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Encyclopedia > Power in international relations

Power in international relations is defined in several different ways. Political scientists, historians, and practitioners of international relations (diplomats) have used the following concepts of political power: Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... It has been suggested that Defensive realism be merged into this article or section. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Former President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, considered to be a founder of idealism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Marxist and Neo-Marxist international relations theories are positivist paradigms which reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... Critical international relations theory is a set of schools of thought in international relations that have criticized the status-quo – both from positivist positions as well as postpositivist positions. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      In international relations, constructivism is the application of constructivist epistemology to the study of world affairs. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Functionalism is a theory of international relations that arose principally from the experience of European integration. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Constructivism Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ...

  • Power as a goal of states or leaders;
  • Power as a measure of influence or control over outcomes, events, actors and issues;
  • Power as reflecting victory in conflict and the attainment of security; and,
  • Power as control over resources and capabilities.

Modern discourse generally speaks in terms of state power, indicating both economic and military power. Those states that have significant amounts of power within the international system are referred to as middle powers, regional powers, great powers, superpowers, or hyperpowers, although there is no commonly accepted standard for what defines a powerful state. Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ...


Entities other than states can also acquire and wield power in international relations. Such entities can include multilateral international organizations, military alliance organizations (e.g. NATO), multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations, or other institutions such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Hanseatic League. Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...

Contents

Power as a goal

Primary usage of "power" as a goal in international relations belongs to political theorists, such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Hans Morgenthau. Especially among Classical Realist thinkers, power is an inherent goal of mankind and of states. Economic growth, military growth, cultural spread etc. can all be considered as working towards the ultimate goal of international power. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 - July 19, 1980) was an International Relations theorist and one of the most influential ones to date. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the...


Power as influence

Political scientists principally use "power" in terms of an actor's ability to exercise influence over other actors within the international system. This influence can be coercive, attractive, cooperative, or competitive. Mechanisms of influence can include the threat or use of force, economic interaction or pressure, diplomacy, and cultural exchange. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Influence Science and Practice (ISBN 0321188950) is a Psychology book examining the key ways people can be influenced by Compliance Professionals. The books authors is Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of force. ... For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... Competition characterises a biochemical, ecologic, economic, political, or sporting activity whereby two or more individuals or groups strive antagonistically against one another for some reward. ...


Spheres, blocs, and alliances

Under certain circumstances, states can organize a sphere of influence or a bloc within which they exercise predominant influence. Historical examples include the spheres of influence recognized under the Concert of Europe, or the recognition of spheres during the Cold War following the Yalta Conference. The Warsaw Pact, the "Free World," and the Non-Aligned Movement were the blocs that arose out of the Cold War contest. Military alliances like NATO and the Warsaw Pact are another forum through which influence is exercised. A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... The Concert of Europe describes the broad cooperation between Europes great powers after 1815. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Free World is a Cold War-era term used by non-communist nations to describe themselves. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Power as security

"Power" is also used when describing states or actors that have achieved military victories or security for their state in the international system. This general usage is most commonly found among the writings of historians or popular writers. For instance, a state that has achieved a string of combat victories in a military campaign against other states can be described as powerful. An actor that has succeeded in protecting its security, sovereignty, or strategic interests from repeated or significant challenge can also be described as powerful. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


Power as capability

"Power" is also used to describe the resources and capabilities of a state. This definition is quantitative and is most often used by geopoliticians and the military. Capabilities are thought of in tangible terms—they are measurable, weighable, quantifiable assets. Thomas Hobbes spoke of power as "present means to obtain some future apparent good." Hard Power can be treated as a potential and is not often enforced on the international stage. Look up Resource in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ...


Chinese strategists have such a concept of national power that can be measured quantitatively using an index known as comprehensive national power. A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is a concept which is important in the contemporary political thought of the Peoples Republic of China and refers to the general power of a nation-state. ...


Soft versus hard power

Main articles: Soft power and Hard power

Some political scientists distinguish between two types of power: soft and hard. The former is attractive while the latter is coercive. Joseph Nye is the leading proponent and theorist of soft power. Instruments of soft power include debates on cultural values, dialogues on ideology, the attempt to influence through good example, and the appeal to commonly accepted human values. Means of exercising soft power include diplomacy, dissemination of information, analysis, propaganda, and cultural programming to achieve political ends. Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Joseph Nye (born 1937) is the founder, along with Robert Keohane, of the international relations theory neoliberalism (international relations) developed in their 1977 book Power and Interdependence. ...


Hard power refers to coercive tactics: the threat or use of armed forces, economic pressure or sanctions, assassination and subterfuge, or other forms of intimidation. Hard power is generally associated to the stronger of nations, as the ability to change the domestic affairs of other nations through military threats. The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ...


Categories of power

In the modern geopolitical landscape, a number of terms are used to describe powers of various types, these include:

  • Hyperpower - coined to describe the post-Cold War United States,and has also been applied retroactively to the British Empire, it is a term used to describe the sole superpower in a unipolar system.
  • Superpower - used to describe the United States and the Soviet Union, and has been applied retroactively to the British Empire, the term Superpower describes the polar countries in a bipolar or unipolar system.
  • Great power - in historical mentions, the term Great power refers to any nations that have strong political, cultural and economic influence over nations around it and across the world.
  • Middle power - a subjective description of second-tier influential states that could not be described as Great Powers.

The term Regional power is also used to describe a nation that exercises influence and power within a region. Being a regional power is not mutually exclusive with any of the above categories. A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The term Energy superpower describes a country that has immense influence or even direct control over much of the world's energy supplies. Russia and Saudi Arabia are generally acknowledged as the world's two current energy superpowers, given their abilities to globally influence or even directly control prices to certain countries, as Russia has done with natural gas prices in relation to its neighbors. There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ...


See also

Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The British Moment The British Moment is a term, first used by The Henry Jackson Society, to describe the growth of British global influence in recent years. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... As the last chance to inject fresh impetus into the trade talks of Doha and the need to achieve a deeper cooperation on Climate Change, UKs prime minister Tony Blair as host of the 2005 G8 anual summit (Gleneagles, Scotland); decided to invite the largest emerging countries to join... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing, PRC - Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ...

External links

  • www.hoover.org What is power? By Niall Ferguson.
  • books.google.com Weak States in the International System. By Michael I. Handel.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Power in international relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1309 words)
The Great Powers are usually taken to be those nations or political entities that, through their great economic and military strength, are the arbiters of world diplomacy, and whose opinions must be taken into account by other nations before effecting initiatives.
International meetings, which developed during the second half of the nineteenth century, also serve to indicate Great Power status in the absence of peace treaties after wars, such as the different Berlin Conference.
Power can be exercised through violence or through coercion, the threat of force, or through treaties and diplomacy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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