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Encyclopedia > Pound (mass)
Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
"Lbs" redirects here; for the acronym dismbiguation page, see LBS
This article deals with the unit of mass; for the unit of force see Pound-force.

The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. A number of different definitions have been used the most commonly used today being the international avoirdupois pound of exactly 453.59237 grams. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... LBS is a three-letter abbreviation which may mean: Lexington Broadcast Services Liberty Broadcasting System, a defunct radio network Location-based service London Business School Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Local Bike Shop La Bacheca Sportiva [1] Lipopolysaccharide See also: Pound (abbreviated as lb) Category: ... In the physical sciences, mass and weight are different properties. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... Number sign is one name for the symbol #, and is the preferred Unicode name for the codepoint represented by that glyph. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This article is about post-1824 imperial units, see also English unit, U.S. customary units or Avoirdupois. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


The word pound comes from the Latin word pendere, meaning "to weigh". The Latin word libra means "scales, balances" and it also describes a Roman unit of mass similar to a pound. This is the origin of the abbreviation "lb" or "" for the pound. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Digital kitchen scales. ...

Contents

Definitions

Historically, in different parts of the world, at different points in time, and for different applications, the pound (or its translation) has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or weight.


English pounds

A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in England. Amongst these are the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete Troy, tower, merchant's and London pounds.[1] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


There is an historical link between the pound as a unit of mass and the pound as a unit of currency. Originally the pound sterling was equivalent to the value a Tower pound of silver (worth about £79 or about $158 US[2] today). In 1528, the standard was changed to the Troy pound (worth about £84 or $168 today). GBP redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

English pounds
Pounds Ounces Grains Grams
Pound avdp. troy tower merc. London metric avdp. troy tower
Avoirdupois 1 175144 3527 2827 3536 1011 16 14+712 15+59 7000 453.59
Troy/ap. 144175 1 1615 6475 45 34 13+29175 12 12+45 5760 373.24
Tower 2735 1516 1 45 34 710 12+1235 11+14 12 5400 349.91
Merchant 2728 7564 54 1 1516 78 15+37 14+116 15 6750 437.39
London 3635 54 43 1615 1 1415 16+1635 15 16 7200 466.55
See also: English units

The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ...

Avoirdupois pound

The avoirdupois pound was invented by London merchants in 1303. Originally it was based on independent standards measured to be about 7,002 troy grains. The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French IPA: ) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ...


During the reign of Henry VIII of England, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since then, the grain has often been considered as a part of the avoirdupois system. Henry VIII redirects here. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ...


In the United Kingdom, the avoirdupois pound was defined as a unit of mass by the Weights and Measures Act of 1878, but having a different value (in relation to the kilogram) than it does now, of approximately 0.453592338 kg. (This was a measured quantity, with the independently maintained artifact still serving as the official standard for this pound.) This old value is sometimes called the imperial pound, and this definition and terminology are obsolete unless referring to the slightly-different 1878 definition.


In the United States, the (avoirdupois) pound as a unit of mass has been officially defined in terms of the kilogram since 1893. In 1893, the relationship was specified to be 2.20462 pounds per kilogram. In 1894, the relationship was specified to be 2.20462234 pounds per kilogram. This change followed a determination of the British pound. The current international pound differs from the United States 1894 pound by approximately one part in 10 million.[3] Kg redirects here. ...


International pound

In 1958 the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. The international avoirdupois pound was defined as exactly 453.59237 grams. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963.[4]

The yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom; and- (a) the yard shall be 0·9144 metre exactly;(b) the pound shall be 0·453 592 37 kilogram exactly.

Weights and Measures Act, 1963, Section 1(1)

An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, and an (international) grain is thus equal to exactly 64.79891 milligrams. This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Troy pound

The troy pound takes its name from the French market town of Troyes in France where English merchants traded at least as early as the time of Charlemagne (early ninth century). The system of Troy weights was used in England by apothecaries and jewellers. Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals, black powder, and gemstones. ... City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains. Today, the grain is common to the avoirdupois and troy systems of units of mass making an international troy pound equal to 373.241721 grams.


The troy pound is no longer in general use. In Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and other places the troy pound is no longer a legal unit for trade. In the United Kingdom, the use of the troy pound was abolished on 6 January 1879. The troy ounce is still used for measurements of precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum, and sometimes gems such as opals. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Most measurements of the mass of precious metals using pounds refer to troy pounds, even though it is not always explicitly stated that this is the case. Some notable exceptions are:

  • Encyclopædia Britannica which uses either avoirdupois pounds or troy ounces, likely never both in the same article, and
  • the mass of Tutankhamun's sarcophagus lid. This is 110 kilograms. It is often stated to have been 242 or 243 (avoirdupois) pounds but sometimes, much less commonly, it is stated as 296 (troy) pounds.

