 
  7. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons. LCCN 67019834.  (Includes cooling tower material balance for evaporation emissions and blowdown effluents. Available in many university libraries)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants is a book about the composition and treatment of the various wastewater streams produced in the hydrocarbon processing industries (i. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ...

External links

  • Identification System for Power Stations (KKS)
  • Power station diagram
  • Power Generation Plants (diagrams)
  • Power Plant Reference Books
  • Large industrial cooling towers
  • Inter-Utility Sub-station Training Assoc.
  • APMS: Advanced Plant Management System
  • A photo tour of the Zimmer Power Station, Moscow, Ohio (1300 MW Coal Fired)
  • Mechanicville Hydroelectric Power Station Tour Video

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