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Encyclopedia > Pottery
Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India.
Unfired "green ware" pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum.

Pottery is the ceramic ware made by potters. It also refers to a group of materials that includes earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. The places where such wares are made are called potteries. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Dilli Haat is a food plaza/craft bazaar located in the heart of Delhi. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1981x2118, 1148 KB) Summary Green ware pottery drying on a traditional rack before firing at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1981x2118, 1148 KB) Summary Green ware pottery drying on a traditional rack before firing at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... 1886 base ball demonstration at Liberty Corner. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Pottery is made by forming a clay body into objects of a required shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln to induce reactions that lead to permanent changes, including increasing their strength and hardening and setting their shape. There are wide regional variations in the properties of clays used by potters and this often helps to produce wares that are unique in character to a locality. It is common for clays and other minerals to be mixed to produce clay bodies suited to specific purposes; for example, a clay body that remains slightly porous after firing is often used for making earthenware or terra cotta flower-pots. A potter creates a bowl on her electric-powered pottery wheel. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ...


Prior to most shaping processes, air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed. This is called de-airing and can be accomplished by a machine called a vacuum pug, or manually by wedging. Wedging can also help to ensure an even moisture content throughout the body. Once clay body has been de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After shaping it is dried before firing. There are a number of stages in the drying process. Leather-hard refers to the stage when the clay object is approximately 75-85% dry. Trimming and handle attachment often occurs at the leather-hard state. A clay object is said to be "bone-dry" when it reaches a moisture content at or near 0%. Unfired objects are often termed greenware. A potter creates a bowl on her electric-powered pottery wheel. ...


Methods of shaping

A man shapes pottery as it turns on a wheel. (Cappadocia, Turkey).

The potter's most basic tools are the hand, but many additional tools have been developed over the long history of pottery manufacture, including the potter's wheel and turntable, shaping tools (paddles, anvils, ribs), rolling tools (roulettes, slab rollers, rolling pins), cutting/piercing tools (knives, fluting tools, wires) and finishing tools (burnishing stones, rasps, chamois). Man shaping pottery File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Man shaping pottery File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ...


Pottery can be shaped by a range of methods that include:

Handwork pottery in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Handwork or handbuilding. This is the earliest and the most individualized and direct forming method. Wares can be constructed by hand from coils of clay, from flat slabs of clay, from solid balls of clay — or some combination of these. Parts of hand-built vessels are often joined together with the aid of slurry or slip, a runny mixture of clay and water. Handbuilding is slower and more gradual than wheel-throwing, but it offers the potter a high degree of control over the size and shape of wares. While it isn't difficult for an experienced potter to make identical pieces of hand-built pottery, the speed and repetitiveness of wheel-throwing is more suitable for making precisely matched sets of wares such as table wares. Some potters find handbuilding more conducive to fully using the imagination to create one-of-a-kind works of art, while other potters find the spontaneity and immediacy of wheel-thrown pottery as their source of inspiration. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2289 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2289 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tableware are the cutlery, eating utensils (such as forks, knives and spoons), drinkware, and dishware used when setting a table for dining. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

Shaping on a potter's kick wheel; Gülşehir, Turkey
Classic potter's kick wheel in Erfurt, Germany
A potter in Memphis, Tennessee shapes a piece of pottery on a variable-speed, electric-powered potter's wheel

The potter's wheel. A ball of clay is placed in the center of a turntable, called the wheel-head, which the potter rotates with a stick, or with foot power (a kick wheel or treadle wheel) or with a variable speed electric motor. (Often, a disk of plastic, wood or plaster — called a bat — is first set on the wheel-head, and the ball of clay is thrown on the bat rather than the wheel-head so that the finished piece can be removed intact with its bat, without distortion.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 706 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 706 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... GülÅŸehir is a town and a district of NevÅŸehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey in the vicinity of the Fairy Chimney valley of Göreme. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x972, 441 KB) de: Beschreibung: Töpferscheibe auf dem Töpfermarkt in Erfurt, Germany Fotograf: Oliver Kurmis Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Erfurt Datum: 23. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x972, 441 KB) de: Beschreibung: Töpferscheibe auf dem Töpfermarkt in Erfurt, Germany Fotograf: Oliver Kurmis Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Erfurt Datum: 23. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 498 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2016 × 2425 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 498 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2016 × 2425 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... A treadle is a part of a machine which, when operated by the foot, gives the power to turn a wheel in the machine. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ...


