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Encyclopedia > Poverty
A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find.
Look up poverty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of those things that determine the quality of life, including food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, but also such "intangibles" as the opportunity to learn and to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens. Ongoing debates over causes, effects and best ways to measure poverty, directly influence the design and implementation of poverty-reduction programs and are therefore relevant to the fields of international development and public administration. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2299 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2299 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... Poverty reduction (or poverty alleviation) is any process which seeks to reduce the level of poverty in a community, or amongst a group of people or countries. ... This article is about International Development. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ...


Although poverty is generally considered to be undesirable due to the pain and suffering it may cause, in certain spiritual contexts "voluntary poverty," involving the renunciation of material goods, is seen by some as virtuous. Voluntary simplicity is a lifestyle considered by its adherents to be a sustainable, ecologically sensitive alternative to the typical, western consumerist lifestyle. ...


Poverty may affect individuals or groups, and is not confined to the developing nations. Poverty in developed countries is manifest in a set of social problems including homelessness and the persistence of "ghetto" housing clusters.[1] A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Bag lady redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Measuring poverty

Main article: Measuring poverty
World map showing percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2006
World map showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day. UN estimates 1990-2005.
CIA world map showing percentage of population living below their national poverty line.
World map showing life expectancy.
World map showing the Human Development Index.
World map showing the Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality.
The percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day has halved in twenty years. However, most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. The graph shows the 1981-2001 period.
Life expectancy has been increasing and converging for most of the world. Sub-Saharan Africa has recently seen a decline, partly related to the AIDS epidemic. Graph shows the years 1950-2005.
A homeless Frenchman in Paris.

Poverty can be measured in terms of absolute or relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over time and between countries. An example of an absolute measurement would be the percentage of the population eating less food than is required to sustain the human body (approximately 2000-2500 calories per day for an adult male). Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixel Image in higher resolution (1355 × 768 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png) List of countries by percentage of population suffering from undernourishment. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixel Image in higher resolution (1355 × 768 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png) List of countries by percentage of population suffering from undernourishment. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x629, 32 KB) Summary List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x629, 32 KB) Summary List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Image File history File links UN_Human_Development_Report_2007_(2). ... Image File history File links UN_Human_Development_Report_2007_(2). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x632, 47 KB) Summary Data source: World Resources Institute. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x632, 47 KB) Summary Data source: World Resources Institute. ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x700, 249 KB) Summary FR: SDF a Paris ENG: Homeless Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : June 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Homelessness ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x700, 249 KB) Summary FR: SDF a Paris ENG: Homeless Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : June 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Homelessness ... Bag lady redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Poverty that is so extreme that people cannot even meet the basic human necessities like food, clothes and shelter is known as absolute poverty. ... Relative poverty is a poverty measure based on a poor standard of living or a low income relative to the rest of society. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ...


The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$ (PPP) 1 per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day, estimating that "in 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day." [2] The proportion of the developing world's population living in extreme economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001.[2] Looking at the period 1981-2001, the percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day has halved. World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Extreme poverty is the most severe state of poverty, where people cannot meet basic needs for survival, such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sanitation, education and health care. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


However, most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia.[3] In East Asia the World Bank reports that "The poverty headcount rate at the $2-a-day level is estimated to have fallen to about 27 percent, down from 29.5 percent in 2006 and 69 percent in 1990."[4] This article is about the geographical region. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


In Sub-Saharan Africa GDP/capita shrank by 14 percent and extreme poverty increased from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001, increasing the number of people living in poverty from 231 million to 318 million.[5] Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially...


Other regions have seen little change. In the early 1990s the transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia experienced a sharp drop in income. Poverty rates rose to 6 percent at the end of the decade before beginning to recede.[6] Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


World Bank data shows that the percentage of the population living in households with consumption or income per person below the poverty line has decreased in each region of the world since 1999: [7][8]

Region 1990 2002 2004
East Asia and Pacific 15.40% 12.33% 9.07%
Europe and Central Asia 3.60% 1.28% 0.95%
Latin America and the Caribbean 9.62% 9.08% 8.64%
Middle East and North Africa 2.08% 1.69% 1.47%
South Asia 35.04% 33.44% 30.84%
Sub-Saharan Africa 46.07% 42.63% 41.09%

There are various criticisms of these measurements.[9] Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion note that although "a clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions...the developing world outside China and India has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor". However, since the world's population has increased, if instead looking at the percentage living on less than $1/day, and if excluding China and India, then this percentage has decreased from 31.35% to 20.70% between 1981 and 2004.[10]


Other human development indicators are also improving. Life expectancy has greatly increased in the developing world since WWII and is starting to close the gap to the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Even in Sub-Saharan Africa, the least developed region, life expectancy increased from 30 years before World War II to a peak of about 50 years before the HIV pandemic and other diseases started to force it down to the current level of 47 years. Child mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world[11]. The proportion of the world's population living in countries where per-capita food supplies are less than 2,200 calories (9,200 kilojoules) per day decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s. Between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52% to 81% of the world. Women made up much of the gap: Female literacy as a percentage of male literacy has increased from 59% in 1970 to 80% in 2000. The percentage of children not in the labor force has also risen to over 90% in 2000 from 76% in 1960. There are similar trends for electric power, cars, radios, and telephones per capita, as well as the proportion of the population with access to clean water.[12] The book The Improving State of the World finds that many other indicators have also improved. This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Child mortality is the death of children in their first 5 years of life. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... The Improving State of the World: Why Were Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M. Goklany. ...


Relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context. Income inequality is a relative measure of poverty. A relative measurement would be to compare the total wealth of the poorest one-third of the population with the total wealth of richest 1% of the population. There are several different income inequality metrics. One example is the Gini coefficient. The social environment or social context is a group of identical or similar social positions and social roles. ... Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ...