King Tut redirects here. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ...

Tower pound

The tower pound was based on the wheat grain unlike all the other English measures, where the grain was based on the barley grain.

1 tower pound 7,200 tower grains 5,400 troy grains
1 tower ounce = 600 tower grains = 450 troy grains
1 tower pennyweight  = 30 tower grains = 22½ troy grains

Merchants' pound

The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria or commercial pound) was equal to 9,600 wheat grains (15 tower ounces or 6,750 grains). It was used in England until the 14th century for most goods (other than money, spices and electuaries).[5] An electuary is a medicinal paste composed of powders, or other ingredients, incorporated with some jam, honey, syrup, etc, for the purposes of oral consumption. ...


London pound

A London pound was equal to 7,200 troy grains (16 tower ounces or, equivalently, 15 troy ounces).

1 London pound 1⅓ tower pounds 7,200 troy grains
1 London ounce = 1 tower ounce = 450 troy grains
1 London pennyweight  = 1 tower pennyweight = 22½ troy grains

Wool pound

The wool pound was equal to 6,992 grains. It was a unit of mass used to measure the quantity of wool.[6] For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Roman libra

The libra (Latin for "pound") is an ancient Roman unit of mass that was equivalent to approximately 327 grams. It was divided into 12 uncia, or ounces. The libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, lb. The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Greek system with Egyptian influences. ...


French livre

Since the Middle Ages various pounds have been used in France. The word pound translates to livre in French, a word which continues to be used today to refer to a metric pound.


The livre esterlin was equivalent to about 367.1 grams (5,665 gr) and was used between the late ninth and the mid-fourteenth centuries.[7]


The livre poids de marc or livre de Paris was equivalent to about 489.5 grams (7,555 gr) and was used between the 1350s and the late 18th century.[7]. It was introduced by the government of John II. John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ...


The livre métrique was set equal to the kilogram by the decree of 13 Brumaire an IX between 1800 and 1812. This was a form of official metric pound.[7]


The livre usuelle was set equal to 500 grams, by the decree of 28 March 1812. It was abolished as a unit of mass effective 1 January 1840 by a decree of 4 July 1837.[7] Mesures usuelles (French for customary measurements) were a system of measurement introduced to act as compromise between metric system and traditional measurements. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

See also: French units of measurement

In France, before the decimalised metric system of 1799, a well-defined old system existed, however with some local variants. ...

Russian funt

The Russian pound (Фунт, funt) is an obsolete Russian unit of measurement of mass. It is equal to 409.5124 g. A native system of weights and measures was used in Imperial Russia and after the Russian Revolution, but it was abandoned in 1924 when the Soviet Union adopted the metric system. ...


Jersey pound

A Jersey pound is an obsolete unit of mass used on the island of Jersey from the 14th century to the 19th century. It was equivalent to about 7,561 grains. It may have been derived from the French livre poids de marc.[8]


Trone pound

The trone pound is one of a number of obsolete Scottish units of measurement. It was equivalent to between 21 to 28 avoirdupois ounces. Several native system of weights and measures were used in Scotland. ...


Metric pounds

In many countries upon the introduction of a metric system, the pound (or its translation) became an informal term for half of a kilogram or 500 grams, often following an official redefinition of an existing unit during the 19th century. The Dutch pond is an exception. It was officially redefined as 1 kilogram, with an ounce of 100 grams. If the pound is used in the Netherlands today it is likely to refer to 500 grams; the former definition is no longer used. However, the 100-gram ounce remains in limited use. In daily life pond is exclusively used for amounts of 500-grams, as is ons for 100 grams. The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... Kg redirects here. ...


In German the term is Pfund, in French livre, in Dutch pond, in Spanish and Portuguese libra, and in Italian libbra. The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ...


Hundreds of older pounds were replaced in this way. Examples of the older pounds are one of around 459 to 460 grams in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America; one of 498.1 grams in Norway; and several different ones in what is now Germany.


Although the use of the pound as an informal term persists in these countries to a varying degree, scales and measuring devices are denominated only in grams and kilograms. A pound of product must be determined by weighing the product in grams. The use of the term pound is usually forbidden for official use in trade.


Use in commerce

In the United States of America the United States Department of Commerce, the Technology Administration, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have defined the use of mass and weight in the exchange of goods under the Uniform Laws and Regulations in the areas of legal metrology and engine fuel quality in NIST Handbook 130. The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... The Technology Administration (TA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that works with United States industries to promote economic competitiveness. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... Metrology (from Greek metron (measure), and -logy) is the science of measurement. ...