During the process of throwing the wheel rotates rapidly while the solid ball of soft clay is pressed, squeezed, and pulled gently upwards and outwards into a hollow shape. The first step, of pressing the rough ball of clay downward and inward into perfect rotational symmetry, is called centering the clay, a most important (and often most difficult) skill to master before the next steps: opening (making a centered hollow into the solid ball of clay), flooring (making the flat or rounded bottom inside the pot), throwing or pulling (drawing up and shaping the walls to an even thickness), and trimming or turning (removing excess clay to refine the shape or to create a foot). The triskelion appearing on the Isle of Man flag. ...


The potter's wheel can be used for mass production, although often it is employed to make individual pieces. Wheel-work makes great demands on the skill of the potter, but an accomplished operator can make many near to identically similar plates, vases, or bowls in the course of a day's work. Because of its inherent limitations, wheel-work can only be used to create wares with radial symmetry on a vertical axis. These can then be altered by impressing, bulging, carving, fluting, faceting, incising, and by other methods making the wares more visually interesting. Often, thrown pieces are further modified by having handles, lids, feet, spouts, and other functional aspects added using the techniques of handworking. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... In biology, radial symmetry is a property of some multicellular organisms. ... Cartesian means relating to the French mathematician and philosopher Descartes, who, among other things, worked to merge algebra and Euclidean geometry. ... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In geometry, facetting (also spelled faceting) is the process of removing parts of a polygon, polyhedron or polytope, without creating any new vertices. ... Incised means cut, particularly with a V shape. ...


Jiggering and jolleying: These operations are carried out on the potter's wheel and allow the time taken to bring wares to a standardised form to be reduced. Jiggering is the operation of bringing a shaped tool into contact with the plastic clay of a piece under construction, the piece itself being set on a rotating plaster mould on the wheel. The jigger tool shapes one face whilst the mould shapes the other. Jiggering is used only in the production of flat wares, such as plates, but a similar operation, jolleying, is used in the production of hollow-wares, such as cups. Jiggering and jolleying have been used in the production of pottery since at least the 18th century. In large-scale factory production jiggering and jolleying are usually automated, which allows the operations to be carried out by semi-skilled labour. Look up jigger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A potter creates a bowl on her electric-powered pottery wheel. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Roller-head machine: This machine is for shaping wares on a rotating mould, as in jiggering and jolleying, but with a rotary shaping tool replacing the fixed profile. The rotary shaping tool is a shallow cone having the same diameter as the ware being formed and shaped to the desired form of the back of the article being made. Wares may in this way be shaped, using relatively unskilled labour, in one operation at a rate of about twelve pieces per minute, though this varies with the size of the articles being produced. The roller-head machine is now used in factories world-wide. A potter creates a bowl on her electric-powered pottery wheel. ... See: Rotary engine Rotary International Rotary milking shed rotary intersections This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


RAM pressing: A factory process for shaping table wares and decorative ware by pressing a bat of prepared clay body into a required shape between two porous moulding plates. After pressing, compressed air is blown through the porous mould plates to release the shaped wares. A RAM press (or ram press) is a machine, invented in the USA in the mid-1940s, that is used to press clay into moulded shapes, such as into plates and bowls. ...


Granulate pressing: As the name suggests, this is the operation of shaping pottery by pressing clay in a semi-dry and granulated condition in a mould. The clay is pressed into the mould by a porous die through which water is pumped at high pressure. The granulated clay is prepared by spray-drying to produce a fine and free flowing material having a moisture content of between about five and six per cent. Granulate pressing, also known as dust pressing, is widely used in the manufacture of ceramic tiles and, increasingly, of plates. Molding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a mold. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal or even glass. ...


Slipcasting: is often used in the mass-production of ceramics and is ideally suited to the making of wares that cannot be formed by other methods of shaping. A slip, made by mixing clay body with water, is poured into a highly absorbent plaster mould. Water from the slip is absorbed into the mould leaving a layer of clay body covering its internal surfaces and taking its internal shape. Excess slip is poured out of the mould, which is then split open and the moulded object removed. Slipcasting is widely used in the production of sanitary wares and is also used for making smaller articles, such as intricately-detailed figurines. Slipcasting is an easy technique for the mass-production of pottery, especially for shapes not easily made on a wheel. ... Slip in a ceramic context is made by mixing clays and other minerals with water and usually a deflocculant such as sodium silicate. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Glazing and decorating

Contemporary pottery from Okinawa, Japan.