Income inequality for the world as a whole is diminishing. A 2002 study by Xavier Sala-i-Martin finds that this is driven mainly, but not fully, by the extraordinary growth rate of the incomes of the 1.2 billion Chinese citizens. However, unless Africa achieves economic growth, then China, India, the OECD and the rest of middle-income and rich countries will increase their relative advantage, and global inequality will rise. [13][14] Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Xavier Sala i Martín (b. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


The 2007 World Bank report "Global Economic Prospects" predicts that in 2030 the number living on less than the equivalent of $1 a day will fall by half, to about 550 million. An average resident of what we used to call the Third World will live about as well as do residents of the Czech or Slovak republics today. However, much of Africa will have difficulty keeping pace with the rest of the developing world and even if conditions there improve in absolute terms, the report warns, Africa in 2030 will be home to a larger proportion of the world's poorest people than it is today.[15] However, economic growth has increased rapidly in Africa after the year 2000.[16]


In many developed countries the official definition of poverty used for statistical purposes is based on relative income. As such many critics argue that poverty statistics measure inequality rather than material deprivation or hardship. For instance, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 46% of those in "poverty" in the U.S. own their own home (with the average poor person's home having three bedrooms, with one and a half baths, and a garage).[17] Furthermore, the measurements are usually based on a person's yearly income and frequently take no account of total wealth. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is based on "economic distance", a level of income set at 50% of the median household income. The US poverty line is more arbitrary. It was created in 1963-64 and was based on the dollar costs of the United States Department of Agriculture's "economy food plan" multiplied by a factor of three. The multiplier was based on research showing that food costs then accounted for about one third of the total money income. This one-time calculation has since been annually updated for inflation.[18] Others, such as economist Ellen Frank, argue that the poverty measure is too low as families spend much less of their total budget on food than they did when the measure was established. Further, federal poverty statistics do not account for the widely varying regional differences in non-food costs such as housing, transport, and utilities. [19] Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... USDA redirects here. ...


Other aspects

Economic aspects of poverty may focus on material needs, typically including the necessities of daily living, such as food, clothing, shelter, or safe drinking water. Poverty in this sense may be understood as a condition in which a person or community is lacking in the basic needs for a minimum standard of well-being and life, particularly as a result of a persistent lack of income. Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... The basic needs approach in development discourse focuses on the measurement of poverty with a view to its elimination in the shortest amount of time. ...


Analysis of social aspects of poverty links conditions of scarcity to aspects of the distribution of resources and power in a society and recognizes that poverty may be a function of the diminished "capability" of people to live the kinds of lives they value.[20] The social aspects of poverty may include lack of access to information, education, health care, or political power.[21][22] Poverty may also be understood as an aspect of unequal social status and inequitable social relationships, experienced as social exclusion, dependency, and diminished capacity to participate, or to develop meaningful connections with other people in society.[23][24][25] Thomas Jefferson said that Information is the currency of democracy. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ...


The World Bank's "Voices of the Poor," based on research with over 20,000 poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor people identify as part of poverty.[26] These include:

  • precarious livelihoods
  • excluded locations
  • physical limitations
  • gender relationships
  • problems in social relationships
  • lack of security
  • abuse by those in power
  • disempowering institutions
  • limited capabilities, and
  • weak community organizations.

David Moore, in his book The World Bank, argues that some analyses of poverty reflect pejorative, sometimes racial, stereotypes of impoverished people as powerless victims and passive recipients of aid programs.[27]


Cause of poverty

A starving female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s. The abdomen is paradoxically swollen due to Kwashiorkor or severe protein malnutrition.
Urban poverty is common in developing countries. Shown here is Mumbai, India.

Many different factors have been cited to explain why poverty occurs. However, no single explanation has gained universal acceptance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1063, 70 KB) Summary starved girl during the Nigerian-Biafran war ( late 1960s). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1063, 70 KB) Summary starved girl during the Nigerian-Biafran war ( late 1960s). ... Combatants Nigerian federal government Republic of Biafra Commanders Yakubu Gowon Odumegwu Ojukwu Casualties 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians Estimated 2,000,000 civilians The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, July 6, 1967 – January 13, 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of... , Bombay redirects here. ...


Possible factors include:


Environmental Factors

  • Erosion. Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields and thence increased poverty.[28]
  • Desertification and overgrazing.[29] Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded.[30] In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[31]
  • Deforestation as exemplified by the widespread rural poverty in China that began in the early 20th century and is attributed to non-sustainable tree harvesting.[32]
  • Natural factors such as the climate change[33] or environment[34]
  • Geographic factors, for example access to fertile land, fresh water, minerals, energy, and other natural resources. Presence or absence of natural features helping or limiting communication, such as mountains, deserts, sailable rivers, or coastline. Historically, geography has prevented or slowed the spread of new technology to areas such as the Americas and Sub-Saharan Africa. The climate also limits what crops and farm animals may be used on similarly fertile lands.[35]
  • On the other hand, research on the resource curse has found that countries with an abundance of natural resources creating quick wealth from exports tend to have less long-term prosperity than countries with less of these natural resources.
  • Drought and water crisis.[36][37][38]

Economics For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For the books called Geography by Ancient Greek authors, see Geographia (Ptolemy) and Geographica (Strabo) For the magazine of the Royal Geographical Society, see Geographical (magazine) Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... The resource curse or paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth than countries without these natural resources. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ...

  • Unemployment.
  • As of late 2007, increased farming for use in biofuels,[39] along with world oil prices at nearly $100 a barrel,[40] has pushed up the price of grain.[41] Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world.[42][43][44]
  • Capital flight by which the wealthy in a society shift their assets to off-shore tax havens deprives nations of revenue needed to break the vicious cycle of poverty. [45]
  • Weakly entrenched formal systems of title to private property are seen by writers such as Hernando de Soto as a limit to economic growth and therefore a cause of poverty. [46]
  • Communists see the institution of property rights itself as a cause of poverty.[47]
  • Unfair terms of trade, in particular, the very high subsidies to and protective tariffs for agriculture in the developed world. This drains the taxed money and increases the prices for the consumers in developed world; decreases competition and efficiency; prevents exports by more competitive agricultural and other sectors in the developed world due to retaliatory trade barriers; and undermines the very type of industry in which the developing countries do have comparative advantages.[48]
  • Tax havens which tax their own citizens and companies but not those from other nations and refuse to disclose information necessary for foreign taxation. This enables large scale political corruption, tax evasion, and organized crime in the foreign nations.[45]

Health Care CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Oil price in 2003-2005 The price of light, sweet crude oil on NYMEX has been above $40/barrel since late July 2004. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ... A tax haven is a place where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... A tax haven is a place where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...