NIST Handbook 130 states:

V. "Mass" and "Weight." [NOTE 1, See page 6]
The mass of an object is a measure of the object’s inertial property, or the amount of matter it contains. The weight of an object is a measure of the force exerted on the object by gravity, or the force needed to support it. The pull of gravity on the earth gives an object a downward acceleration of about 9.8 m/s2. In trade and commerce and everyday use, the term "weight" is often used as a synonym for "mass." The "net mass" or "net weight" declared on a label indicates that the package contains a specific amount of commodity exclusive of wrapping materials. The use of the term "mass" is predominant throughout the world, and is becoming increasingly common in the United States. (Added 1993)
W. Use of the Terms "Mass" and "Weight." [NOTE 1, See page 6]
When used in this handbook, the term "weight" means "mass." The term "weight" appears when inch-pound units are cited, or when both inch-pound and SI units are included in a requirement. The terms "mass" or "masses" are used when only SI units are cited in a requirement. The following note appears where the term "weight" is first used in a law or regulation.
NOTE 1: When used in this law (or regulation), the term "weight" means "mass." (See paragraph V. and W. in Section I., Introduction, of NIST Handbook 130 for an explanation of these terms.) (Added 1993) 6"

U.S. federal law, which supersedes this handbook, also defines weight, particularly Net Weight, in terms of the avoirdupois pound or mass pound. From 21CFR101 Part 101.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt:

(a) The principal display panel of a food in package form shall bear a declaration of the net quantity of contents. This shall be expressed in the terms of weight, measure, numerical count, or a combination of numerical count and weight or measure. The statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the food is liquid, or in terms of weight if the food is solid, semisolid, or viscous, or a mixture of solid and liquid; except that such statement may be in terms of dry measure if the food is a fresh fruit, fresh vegetable, or other dry commodity that is customarily sold by dry measure. If there is a firmly established general consumer usage and trade custom of declaring the contents of a liquid by weight, or a solid, semisolid, or viscous product by fluid measure, it may be used. Whenever the Commissioner determines that an existing practice of declaring net quantity of contents by weight, measure, numerical count, or a combination in the case of a specific packaged food does not facilitate value comparisons by consumers and offers opportunity for consumer confusion, he will by regulation designate the appropriate term or terms to be used for such commodity.
(b)(1) Statements of weight shall be in terms of avoirdupois pound and ounce.

See also 21CFR201 Part 201.51 - "Declaration of net quantity of contents" for general labeling and prescription labeling requirements.


From paragraph "a" above, although the avoirdupois pound is a measure of mass, in commerce it is used with the term "Net Weight", because "there is a firmly established general consumer usage and trade custom of declaring the contents of a liquid by weight, or a solid..."


References

  1. ^ Grains and drams, ounces and pounds, stones and tons.
  2. ^ In the above calculations, these numbers were used: Silver is about $14 per troy oz today, and there are 11.25 troy oz in 5,400 grains. There are approximately 2 USD($) to the GBP(£).
  3. ^ United States National Bureau of Standards (1959-06-25). Notices "Refinement of values for the yard and the pound". Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  4. ^ Quoted by Laws LJ in [2002] EWHC 195 (Admin). Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  5. ^ Zupko, Ronald (1985-12-01). Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles: The Middle Ages to the 20th Century. DIANE Publishing. ISDN 087169168X. 
  6. ^ English Weights & Measures. Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  7. ^ a b c d Sizes, Inc. (2001-03-16). Pre-metric French units of mass livre and smaller. Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  8. ^ Sizes, Inc. (2003-07-28). Jersey pound. Retrieved on 2006-08-12.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Conversion between units


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pound (mass) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1967 words)
The pound is the name of a number of units of mass, all in the range of 300 to 600 grams.
In many countries that use the SI or metric system, the pound (or its translation, for example, the German Pfund, the French livre, the Dutch pond, the Spanish and Portuguese libras, or the Chinese jin) is used as an informal term for half of a kilogram, therefore for this case the pound is 500 grams.
Pounds are also used for the force definitions of weight, as well as for other forces, in which the pound force is a unit of force equal to 4.448 newtons.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Pound (1712 words)
In many countries that use the SI or metric system, the pound (or its translation, for example, the German Pfund, the French livre, or the Dutch pond) is used as an informal term for half of a kilogram, therefore for this case the pound is 500 grams.
Pounds are also used for the force definitions of weight, in which the pound force is a unit of force equal to 4.448 newtons.
Although the U.S. National Bureau of Standards[1] has defined the pound as a unit of mass, and the pound-force as a unit of force, this distinction is not widely recognized among working physicists, because the fps system has not been used in physics, even in the U.S., since the early 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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