Pottery may be decorated in a number of ways, including: Download high resolution version (700x936, 299 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (700x936, 299 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Okinawa redirects here. ...

  • In the clay body; by, for example, incising patterns on its surface.
  • Underglaze decoration, in the manner of many blue and white wares.
  • In-glaze decoration
  • On-glaze decoration
  • Enamel

Additives can be worked into the clay body prior to forming, to produce desired effects in the fired wares. Coarse additives, such as sand and grog (fired clay which has been finely ground) are sometimes used to give the final product a required texture. Contrasting colored clays and grogs are sometimes used to produce patterns in the finished wares. Colorants, usually metal oxides and carbonates, are added singly or in combination to achieve a desired colour. Combustible particles can be mixed with the body or pressed into the surface to produce texture. Underglaze is a method of decorating ceramic articles, the decoration is applied to the surface before it is glazed. ... In-glaze is a method of decorating ceramic articles, where the decoration is applied on the surface of the glaze before the glost fire so that it matures simultaneously with the glaze. ... In-glaze is a method of decorating ceramic articles, where the decoration is applied after it has been glazed. ... In a discussion of art or technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Grog (also called firesand) is a type of pre-fired clay that has been ground and screened to a specific particle size. ...


Agateware: So-named after its resemblance to the quartz mineral agate which has bands or layers of colour that are blended together. Agatewares are made by blending clays of differing colours together, but not mixing them to the extent that they lose their individual identities. The wares have a distinctive veined or mottled appearance. The term 'agateware' is used to describe such wares in the United Kingdom; in Japan the term neriage is used and in China, where such things have been made since at least the Tang Dynasty, they are called marbled wares. Great care is required in the selection of clays to be used for making agatewares as the clays used must have matching thermal movement characteristics. // Agateware Definiton: pottery decorated with or structural made containing a combination of contrasting colored clays. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Banding: This is the application, by hand or by machine, of a band of colour to the edge of a plate or cup. Also known as lining, this operation is often carried out on a potter's wheel. Banding is the procedure where rubber bands are tied around the veins which are bleeding, thereby cutting off the bleeding at those points. ...


Burnishing: The surface of pottery wares may be burnished prior to firing by rubbing with a suitable instrument of wood, steel or stone, to produce a polished finish that survives firing. It is possible to produce very highly polished wares when fine clays are used, or when the polishing is carried out on wares that have been partially dried and contain little water, though wares in this condition are extremely fragile and the risk of breakage is high. Burnishing is a form of pottery decoration in which the surface of the pot is polished, often using a spatula of wood or bone, while it is still in a leathery green state, i. ...

An ancient Armenian urn.

Engobe: This is a clay slip, often white or cream in colour, that is used to coat the surface of pottery, usually before firing. Its purpose is often decorative, though it can also be used to mask undesirable features in the clay to which it is applied. Engobe slip may be applied by painting or by dipping, to provide a uniform, smooth, coating. Engobe has been used by potters from pre-historic times until the present day, and is sometimes combined with sgraffito decoration, where a layer of engobe is scratched through to reveal the colour of the underlying clay. With care it is possible to apply a second coat of engobe of a different colour to the first and to incise decoration through the second coat to expose the colour of the underlying coat. Engobes used in this way often contain substantial amounts of silica, sometimes approaching the composition of a glaze. Armenian Urn by Dmn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Armenian Urn by Dmn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Renaissance façade with Sgraffito in Mödling, Lower Austria Scraffito on a workshop in Linz Windows decorated with Sgraffito in Zrenjanin, Serbia Sgraffito (scratched, plural Scraffiti and often also written Scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ...