  • Poor access to affordable health care makes individuals less resilient to economic hardship and more vulnerable to poverty.[49]
  • Inadequate nutrition in childhood, itself an effect of poverty, undermines the ability of individuals to develop their full human capabilities and thus makes them more vulnerable to poverty. Lack of essential minerals such as iodine and iron can impair brain development. It is estimated that 2 billion people (one-third of the total global population) are affected by iodine deficiency, including 285 million 6- to 12-year-old children. In developing countries, it is estimated that 40% of children aged 4 and under suffer from anemia because of insufficient iron in their diets. See also Health and intelligence.[50]
  • Disease, specifically diseases of poverty: AIDS,[51] malaria[52], and tuberculosis and others overwhelmingly afflict developing nations, which perpetuate poverty by diverting individual, community, and national health and economic resources from investment and productivity.[53] Further, many tropical nations are affected by parasites like malaria, schistosomiasis, and trypanosomiasis that are not present in temperate climates. The Tsetse fly makes it very difficult to use many animals in agriculture in afflicted regions.
  • Clinical depression undermines the resilience of individuals and when not properly treated makes them vulnerable to poverty. [54]
  • Similarly substance abuse, including for example alcoholism and drug abuse when not properly treated undermines resilience and can consign people to vicious poverty cycles.[55]

Governance For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood-brain barrier is less effective. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Diseases of poverty are diseases that overwhelmingly affect the poor; in many cases poverty is the leading risk factor for incidence of such disease, and some disease can (or allegedly) cause poverty. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworm. ... Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. ... Binomial name Glossina morsitans The tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, is a fly (order Diptera) that eats blood from animals, including humans. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ...

  • Lacking democracy in poor countries: "The records when we look at social dimensions of development—access to drinking water, girls' literacy, health care—are even more starkly divergent. For example, in terms of life expectancy, poor democracies typically enjoy life expectancies that are nine years longer than poor autocracies. Opportunities of finishing secondary school are 40 percent higher. Infant mortality rates are 25 percent lower. Agricultural yields are about 25 percent higher, on average, in poor democracies than in poor autocracies—an important fact, given that 70 percent of the population in poor countries is often rural-based.""poor democracies don't spend any more on their health and education sectors as a percentage of GDP than do poor autocracies, nor do they get higher levels of foreign assistance. They don't run up higher levels of budget deficits. They simply manage the resources that they have more effectively."[11]
  • The governance effectiveness of governments has a major impact on the delivery of socioeconomic outcomes for poor populations[56]
  • Weak rule of law can discourage investment and thus perpetuate poverty.[57]
  • Poor management of resource revenues can mean that rather than lifting countries out of poverty, revenues from such activities as oil production or gold mining actually leads to a resource curse.
  • Failure by governments to provide essential infrastructure worsens poverty.[49][58].
  • Poor access to affordable education traps individuals and countries in cycles of poverty.[49]
  • High levels of corruption undermine efforts to make a sustainable impact on poverty. In Nigeria, for example, more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999.[59][60]

Demographics and Social Factors The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... The resource curse or paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth than countries without these natural resources. ...

Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime or incorporated governance has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ... In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... This article is about the emigration term. ... The term Matthew effect may refer to a number of ideas all centrally related to a parable in the Gospel of Matthew, depending on context: // Matthew effect derives its name from a line spoken by the Master in Jesuss parable of the talents in the Christian Bibles book... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... Ageism is discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of age. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... Gender discriminaton is discrimination based on gender. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ...

Effects of poverty

The effects of poverty may also be causes, as listed above, thus creating a "poverty cycle" operating across multiple levels, individual, local, national and global.


Those living in poverty and lacking access to essential health services, suffering hunger or even starvation,[76] experience mental and physical health problems which make it harder for them to improve their situation.[77] One third of deaths - some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day - are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people, most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990.[78] Those living in poverty suffer lower life expectancy. Every year nearly 11 million children living in poverty die before their fifth birthday. Those living in poverty often suffer from hunger.[79] 800 million people go to bed hungry every night.[80] Poverty increases the risk of homelessness.[81] There are over 100 million street children worldwide.[82] Increased risk of drug abuse may also be associated with poverty.[83] Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Bag lady redirects here. ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ...


Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship between poverty and poor health; while such infectious diseases result directly from poverty, they also perpetuate and deepen impoverishment by sapping personal and national health and financial resources. For example, malaria decreases GDP growth by up to 1.3% in some developing nations, and by killing tens of millions in sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS alone threatens “the economies, social structures, and political stability of entire societies”.[84][85] Diseases of poverty are diseases that overwhelmingly affect the poor; in many cases poverty is the leading risk factor for incidence of such disease, and some disease can (or allegedly) cause poverty. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Those living in poverty in the developed world, may suffer social isolation and rates of suicide may increase in conditions of poverty. Death of a breadwinner may decrease a household's resilience to poverty conditions and cause a dramatic worsening in their situation. Low income levels and poor employment opportunities for adults in turn create the conditions where households can depend on the income of child members. An estimated 218 million children aged 5 to 17 are in child labor worldwide, excluding child domestic labor.[86] Lacking viable employment opportunities those living in poverty may also engage in the informal economy, or in criminal activity, both of which may on a larger scale discourage investment in the economy, further perpetuating conditions of poverty. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ...


Low income and wealth levels undermine the ability of governments to levy taxes for public service provision, adding to the 'vicious circle' connecting the causes and effects of poverty. Lack of essential infrastructure, poor education and health services, and poor sanitation contribute to the perpetuation of poverty.[87] Poor access to affordable public education can lead to low levels of literacy, further entrenching poverty. Weak public service provision and high levels of poverty can increase states' vulnerability to natural disasters and make states more vulnerable to shocks in the international economy, such as those associated with rising fuel prices, or declining commodity prices.[88][89] Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ...


Areas strongly affected by poverty tend to be more violent. In one survey, 67% of children from disadvantaged inner cities said they had witnessed a serious assault, and 33% reported witnessing a homicide.[90] 51% of fifth graders from New Orleans (median income for a household: $27,133) have been found to be victims of violence, compared to 32% in Washington, DC (mean income for a household: $40,127).[91] The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


The capacity of the state is further undermined by the problem that people living in poverty may be more vulnerable to extremist political persuasion, and may feel less loyalty to a state unable to deliver basic services. For these reasons conditions of poverty may increase the risk of political violence, terrorism, war and genocide, and may make those living in poverty vulnerable to human trafficking, internal displacement and exile as refugees. Countries suffering widespread poverty may experience loss of population, particularly in high-skilled professions, through emigration, which may further undermine their ability to improve their situation. Terrorist redirects here. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ...


