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Encyclopedia > Power projection
USS John C. Stennis, and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. Aircraft carriers are some of the most common tools used to project power.

Power projection (or force projection)helllo! is a term used in military and political science to refer to the capacity of a state to implement policy by means of force, or the threat thereof, in an area distant from its own territory. The United States Department of Defense, in its publication J1-02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, further defines power projection as Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2021x1217, 359 KB) Description: The U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74) (left), steams alongside the British Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (R 06) in the Persian Gulf on April 9, 1998. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2021x1217, 359 KB) Description: The U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74) (left), steams alongside the British Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (R 06) in the Persian Gulf on April 9, 1998. ... USS (CVN-74) is a Nimitz-class nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy named for a Senator from Mississippi. ... The fifth HMS Illustrious (R06) is an Invincible-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, affectionately known as Lusty to her crew. ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...

The ability of a nation to apply all or some of its elements of national power - political, economic, informational, or military - to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability. [1]

This ability is a crucial element of a state's power in international relations. Any state able to direct its military forces outside the limited bounds of its territory might be said to have some level of power projection capability, but the term itself is used most frequently in reference to militaries with a worldwide reach (or at least significantly broader than a state's immediate area). Even states with sizable hard power assets (such as a large standing army) may only be able to exert limited regional influence so long as they lack the means of effectively projecting their power on a global scale. Generally, only a select few states are able to overcome the logistical difficulties inherent in the deployment and direction of a modern, mechanized military force. In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A Deployment is an outward movement of a body from its initial location to an extended region in an effort to accomplish a special purpose or mission. ...


While traditional measures of power projection typically focus on hard power assets (tanks, soldiers, aircraft, naval vessels, etc.), the developing theory of soft power notes that power projection does not necessarily have to involve the active use of military forces in combat. Assets for power projection can often serve dual uses, as the deployment of various countries' militaries during the humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake illustrates. The ability of a state to project its forces into an area may serve as an effective diplomatic lever, influencing the decision-making process and acting as a potential deterrent on other states' behavior. Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Combate Naval de Iquique - oil on canvas painting by Thomas Somerscales, XIX century Combat, or fighting, is purposeful violent conflict between one or more persons or organizations, often intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ... The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ...

Contents

Elements of power projection

The huge cargo hold and intercontinental flight capabilities of the C-5 Galaxy make it a major asset for deploying military power around the globe.
The huge cargo hold and intercontinental flight capabilities of the C-5 Galaxy make it a major asset for deploying military power around the globe.

As distance between a fighting force and its headquarters increases, command and control inevitably becomes more difficult. Modern-day power projection often makes use of high-tech communications and information technology to overcome these difficulties, a process sometimes described as the "Revolution in Military Affairs". Image File history File links Galaxy_02. ... Image File history File links Galaxy_02. ... The C-5 Galaxy is a jet-powered military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ... In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the U.S. military and others. ...


While a few long-range weapons, such as the Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and certain types of cruise missiles, are capable of projecting deadly force in their own right, most discussion of power projection revolve around issues of military logistics. The ability to integrate naval and air forces with land armies as part of joint warfare is generally viewed as a key aspect of effective power projection; airlift and sealift capabilities allow a country to deploy units of soldiers or weapons to distant destinations not easily accessible by land forces. The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile Taurus KEPD 350 A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... An Air force is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... In logistics and military terminology: An airlift is the act of transporting people or cargo from point to point using aircraft. ... The USNS Bob Hope, a non-combatant vessel crewed by civilian mariners under the United States Navys Military Sealift Command, is used to preposition tanks, trucks and other wheeled vehicles and supplies needed to support an Army heavy brigade. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ... Modern soldiers. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ...


The aircraft carrier battle group, strategic bomber, and C-5B Galaxy strategic airlifter are all examples of power projection platforms, as are military units designed to be light and mobile, such as airborne forces (paratroopers and air assault forces). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Boeing B-52 strategic bomber taking off A strategic bomber is a large aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance on a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemys capacity to wage war. ... The C-5 Galaxy is a jet-powered military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ... Strategic airlift is a military term for using cargo aircraft to transport matériel, weaponry, or personnel over long distances. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S. Air Cavalry) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ...