Litho: This is a commonly used abbreviation for lithography, although the alternative names of transfer print or decal are also common. These are used to apply designs to articles. The litho comprises three layers: the colour, or image, layer which comprises the decorative design; the covercoat, a clear protective layer, which may incorporate a low-melting glass; and the backing paper on which the design is printed by screen printing or lithography. There are various methods of transferring the design while removing the backing-paper, some of which are suited to machine application Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Gold: Decoration with gold is used on some high quality ware. Different methods exist for its application, including:

  • Best gold - a suspension of gold powder in essential oils mixed with a flux and a mercury salt extended. This can be applied by a painting technique. From the kiln the decoration is dull and requires burnishing to reveal the full colour
  • Acid Gold – a form of gold decoration developed in the early 1860s at the English factory of Mintons Ltd, Stoke-on-Trent. The glazed surface is etched with diluted hydrofluoric acid prior to application of the gold. The process demands great skill and is used for the decoration only of ware of the highest class.
  • Bright Gold – consists of a solution of gold sulphoresinate together with other metal resinates and a flux. The name derives from the appearance of the decoration immediately after removal from the kiln as it requires no burnishing
  • Mussel Gold – an old method of gold decoration. It was made by rubbing together gold leaf, sugar and salt, followed by washing to remove solubles

For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Mintons Ltd, a major international ceramics manufacturing company, originated with Thomas Minton (1765-1836) the founder of Thomas Minton and Sons, who established his pottery factory in Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, England, in 1793, producing earthenware and from 1798 bone china. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Glazing

Main article: Ceramic glaze

Glaze is a glassy coating applied to pottery, the primary purposes of which include decoration and protection. Glazes are highly variable in composition but usually comprise a mixture of ingredients that generally, but not always, mature at kiln temperatures lower than that of the pottery that it coats. One important use of glaze is in rendering pottery vessels impermeable to water and other liquids. Glaze may be applied by dusting it over the clay, spraying, dipping, trailing or brushing on a thin slurry composed of glaze minerals and water. Brushing tends not to give an even covering but can be effective as a decorative technique. The colour of a glaze before it has been fired may be significantly different than afterwards. To prevent glazed wares sticking to kiln furniture during firing, either a small part of the object being fired (for example, the foot) is left unglazed or, alternatively, special refractory spurs are used as supports. These are removed and discarded after the firing. Special methods of glazing are sometimes carried out in the kiln. One example is salt-glazing, where common salt is introduced to the kiln to produce a glaze of mottled, orange peel texture. Materials other than salt are also used to glaze wares in the kiln, including sulphur. In wood-fired kilns fly-ash from the fuel can produce ash-glazing on the surface of wares. Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The type of pottery known as salt glaze or salted is created by adding common salt, a composition of sodium and chlorine, into the chamber of a hot kiln. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... Ash Glaze is a high temperature glaze for stoneware pottery that includes the ashes of trees, shrubs, plants or grasses within the glaze recipe. ...


Firing

Firing produces irreversible changes in the body. It is only after firing that the article can be called pottery. In lower-fired pottery the changes include sintering, the fusing together of coarser particles in the body at their points of contact with each other. In the case of porcelain, where different materials and higher firing-temperatures are used the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the constituents in the body are greatly altered. In all cases the object of firing is to permanently harden the wares and the firing regime must be appropriate to the materials used to make them. As rough guide, earthenwares are normally fired at temperatures in the range of about 1000 to 1200 degrees Celsius; stonewares at between about 1100 to 1300 degrees Celsius; and porcelains at between about 1200 to 1400 degrees Celsius. However, the way that ceramics mature in the kiln is influenced not only by the peak temperature achieved, but also by the duration of the period of firing. Thus, the maximum temperature within a kiln is often held constant for a period of time to soak the wares, to produce the maturity required in the body of the wares. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The atmosphere within a kiln during firing can affect the appearance of the finished wares. An oxidising atmosphere, produced by allowing air to enter the kiln, can cause the oxidation of clays and glazes. A reducing atmosphere, produced by limiting the flow of air into the kiln, can strip oxygen from the surface of clays and glazes. This can affect the appearance of the wares being fired and, for example, some glazes containing iron fire brown in an oxidising atmosphere, but green in a reducing atmosphere. The atmosphere within a kiln can be adjusted to produce complex effects in glaze. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...