Poverty reduction

Main article: Poverty reduction

In politics, the fight against poverty is usually regarded as a social goal and many governments have institutions or departments dedicated to tackling poverty. One of the main debates in the field of poverty reduction is around the question of how actively the state should manage the economy and provide public services to tackle the problem of poverty. In the nineties, international development policies focused on a package of measures known and criticized as the "Washington Consensus" which involved reducing the scope of state activities, and reducing state intervention in the economy, reducing trade barriers and opening economies to foreign investment. Vigorous debate over these issues continues however, and most poverty reduction programs attempt to increase both the competitiveness of the economy and the viability of the state. Poverty reduction (or poverty alleviation) is any process which seeks to reduce the level of poverty in a community, or amongst a group of people or countries. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in 1987-88 by John Williamson to describe a relatively specific set of ten economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute a standard reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World...


Economic growth

World GDP per capita rapidly increased beginning with the Industrial Revolution.

The anti-poverty strategy of the World Bank depends heavily on reducing poverty through the promotion of economic growth.[92]. The World Bank argues that an overview of many studies shows that: Image File history File links World_GDP_per_capita_(1000-1998). ... Image File history File links World_GDP_per_capita_(1000-1998). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...

  • Growth is fundamental for poverty reduction, and in principle growth as such does not affect inequality.
  • Growth accompanied by progressive distributional change is better than growth alone.
  • High initial income inequality is a brake on poverty reduction.
  • Poverty itself is also likely to be a barrier for poverty reduction; and wealth inequality seems to predict lower future growth rates.[93]

Free market

What could broadly be called free market reforms represent one strategy for reducing poverty. For example, noted reductions in poverty in the 20th century have been in India and China, where hundreds of millions of people in the two countries grew out of poverty, mostly as a result of the abandonment of collective farming in China and the cutting of government red tape in India.[citation needed] This was critical in fostering their dramatic economic growth.[94] However, UN economists argue that for the market reforms to work, good infrastructure is needed, and for that the role of a strong state is important.[citation needed] For example, today, China is investing in railways, roads, ports and rural telephony in various African countries as part of its international strategy.[95] A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ...


The Global Competitiveness Report, the Ease of Doing Business Index, and the Index of Economic Freedom are annual reports, often used in academic research, ranking the worlds nations on factors argued to increase economic growth and reduce poverty. World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ...


Developing countries face a range of obstacles to trading competitively on international markets. Almost half of the budget of the European Union for example is directed to agricultural subsidies, which primarily benefit large multinational agribusinesses who form a powerful lobby.[96] Japan gave 47 billion dollars in 2005 in subsidies to its agricultural sector,[97] nearly four times the amount it gave in total foreign aid.[98] The US gives 3.9 billion dollars each year in subsidies to its cotton sector, including 25,000 growers, three times more in subsidies than the entire USAID budget for Africa, although America contributes a sum far larger than the 3.9 billion dollars through other agencies.[99] Critics argue that agricultural subsidies in the developed world drain taxation revenue, increase the end-prices paid by consumers, and discourage efficiency improvements, while retaliatory trade barriers unfairly undermine the competitiveness of agricultural and other exports in those industries in which developing countries would otherwise have a significant comparative advantages.[48] An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the supply of such commodities on international markets. ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ...


A now defunct theory for reducing poverty suggests that raising tariffs and import substitution leads to greater wealth by protecting the country from free trade. This theory was practiced highly between the 1950s and 1970s when it appeared to fail to develope wealth. The theory assumes a lack of trade barriers on incoming (often highly subsidized) goods from wealthier countries is also considered by some economists a driver of poverty[citation needed]. Most countries have some history of import substitution and direct government protection of and investment in local industries. The theory claims that reducing tariff receipts can lower a major source of government revenue & spending, while raising tariffs may improve the terms of trade for the poor.[100] However, practice has shown that high tariffs lead to a stagnation of economic growth and development and the costs of the tariffs are borne most heavily on the poor.[101] Import substitution industrialization (also called ISI) is a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a developing country should attempt to substitute products which it imports, mostly finished goods, with locally produced substitutes. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


Fair trade

Further information: Fair trade

Another approach to alleviating poverty is to implement Fair Trade which advocates the payment of a fair price as well as social and environmental standards in areas related to the production of goods. For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ... For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ...


Direct aid

  • The government can directly help those in need through cash transfers as a short term expedient. This has been applied with mixed results in most Western societies during the 20th century in what became known as the welfare state. Especially for those most at risk, such as the elderly and people with disabilities.
  • Private charity. Systems to encourage direct transfers to the poor by citizens organised into voluntary or not-for-profit groupings are often encouraged by the state through charitable trusts and tax deduction arrangements.

Occident redirects here. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... In modern usage, the practice of charity means the giving of help to those in need. ... A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ...

Development aid

Most developed nations give development aid to developing countries. The UN target for development aid is 0.7% of GDP; currently only a few nations achieve this. Some think tanks and NGOs have argued, however, that Western monetary aid often only serves to increase poverty and social inequality, either because it is conditioned with the implementation of harmful economic policies in the recipient countries [102], or because it's tied with the importing of products from the donor country over cheaper alternatives,[103] or because foreign aid is seen to be serving the interests of the donor more than the recipient.[104] Critics also argue that some of the foreign aid is stolen by corrupt governments and officials, and that higher aid levels erode the quality of governance. Policy becomes much more oriented toward what will get more aid money than it does towards meeting the needs of the people.[105] Victor Bout, one of the worlds most notorious arms dealers, told the New York Times how he saw firsthand in Angola, Congo and elsewhere "how Western donations to impoverished countries lead to the destruction of social and ecological balance, mutual resentment and eventually war."[106] "Once countries give money, they control you." he says. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... This article is about the institution. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Viktor Bout is a Russian arms dealer and former KGB officer. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Supporters argue that these problems may be solved with better auditing of how the aid is used.[105] Aid from non-governmental organizations may be more effective than governmental aid; this may be because it is better at reaching the poor and better controlled at the grassroots level.[107] As a point of comparison, the annual world military spending is over $1 trillion.[108] For other uses, see Audit (disambiguation). ... NGO redirects here. ...