Forward basing is another method of power projection, which by pre-positioning military units or stockpiles of arms at strategically located military bases outside a country's territory, reduces the time and distance needed to mobilize them for combat in a distant theater of war. Forward basing is a method of power projection where, by pre-positioning military units or stockpiles of arms at strategically located military bases outside a countrys territory, there is a reduction in the time and distance needed to mobilize them for combat in a distant theatre of war. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ...


Examples

In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, the Japanese demolition of Imperial Russia's Pacific Fleet demonstrated Russia's inability to project force in the East. This immediately diminished Russia's diplomatic sway in that region. At the same time, Russia's western armies became less credible, as mobilization exposed organizational flaws and threw the western armies into chaos. This led analysts in Europe, such as Germany's Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, to conclude that Russia would prove inept at projecting force in Europe, thus demoting Russia in European diplomatic relations. For a final consequence, Japan recognized the significance for its political independence of denying other Powers the capacity to project force into its vicinity. The Imperial Japanese Navy was massively developed on Tetsutaro Sato's advice to deny the United States the projection of force capability it then held over the Japanese Home Islands. This altered the balance of diplomatic power between the two countries in Japan's favor. Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот in Russian, or Tikhookeanskiy flot), a part of the Soviet Navy stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which secured the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. The fleet headquarters was located at... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... Categories: Stub | 1833 births | 1913 deaths ... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Tetsutaro Sato (1866-1942) was a Japanese military theorist and an early admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Many other actions can be considered projections of force. The Nineteenth Century is full of these incidents, such as the 1864 Bombardment of Kagoshima and the Boxer Rebellion. More recently, the Falklands War came as an example of the United Kingdom's ability to project force far from home. The U.S. Navy and the British Royal Navy abilities to deploy large numbers of ships for long periods of time away from home are unique projection abilities today, although the People's Republic of China is increasing its seaborne power projection abilities. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anglo-Satsuma War (Japanese Satsu-Ei Sensou) took place in August 1863. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Japan Russia United Kingdom France United States Germany Italy Austria-Hungary Righteous Harmony Society Qing China Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Gaselee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total Over 100,000 Casualties 230 foreigners, thousands of civilians Unknown This article is... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [3] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


See also

Power statuses Middle power | Regional power | Great power | Superpower | Hyperpower
Further geopolitics African Century | American Century | Asian Century | British Moment | Chinese Century | European Century | Indian Century | Pacific Century
Types of power Soft power | Hard power | Political power | Power (sociology) | Machtpolitik | Realpolitik | Power projection | Polarity in international relations
Other G8+5 | BRIC | BRIMC | BRICS | Historical powers | Next Eleven | Energy superpower | Power transition theory | Second superpower | SCO | Superpower collapse | Superpower disengagement

In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. ... USN redirects here. ... The Military Sealift Command (MSC) is a United States Navy (USN) organization that controls most of the replenishment and military transport ships of the Navy. ... Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... Air Mobility Command (AMC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, and the air force component of United States Transportation Command. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The British Moment The British Moment is a term, first used by The Henry Jackson Society, to describe the growth of British global influence in recent years. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than idealistic notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. // The term was coined by Ludwig August von Rochau, a German writer and politician in the 19th century, following... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... As the last chance to inject fresh impetus into the trade talks of Doha and the need to achieve a deeper cooperation on Climate Change, UKs prime minister Tony Blair as host of the 2005 G8 anual summit (Gleneagles, Scotland); decided to invite the largest emerging countries to join... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC is a term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The BRICS. BRICS is a term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... In December 2005, after its 2003 paper on the emerging BRIC economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China), Goldman Sachs investment bank named its Next Eleven list of countries, using macroeconomic stability, political maturity, openness of trade and investment policies and quality of education as criteria. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Power projection is a term used in military and political science (specifically international relations) circles, referring to the ability of a state to implement policy by means of force, or the threat thereof.
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Power projection does not, however, have to involve the active use of forces.
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