Kilns may be heated by burning wood, coal and gas, or by electricity. When used as fuels, coal and wood can introduce smoke, soot and ash into the kiln which can affect the appearance of unprotected wares. For this reason wares fired in wood- or coal-fired kilns are often placed in the kiln in saggars; lidded ceramic boxes, to protect them. Modern kilns powered by gas or electricity are cleaner and more easily controlled than older wood- or coal-fired kilns and often allow shorter firing times to be used. In a Western adaptation of traditional Japanese Raku ware firing, wares are removed from the kiln while hot and smothered in ashes, paper or woodchips, which produces a distinctive, carbonised, appearance. This technique is also used in Malaysia in creating traditional labu sayung. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Saggars are boxlike containers made of high fire clay or specialized fireclay which are used to enclose pots needing special treatment in the kiln. ... A 16th century black Raku-style chawan, used for thick tea (Tokyo National Museum) // Rakuyaki (樂焼き) or Raku (樂) is a form of Japanese pottery characterized by low firing temperatures (resulting in a fairly porous body), lead glazes, and the removal of pieces from the kiln while still glowing hot. ... Carbonization is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue. ...


History

Earliest known ceramics are the Gravettian figurines that date to 29,000 to 25,000 BC
An Incipient Jōmon pottery vessel reconstructed from fragments (10,000-8,000 BCE), Tokyo National Museum, Japan
Pottery found at Çatal Höyük - sixth millennium BC

It is believed that the earliest pottery wares were hand-built and fired in bonfires. Firing times were short but the peak-temperatures achieved in the fire could be high, perhaps in the region of 900 degrees Celsius, and were reached very quickly. Clays tempered with sand, grit, crushed shell or crushed pottery were often used to make bonfire-fired ceramics, because they provided an open body texture that allows water and other volatile components of the clay to escape freely. The coarser particles in the clay also acted to restrain shrinkage within the bodies of the wares during cooling, which was carried out slowly to reduce the risk of thermal stress and cracking. In the main, early bonfire-fired wares were made with rounded bottoms, to avoid sharp angles that might be susceptible to cracking. The earliest intentionally constructed kilns were pit-kilns or trench-kilns; holes dug in the ground and covered with fuel. Holes in the ground provided insulation and resulted in better control over firing. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (482x1014, 416 KB)Scan of accurate museum reproduction of the Venus of Dolní Věstonice. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (482x1014, 416 KB)Scan of accurate museum reproduction of the Venus of Dolní Věstonice. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... Pit fired pottery is the oldest known method of firing clay-- and the ultimate source of all the modern firing variations used by potters. ...


The earliest known ceramic objects are Gravettian figurines such as those discovered at Dolni Vestonice in the modern-day Czech Republic. The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická Venuše in Czech) is a Venus figurine, a statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry).[1] The earliest known pottery vessels may be those made by the Incipient Jōmon people of Japan around 10,500 BCE[2] [3]. The term "Jōmon" means "cord-marked" in Japanese. This refers to the markings made on clay vessels and figures using sticks with cords wrapped around them. Pottery which dates back to 10,000 BCE have also been excavated in China.[4] It appears that pottery was independently developed in North Africa during the tenth millennium b.p.[5] and in South America during the seventh millennium b.p.[6] The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice The Venus of Dolní VÄ›stonice (VÄ›stonická VenuÅ¡e in Czech) is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry). ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The invention of the potter's wheel in Mesopotamia sometime between 6,000 and 4,000 BCE (Ubaid period) revolutionized pottery production. Specialized potters were then able to meet the expanding needs of the world's first cities. Pottery was in use in ancient India during the Mehrgarh Period II (5500 - 4800 BCE) and Merhgarh Period III (4800 - 3500 BCE), known as the ceramic Neolithic and chalcolithic. Pottery, including items known as the ed-Dur vessels, originated in regions of the Indus valley and has been found in a number of sites in the Indus valley civilization. [7] [8] Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The sixth millennium is a period of time which will begin on January 1 5001 and will end on December 31 6000. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... // Centuries 31st century | 32nd century | 33rd century | 34th century | 35th century | 36th century | 37th century | 38th century | 39th century | 40th century Astronomical events The Earth will experience 2366 solar eclipses. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


In the Mediterranean, during the Greek Dark Ages (1100800 BCE), artists used geometric designs such as squares, circles and lines to decorate amphoras and other pottery. The period between 1500-300 BCE in ancient Korea is known as the Mumun Pottery Period.[9] The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... (Redirected from 1100 BCE) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ...