Improving the environment and access of the poor

Numerous methods have been adduced to upgrade the situation of those in poverty, some contradictory to each other. Some of these mechanisms are:

  • Subsidized housing development.
  • Education, especially that directed at assisting the poor to produce food in underdeveloped countries.
  • Family planning to limit the numbers born into poverty and allow family incomes to better cover the existing family.
  • Subsidized health care.
  • Assistance in finding employment.
  • Subsidized employment (see also Workfare).
  • Encouragement of political participation and community organizing.
  • Implementation of fair property rights laws.
  • Reduction of regulatory burden and bureaucratic oversight.
  • Reduction of taxation on income and capital.
  • Reduction of government spending, including a reduction in borrowing and printing money.

Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ... Workfare is an alternative model to conventional Social Welfare systems. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ...

Millennium Development Goals

Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 is the first Millennium Development Goal. In addition to broader approaches, the Sachs Report (for the UN Millennium Project) [109] proposes a series of "quick wins", approaches identified by development experts which would cost relatively little but could have a major constructive effect on world poverty. The quick wins are: Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ...

A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... Fee-for-service is health care coverage in which doctors and other health care providers receive a fee for each service such as an office visit, test, procedure, or other health care service[1]. Fee-for-service health insurance plans typically allow patients to obtain care from doctors or hospitals... The term free school meal refers to a sum of money provided for individual pupils in schools throughout the United Kingdom to purchase a lunch time meal. ... Feminism is a diverse, competing, and often opposing collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... Community Health Community health is a discipline that concerns itself with the study and betterment of the health characteristics of a given community. ...

Other approaches

The Copenhagen Consensus was an attempt to rank global welfare improvement programs in terms of their urgency and cost-effectiveness; Direct Aid to combat HIV infection was determined to be the top priority. Copenhagen Consensus is a project which seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Another method in helping to fight poverty is to have commodity exchanges that will supply necessary information about national and perhaps international markets to the poor who would then know what products and where it is sold will bring better profits. For example, in Ethiopia, remote farmers, who do not have this information, produce crops that may not bring the best profits. When they sell their products to a local trader, who then sells to another trader, and another, the cost of the food rises before it finally reaches the consumer in large cities. Economist Gabre-Madhin proposes warehouses where farmers could have constant updates of the latest market prices, making the farmer think nationally, not locally. Each warehouse would have an independent neutral party that would test and grade the farmer's harvest, allowing traders in Addis Ababa, and potentially outside Ethiopia, to place bids on food, even if it is unseen. Thus, if the farmer gets five cents in one place he would get three times the price by selling it in another part of the country where there may be a drought.[110] This article is in need of attention. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


Some argue for a radical change of the economic system. There are several proposals for a fundamental restructuring of existing economic relations, and many of their supporters argue that their ideas would reduce or even eliminate poverty entirely if they were implemented. Such proposals have been put forward by both left-wing and right-wing groups: socialism, communism, anarchism, libertarianism, binary economics and participatory economics, among others. Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Binary economics is a heterodox theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ...


Proponents of such taxes argue that absolute or relative poverty can be reduced by progressive taxation, a wealth tax, and an inheritance tax. A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... Because of the broad term wealth, property tax, capital transfer taxes (inheritance tax, gift tax) and capital gains taxes are sometimes referred to as wealth taxes. // Net worth tax Some countrys governments will require declaration of the tax payers balance sheet (assets and liabilities), and from that ask for... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The IMF and member countries have produced Poverty Reduction Strategy papers or PRSPs.[111] Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) are in many ways the replacement for Structural Adjustment Programs, and are documents required by the IMF and World Bank before a country can be considered for debt relief within the HIPC programme. ...


In his book The End of Poverty (ISBN 1594200459),[112] a prominent economist named Jeffrey Sachs laid out a plan to eradicate global poverty by the year 2025. Following his recommendations, international organizations are working to help eradicate poverty worldwide with intervention in the areas of housing, food, education, basic health, agricultural inputs, safe drinking water, transportation and communications.[113] Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ...


Voluntary poverty

See also: Simple living

'Tis the gift to be simple,
'tis the gift to be free,
'tis the gift to come down where you ought to be,
And when we find ourselves in the place just right,
It will be in the valley of love and delight.
Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ...

Shaker song.[114]
St. Francis of Assisi renounces his worldly goods in a painting attributed to Giotto di Bondone.

Among some individuals, such as ascetics, poverty is considered a necessary or desirable condition, which must be embraced in order to reach certain spiritual, moral, or intellectual states. Poverty is often understood to be an essential element of renunciation in religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, whilst in Roman Catholicism it is one of the evangelical counsels. Certain religious orders also take a vow of poverty. For example, the Franciscan orders have traditionally forgone all individual and corporate forms of ownership. However, while individual ownership of goods and wealth is forbidden for Benedictines, following the Rule of St. Benedict, the monastery itself may possess both goods and money, and throughout history some monasteries have become very rich indeed.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (652x746, 92 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, Renunciation of Wordly Goods File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (652x746, 92 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Basilique Assise, Legend of St Francis, Renunciation of Wordly Goods File links The following pages link to this file: Francis of Assisi ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up renunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... A vow (Lat. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... St Benedict of Nursia The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ...