The quality of pottery has varied historically, in part dependent upon the repute in which the potter's craft was held by the community[citation needed]. For example, in the Chalcolithic period in Mesopotamia, Halafian pottery achieved a level of technical competence and sophistication, not seen until the later developments of Greek pottery with Corinthian and Attic ware[citation needed]. The distinctive Red Samian ware of the Early Roman Empire was copied by regional potters throughout the Empire. The Dark Age period saw a collapse in the quality of European pottery which did not recover in status and quality until the European Renaissance[citation needed]. For other uses, see Guild (disambiguation). ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Krater (mixing bowl), 6th century BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens The pottery of ancient Greece is one of the most tangible and iconic elements of ancient Greek art. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... Image:Samian. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


In Popular Culture

John Keats wrote a poem about a Grecian urn called "Ode on a Grecian Urn." [10] Keats redirects here. ...


Pottery and archaeology

For archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians the study of pottery can help to provide an insight into past cultures. Pottery is durable and fragments, at least, often survive long after artifacts made from less-durable materials have decayed past recognition. Combined with other evidence, the study of pottery artifacts is helpful in the development of theories on the organisation, economic condition and the cultural development of the societies that produced or acquired pottery. The study of pottery may also allow inferences to be drawn about a culture's daily life, religion, social relationships, attitudes towards neighbours, attitudes to their own world and even the way the culture understood the universe. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This article is about the social science. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ...


Chronologies based on pottery are often essential for dating non-literate cultures and are often of help in the dating of historic cultures as well. Trace element analysis, mostly by neutron activation, allows the sources of clay to be accurately identified and the thermoluminescence test can be used to provide an estimate of the date of last firing. Examining fired pottery shards from prehistory, scientists learned that during high-temperature firing, iron materials in clay record the exact state of Earth's magnetic field at that exact moment. Neutron activation is the process by which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials. ... Some mineral substances such as fluorite store energy when exposed to ultraviolet or other ionising radiation. ...


Miscellany

Due to the large number of pottery factories, or colloquially, 'Pot Banks', the city of Stoke-on-Trent in England became known as The Potteries, one of the first industrial cities of the modern era where, as early as 1785, two hundred pottery manufacturers employed 20,000 workers. This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... The Potteries or Stoke is a well-recognised name for the area in Staffordshire, England which includes the city of Stoke-on-Trent and its surrounding towns of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Kidsgrove. ...


The Potters is the nickname of the local football club, Stoke City F.C.. Stoke City Football Club is a football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, England. ...


Notes

  1. ^ No. 359: The Dolni Vestonice Ceramics
  2. ^ Diamond, Jared. "Japanese Roots", Discover, Discover Media LLC, June 1998. Retrieved on 2006-03-23. 
  3. ^ Kainer, Simon. "The Oldest Pottery in the World", Current World Archaeology, Robert Selkirk, September 2003, pp. 44-49. Retrieved on 2006-03-23. 
  4. ^ http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf29/29chi.pdf
  5. ^ Barnett & Hoopes 1995:23
  6. ^ Barnett & Hoopes 1995:211
  7. ^ Proceedings, American Philosophical Society (vol. 85, 1942). American Philosophical Society. ISBN 1422372219
  8. ^ Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the U.A.E. By Daniel T. Potts, Hasan Al Naboodah, Peter Hellyer. Contributor Daniel T. Potts, Hasan Al Naboodah, Peter Hellyer. Published 2003. Trident Press Ltd. 336 pages. ISBN 190072488X
  9. ^ Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003
  10. ^ Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ...

References

  • ASTM Standard C 242-01 Standard Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products
  • Ashmore, Wendy & Sharer, Robert J., (2000). Discovering Our Past: A Brief Introduction to Archaeology Third Edition. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0072978827
  • Barnett, William & Hoopes, John (Eds.) (1995). The Emergence of Pottery. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-517-8
  • Childe, V. G., (1951). Man Makes Himself. London: Watts & Co.
  • P.Rado. An Introduction To The Technology Of Pottery. 2nd edition. Pergamon Press. 1988
  • W.Ryan & C.Radford.Whitewares: Production, Testing And Quality Control. Pergamon Press. 1987
  • Hamer, Frank and Janet. (1991). The Potter's Dictionary of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition. London: A & C Black Publishers. ISBN 0-8122-3112-0.
  • Rice, Prudence M. (1987). Pottery Analysis – A Sourcebook. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-71118-8.
  • [1]

See also

A potter creates a bowl on her electric-powered pottery wheel. ... Anagama kiln 1 Door about 75cm wide 2 Firebox. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... Asbestos-Ceramic (ca 3900-1800 BP) refers to two (or three) types of pottery manufactured with asbestos and clay with adiabatic behaviour in Northern Scandinavia and Finland. ... Bone china is type of porcelain body first developed in the Britain in which calcined ox bone, bone ash, is a major constituent. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... Delftware panel. ... Dipped ware is the period term used by potters in late 18th- and 19th-century British potteries for utilitarian earthenware vessels turned on horizontal lathes and decorated with colored slip. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... // The Fiesta Name Although commonly referred to as Fiestaware, the actual name of the line of dinnerware glazed in differing solid colors designed by Frederick Hurten Rhead (1880-1942), while Art Director of the Homer Laughlin China company of Newell, West Virginia, and first marketed by them in 1936, is... Glaze Defects are any flaws in the surface quality of a Glaze, its physical structure, or its interaction with the clay body. ... The history of pottery in Palestine starts in Neolithic times, around the 8th millennium BC, when the art of pottery was introduced into the region. ... Pottery Vessel, Fourth Millennium BCE. The Sialk collection of Tehrans National Museum of Iran. ... . This is an example of Jasperware Jasperware is a form of pottery that has a stoneware body which is either white or colored, which is noted for its matte finish. ... Saga Prefecture Bowl. ... Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... Prior to the coming of Europeans, the peoples of both the North and South American continents had a wide variety of pottery traditions. ... Pit fired pottery is the oldest known method of firing clay-- and the ultimate source of all the modern firing variations used by potters. ... Poole Pottery is a fashionable pottery manufacturer based in Poole, England. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... A 16th century black Raku-style chawan, used for thick tea (Tokyo National Museum) // Rakuyaki (樂焼き) or Raku (樂) is a form of Japanese pottery characterized by low firing temperatures (resulting in a fairly porous body), lead glazes, and the removal of pieces from the kiln while still glowing hot. ... -1... The Royal Doulton Company is a quintessentially English name in tableware and collectables with a pedigree dating back to 1815. ... Sir Henry Doulton (born July 25, 1820 in Vauxhall, England; died November 18, 1897 in London) was an English inventor and manufacturer of pottery. ... Sancai horse, Tang Dynasty, 7-8th century. ... Saggar firing is an alternative firing process for pottery. ... Pottery referred to as salt glazed or salted is created by adding common salt, sodium chloride, into the chamber of a hot kiln. ... Slipware is a type of pottery identified by its primary decorating process. ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... The Staffordshire Potteries in Staffordshire, England, is a generic term for the industrial area encapsulating the six towns (Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton) that now make up Stoke on Trent. ... // Studio pottery is a branch of pottery that has in the last fifty years undergone a bit of a revolution. ... Kutani Crane by Wedgwood Kutani Crane by Wedgwood (back) Wedgwood is a British pottery firm, originally founded in 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal, creating Waterford Wedgwood, the Ireland-based luxury brands group. ... Enoch Wedgwood (1813-1879) was a potter, founder in 1860 of the pottery firm Wedgwood & Co of Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent. ... This article is about the eldest Josiah Wedgwood. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pottery

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pottery - MSN Encarta (1408 words)
Song-influenced celadons characterize pottery of the Koryŏ (Goryeo) dynasty (918-1392).
In the updraft, or bottle, kiln, a wood fire at the mouth of a covered trench fires the pots, which are in a circular-walled chamber at the end of the fire trench; the top is covered except for a hole to let the smoke escape.
Sué was another pottery of this period, a gray stoneware fired in a climbing kiln and decorated with a natural ash glaze (formed during the firing as ash from the wood fuel fell on the pots).
Pottery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2780 words)
Due to the large number of pottery factories, or colloquially 'Pot Banks', the City of Stoke-on-Trent in England became known as The Potteries; one of the first industrial cities of the modern era where as early as 1785 200 pottery manufacturers employed 20,000 workers.
Pottery that is fired at temperatures in the 800 to 1200 °C range, which does not vitrify in the kiln but remains slightly porous is often called earthenware or terra cotta.
Pottery that is thrown on the wheel is often finished in a process known as trimming.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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