In this context of religious vows, poverty may be understood as a means of self-denial in order to place oneself at the service of others; Pope Honorius III wrote in 1217 that the Dominicans "lived a life of voluntary poverty, exposing themselves to innumerable dangers and sufferings, for the salvation of others". However, following Jesus' warning that riches can be like thorns that choke up the good seed of the word (Matthew 13:22), voluntary poverty is often understood by Christians as of benefit to the individual - a form of self-discipline by which one distances oneself from distractions from God.[citation needed] Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (b. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Etymology

The words "poverty" and "poor" came from Latin pauper = "poor", which originally came from pau- and the root of pario, i.e. "giving birth to not much" and referred to unproductive farmland or livestock. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


See also

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Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population below national poverty line. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... In economics and sociology, the cycle of poverty is the theory that poverty-stricken individuals tend to remain poor throughout their lives. ... Diseases of poverty are diseases that overwhelmingly affect the poor; in many cases poverty is the leading risk factor for incidence of such disease, and some disease can (or allegedly) cause poverty. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... The feminization of poverty is a phenomenon that has been observed in the United States since 1970 as female headed households accounted for a growing proportion of those below the poverty line. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... A fuel poor household is one which cannot afford to keep adequately warm at reasonable cost. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... Income disparity is an inequality in pay or salary for equal labor. ... Per capita income ratio (PPP) around the world in the year 2000. ... This article is about International Development. ... Calculated and estimated national average IQ. IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... IQ and the Wealth of Nations IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Children reading. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Pauperism (Lat. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. ... The term rural ghetto was coined by Osha Gray Davidson in the book Broken Heartland: The Rise of Americas Rural Ghetto and is used to describe the influx of poverty and neglect in the small towns of Midwestern United States that occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. ... Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. ... Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... The ten threats identified by the High Level Threat Panel of the United Nations are: Poverty Infectuous Disease Environmental degradation Inter-State War Civil War Genocide Other Atrocities (e. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. ... Working poor is a term used to describe individuals and families who maintain regular employment but remain in relative poverty due to low levels of pay and dependent expenses. ... // The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY) was a British and Irish coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilized around the UKs prominence in world politics in 2005 to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute... The Hunger Site is a click-to-donate site created in 1999, that gets sponsorship from advertisers in return for delivering users who will see their advertisements. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ...

Organizations and campaigns

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a think tank focused on reducing global poverty and inequality, headquartered in Washington, D.C. CGD was founded in November 2001 by Edward W. Scott, Jr. ... Child Poverty Action Group is a UK charity. ... Compassion International is a Christian child sponsorship organization dedicated to the long-term development of children living in poverty around the world. ... Free The Children Logo Free The Children is a charitable organization, founded in 1995 by international child rights advocate Craig Kielburger. ... The Grameen Bank (Bangla: গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক) is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh that makes small loans (known as microcredit) to the impoverished without requiring collateral. ... The Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) is an emerging worldwide alliance consisting of national platforms of campaigns to end poverty. ... The International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is celebrated every year on October 17 throughout the world. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... // The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY) was a British and Irish coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilized around the UKs prominence in world politics in 2005 to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute... The Mississippi Teacher Corps (MTC) is a two-year teaching program that recruits college graduates to teach in critical-need areas of Mississippi, specifically in the Mississippi Delta and Jackson, Mississippi. ... The Millennium Project is an initiative that focuses on research implementing the organizational means, operational priorities, and financing structures necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals or (MDGs). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

References

  1. ^ Youths' poverty, despair fuel violent unrest in France
  2. ^ a b The World Bank, 2007, Understanding Poverty [1]
  3. ^ Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, 2007, "How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?" Table 3, p. 28. [2]
  4. ^ World Bank, 14 November 2007, 'East Asia Remains Robust Despite US Slow Down' [3]
  5. ^ The Independent, 'Birth rates must be curbed to win war on global poverty', 31 January 2007 [4]
  6. ^ Worldbank.org reference
  7. ^ World Bank, 2007, Povcalnet Poverty Data [5]
  8. ^ The data can be replicated using World Bank 2007 Human Development Indicator regional tables, and using the default poverty line of $32.74 per month at 1993 PPP.
  9. ^ Institute of Social Analysis
  10. ^ Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, 2007, "How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?"[6]
  11. ^ The Eight Losers of Globalization By Guy Pfeffermann.
  12. ^ World Development Volume 33, Issue 1 , January 2005, Pages 1-19, Why Are We Worried About Income? Nearly Everything that Matters is Converging
  13. ^ Global Inequality Fades as the Global Economy Grows 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Xavier Sala-i-Martin]
  14. ^ The Disturbing "Rise" of Global Income Inequality by Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 2001
  15. ^ WORLD BANK HAS GOOD NEWS ABOUT FUTURE By ANDREW CASSEL The Philadelphia Inquirer. Dec. 30, 2006
  16. ^ Not a flash in the pan
  17. ^ Rector, Robert E. and Johnson, Kirk A., Understanding Poverty in America Executive Summary, Heritage Foundation, January 15, 2004 No. 1713
  18. ^ US Department of Human Services-FAQ Poverty Guidelines and Poverty
  19. ^ Frank, Ellen, Dr. Dollar: How Is Poverty Defined in Government Statistics? Dollars & Sense magazine, January/February 2006. Accessed April 13, 2008
  20. ^ Amartya Sen, 1985, Commodities and Capabilities, Amsterdam, New Holland, cited in Siddiqur Rahman Osmani, 2003, Evolving Views on Poverty: Concept, Assessment, and Strategy, [7]
  21. ^ A Glossary for Social Epidemiology Nancy Krieger, PhD, Harvard School of Public Health
  22. ^ Journal of Poverty
  23. ^ H Silver, 1994, social exclusion and social solidarity, in International Labour Review, 133 5-6
  24. ^ G Simmel, The poor, Social Problems 1965 13
  25. ^ P Townsend, 1979, Poverty in the UK, Penguin
  26. ^ {http://www1.worldbank.org/prem/poverty/voices/ Voices of the Poor}
  27. ^ Chapter on Voices of the Poor in David Moore's edited book The World Bank: Development, Poverty, Hegemony (University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2007)
  28. ^ Exploitation and Overexploitation in Societies Past and Present, Brigitta Benzing, Bernd Herrmann
  29. ^ The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization
  30. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land
  31. ^ Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025
  32. ^ Forest and Land Management in Imperial China By Nicholas K. Menzies
  33. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite
  34. ^ The Geography of Poverty and Wealth by Jeffrey D. Sachs, Andrew D. Mellinger, and John L. Gallup. From Scientific American magazine
  35. ^ Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared M. Diamond W. W. Norton & Company 1999
  36. ^ Global Water Shortages May Cause Food Shortages
  37. ^ Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
  38. ^ Big melt threatens millions, says UN
  39. ^ 2008: The year of global food crisis
  40. ^ The global grain bubble
  41. ^ The cost of food: Facts and figures
  42. ^ Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring
  43. ^ Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?
  44. ^ Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits
  45. ^ a b Western bankers and lawyers 'rob Africa of $150bn every year
  46. ^ The Mystery of Capital by Hernando de Soto (IMF)
  47. ^ Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto
  48. ^ a b Six Reasons to Kill Farm Subsidies and Trade Barriers
  49. ^ a b c Global Competitiveness Report 2006, World Economic Forum, Website
  50. ^ Hunger and Malnutrition paper by Jere R Behrman, Harold Alderman and John Hoddinott.
  51. ^ The long-run economic costs of AIDS: theory and an application to South Africa
  52. ^ The economic and social burden of malaria.
  53. ^ Poverty Issues Dominate WHO Regional Meeting
  54. ^ "Is Depression a Disease of Poverty?" 5 (1). 
  55. ^ "U.S. Chamber of Commerce Fact Sheet ". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  56. ^ Governance Matters IV. [8]
  57. ^ Ending Mass Poverty by Ian Vásquez
  58. ^ Infrastructure and Poverty Reduction: Cross-country Evidence Hossein Jalilian and John Weiss. 2004.
  59. ^ Transparency International FAQ
  60. ^ Nigeria's corruption totals $400 billion
  61. ^ Birth rates 'must be curbed to win war on global poverty The Independent. 31 January 2007.
  62. ^ Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
  63. ^ Demographic Transition by Keith Montgomery (Shows how population growth slows with industrialization.)
  64. ^ Brazil murder rate similar to war zone, data shows
  65. ^ Mexico: Drug Cartels a Growing Threat
  66. ^ WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually
  67. ^ The Paradox of Africa's Poverty By Tirfe Mammo. 1999. ISBN 1569020493. Gives credit to imperialism/colonialism as a cause as one of two major schools of thought.
  68. ^ Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America
  69. ^ Reflections on Colonial Legacy and Dependency in Indian Vocational Education and Training (VET): a societal and cultural perspective by Madhu Singh
  70. ^ Child poverty soars in eastern Europe
  71. ^ Study Finds Poverty Deepening in Former Communist Countries
  72. ^ Ethiopia rejects war criticism
  73. ^ Ending Poverty in Community (EPIC)
  74. ^ UN report slams India for caste discrimination
  75. ^ See, e.g., The Moral Doctrine of Poverty. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  76. ^ Forget oil, the new global crisis is food
  77. ^ Vikram Patel. "Is Depression a Disease of Poverty?". Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region 5 (1). 
  78. ^ The World Health Report, World Health Organization (See annex table 2)
  79. ^ Rising food prices curb aid to global poor
  80. ^ millenniumcampaign.org
  81. ^ Study: 744,000 homeless in United States
  82. ^ Street Children
  83. ^ Health warning over Russian youth
  84. ^ Economic costs of malaria
  85. ^ HIV/AIDS and Poverty
  86. ^ UNICEF - Child labor
  87. ^ Urban and Slum Trends in the 21st Century By Eduardo Lopez Moreno and Rasna Warah
  88. ^ Dealing with Increased Risk of Natural Disasters: Challenges and Options PK Freeman, M Keen, M Mani - 2003
  89. ^ Social Protection and Risk Management at worldbank.org
  90. ^ Atkins, M. S., McKay, M., Talbott, E., & Arvantis, P. (1996). "DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams," School Psychology Review, 25, 274-283. Citing: Bell, C. C., & Jenkins, E. J. (1991). "Traumatic stress and children," Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2, 175-185.
  91. ^ Atkins, M. S., McKay, M., Talbott, E., & Arvantis, P. (1996). "DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams," School Psychology Review, 25, 274-283. Citing: Osofsky, J. D., Wewers, S., Harm, D. M., & Fick, A. C. (1993). "Chronic community violence: What is happening to our children?," Psychiatry, 56, 36-45; and, Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P (1993). "The NIMH community violence project: Vol. 1. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence," Psychiatry, 56, 7-21.
  92. ^ PovertyNet worldbank.org
  93. ^ Poverty, Growth, and Inequality worldbank.org
  94. ^ [9]Can aid bring an end to poverty
  95. ^ [10] China becomes Africa's suitor
  96. ^ Oxfam:Stop the dumping!
  97. ^ OECD Producer Support Estimate By Country
  98. ^ OECD Development Aid At a Glance By Region
  99. ^ Cultivating Poverty The Impact of US Cotton Subsidies on Africa
  100. ^ The Torrens 1884 Optimal Tariff Argument was advanced as an Indonesian poverty-reduction strategy, for example. See: Indonesia rice tariff.. The general theory is described in Optimal Tariff Argument. and International Trade Theory and Policy.
  101. ^ http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres00_e/pr181_e.htm
  102. ^ Haiti's rice farmers and poultry growers have suffered greatly since trade barriers were lowered in 1994. By Jane Regan
  103. ^ Tied Aid Strangling Nations, Says U.N. by Thalif Deen
  104. ^ US and Foreign Aid, GlobalIssues.org
  105. ^ a b MYTH: More Foreign Aid Will End Global Poverty
  106. ^ Arms and the Man New York Times Retrieved on March 25, 2008
  107. ^ Does Foreign Aid Reduce Poverty? Empirical Evidence from Nongovernmental and Bilateral Aid
  108. ^ SIPRI Yearbook 2006
  109. ^ UN Millennium Project
  110. ^ Market approach recasts often-hungry Ethiopia as potential bread basket
  111. ^ Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)
  112. ^ Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty Time, March 6, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  113. ^ Sachs J (2007). "Jeffrey Sachs, PhD: Ending extreme poverty, improving the human condition. Interview by M J Friedrich". JAMA 298 (16): 1849–51. doi:10.1001/jama.298.16.1849. PMID 17954530. 
  114. ^ Simple Gifts
  115. ^ endpoverty2015.org - United Nations Millennium Campaign
  116. ^ standagainstpoverty.org - United Nations Millennium Campaign

Dollars & Sense is a magazine dedicated to providing left-wing perspectives on economics. ... Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... Solidarity in sociology refers to the feeling or condition of unity based on common goals, interests, and sympathies among a groups members. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel Robert Torrens (1780 – 1864) was a British army officer and owner of the influential Globe newspaper. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • World Bank, Can South Asia End Poverty in a Generation?
  • "Educate a Woman, You Educate a Nation" - South Africa Aims to Improve its Education for Girls WNN - Women News Network. Aug. 28, 2007. Lys Anzia
  • Atkinson, Anthony B. Poverty in Europe 1998
  • Betson, David M., and Jennifer L. Warlick "Alternative Historical Trends in Poverty." American Economic Review 88:348-51. 1998. in JSTOR
  • Brady, David "Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty" Social Forces 81#3 2003, pp. 715-751 Online in Project Muse. Abstract: Reviews shortcomings of the official U.S. measure; examines several theoretical and methodological advances in poverty measurement. Argues that ideal measures of poverty should: (1) measure comparative historical variation effectively; (2) be relative rather than absolute; (3) conceptualize poverty as social exclusion; (4) assess the impact of taxes, transfers, and state benefits; and (5) integrate the depth of poverty and the inequality among the poor. Next, this article evaluates sociological studies published since 1990 for their consideration of these criteria. This article advocates for three alternative poverty indices: the interval measure, the ordinal measure, and the sum of ordinals measure. Finally, using the Luxembourg Income Study, it examines the empirical patterns with these three measures, across advanced capitalist democracies from 1967 to 1997. Estimates of these poverty indices are made available.
  • Buhmann, Brigitte, Lee Rainwater, Guenther Schmaus, and Timothy M. Smeeding. 1988. "Equivalence Scales, Well-Being, Inequality, and Poverty: Sensitivity Estimates Across Ten Countries Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Database." Review of Income and Wealth 34:115-42.
  • Cox, W. Michael, and Richard Alm. Myths of Rich and Poor 1999
  • Danziger, Sheldon H., and Daniel H. Weinberg. "The Historical Record: Trends in Family Income, Inequality, and Poverty." Pp. 18-50 in Confronting Poverty: Prescriptions for Change, edited by Sheldon H. Danziger, Gary D. Sandefur, and Daniel. H. Weinberg. Russell Sage Foundation. 1994.
  • Firebaugh, Glenn. "Empirics of World Income Inequality." American Journal of Sociology (2000) 104:1597-1630. in JSTOR
  • Gans, Herbert, J., "The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All", Social Policy, July/August 1971: pp. 20-24
  • George, Abraham, Wharton Business School Publications - Why the Fight Against Poverty is Failing: A Contrarian View
  • Gordon, David M. Theories of Poverty and Underemployment: Orthodox, Radical, and Dual Labor Market Perspectives. 1972.
  • Haveman, Robert H. Poverty Policy and Poverty Research. University of Wisconsin Press 1987.
  • John Iceland; Poverty in America: A Handbook University of California Press, 2003
  • Alice O'Connor; "Poverty Research and Policy for the Post-Welfare Era" Annual Review of Sociology, 2000
  • Osberg, Lars, and Kuan Xu. "International Comparisons of Poverty Intensity: Index Decomposition and Bootstrap Inference." The Journal of Human Resources 2000. 35:51-81.
  • Paugam, Serge. "Poverty and Social Exclusion: A Sociological View." Pp. 41-62 in The Future of European Welfare, edited by Martin Rhodes and Yves Meny, 1998.
  • Rothman, David J., (editor). "The Almshouse Experience", in series Poverty U.S.A.: The Historical Record, 1971. ISBN 0405030924
  • Amartya Sen; Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation Oxford University Press, 1982
  • Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom (1999)
  • Smeeding, Timothy M., Michael O'Higgins, and Lee Rainwater. Poverty, Inequality and Income Distribution in Comparative Perspective. Urban Institute Press 1990.
  • Triest, Robert K. "Has Poverty Gotten Worse?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 1998. 12:97-114.
  • World Bank, "World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work For Poor People", 2004.
  • Frank, Ellen, Dr. Dollar: How Is Poverty Defined in Government Statistics? Dollars & Sense, January/February 2006
  • Bergmann, Barbara. "Deciding Who's Poor", Dollars & Sense, March/April 2000

The Luxembourg Income Study, asbl (LIS) is a non-profit project which produces a cross-national database of micro-economic income data for social science research. ... Herbert J. Gans (1927– ) is an American sociologist. ... Dr. Abraham M. George is the founder of The George Foundation (TGF), a non-profit organization based in Bangalore, India, that is dedicated to the welfare of economically and socially disadvantaged people. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Dollars & Sense is a magazine dedicated to providing left-wing perspectives on economics. ... Dollars & Sense is a magazine dedicated to providing left-wing perspectives on economics. ...

External links

  • World Bank Data and Analysis on Poverty and Economic Growth in South Asia
  • The Crime of Poverty by Henry George
  • Global Distribution of Poverty Global poverty datasets and map collection
  • Why Poor Countries are Poor
  • The End of Poverty - an interview with Jeff Sachs - Yale Economic Review
  • Fighting Hunger and poverty in Ethiopia (Peter Middlebrook)
  • Poverty in the United States, by Isabel V. Sawhill. Concise encyclopedia of economics on Econlib
  • Poverty on the World Bank portal
  • Poverty Eradication - UN Division for Social Development
  • Education Is The Key To Reducing Poverty, Omedia
  • Causes of Poverty, GlobalIssues.org
  •   "Poverty and Pauperism". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  • The freedom to be frugal Molly Scott Cato
  • PPHP: Global Poverty Forecast
  • Poverty in the UK and beyond

Dr. Peter J. Middlebrook (born in Lincoln, U.K., 15 November 1965) is a leading English political economist / Political Scientistspecialising in the reconstruction and development of Transitionand post conflict economies. ... The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (CEE) is a widely-used encyclopedia of economics. ... The Library of Economics and Liberty (econlib. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
2005 Federal Poverty Guidelines (757 words)
The poverty guidelines are sometimes loosely referred to as the “federal poverty level” (FPL), but that phrase is ambiguous and should be avoided, especially in situations (e.g., legislative or administrative) where precision is important.
The poverty guidelines are not defined for Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau.
The poverty guidelines (unlike the poverty thresholds) are designated by the year in which they are issued.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Poverty (2707 words)
It is the apostolic poverty of the Christian religion which is practised in the highest degree by missionaries in pagan countries, and to a certain degree by all priests: all these voluntarily give up certain possessions and advantages in order to devote themselves entirely to the service of God.
Voluntary poverty is the object of one of the evangelical counsels.
The vow of poverty is ordinarily attached to a religious profession; a person may however bind himself to a modest and frugal life, or even to follow the direction of an adviser in the use of his property.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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