FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Potsdam Conference
Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. From left to right, first row: Stalin, Truman, Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Second row: Truman confidant Harry Vaughan [1], Russian interpreter Charles Bohlen, Truman naval aide James K. Vardaman, Jr., and Charles Griffith Ross (partially obscured) [2].
Stalin, Truman and Churchill at Potsdam Conference
Clement Attlee, Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945

The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The three nations were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman. Image File history File links Trumanstalin. ... Image File history File links Trumanstalin. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Charles E. Bohlen Charles Eustis Chip Bohlen (August 30, 1904–December 31, 1974 1), was a United States diplomat (1929–1969) and Soviet Union expert, serving in Moscow before and during World War II, succeeding George F. Kennan as US Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1953–1957... Charles Griffith Ross (1885 - 1950) was a U.S. journalist. ... Image File history File links Postdam1946. ... Image File history File links Postdam1946. ... Image File history File links Potsdam_conference_1945. ... Image File history File links Potsdam_conference_1945. ... The exterior of the Cecilienhof palace Schloss Cecilienhof is in the Northern part of the New Gardens in Potsdam, close to the Jungfernsee lake. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee, who replaced Churchill after the Labour Party's defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election—had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war. The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ...

Contents

Participants

He arrived at the conference a day late, citing "official business" that required his attention, but in fact may have suffered a minor heart attack.[citation needed]
The results of the British election became known during the conference. As a result of the Labour Party victory over the Conservative Party the leadership changed hands.
  • United States, represented by the newly inaugurated President Harry S Truman. It was here where Truman announced that the Americans had developed an atomic bomb, and may use it over Japan, which they later did on August 6th and August 9th. Joseph Stalin suggested that Truman preside over the conference as the only head of state attending, a recommendation accepted by Churchill.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...

Primary results of the conference

Potsdam Agreement

Main article the Potsdam Agreement

At the end of the conference, the Three Heads of Government agreed on the following actions: The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ...

The Oder-Neisse Line (click to enlarge)
Poland's old and new borders, 1945. Territory previously part of Germany is identified in yellow
  • Germany:
    See also Expulsion of Germans after World War II, The industrial plans for Germany and Oder-Neisse line
    • Issuance of a statement of aims of the occupation of Germany by the Allies: demilitarization, denazification, democratization and decartelization.
    • Division of Germany and Austria respectively into four occupation zones (earlier agreed in principle at Yalta), and the similar division of each's capital, Berlin and Vienna, into four zones.
    • Agreement on the prosecution of Nazi war criminals.
    • Reversion of all German annexations in Europe after 1937, these included Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria and the westernmost parts of Poland
    • Germany's eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder-Neisse line, effectively reducing Germany in size by approximately 25% compared to her 1937 borders. The territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia, Silesia, West Prussia, and two thirds of Pomerania. These areas were mainly agricultural, with the exception of Upper Silesia which was the second largest centre of German heavy industry.
    • Expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the new eastern borders of Germany.
    • Agreement on war reparations to the Soviet Union from their zone of occupation in Germany. It was also agreed that 10% of the industrial capacity of the western zones unnecessary for the German peace economy should be transferred to the Soviet Union within 2 years. Stalin proposed and it was accepted that Poland was to be excluded from division of German compensation to be later granted 15% of compensation given to Soviet Union (this has never happened)[citation needed].
    • Ensuring that German standards of living did not exceed the European average. The types and amounts of industry to dismantle to achieve this was to be determined later. (see The industrial plans for Germany)
    • Destruction of German industrial war-potential through the destruction or control of all industry with military potential. To this end, all civilian shipyards and aircraft factories were to be dismantled or otherwise destroyed. All production capacity associated with war-potential, such as metals, chemical, machinery etc were to be reduced to a minimum level which was later determined by the Allied Control Commission. Manufacturing capacity thus made "surplus" was to be dismantled as reparations or otherwise destroyed. All research and international trade was to be controlled. The economy was to be decentralized (decartelization). The economy was also to be reorganized with primary emphasis on agriculture and peaceful domestic industries. In early 1946 agreement was reached on the details of the latter, Germany was to be converted into an agricultural and light industry economy. German exports were to be coal, beer, toys, textiles, etc — to take the place of the heavy industrial products which formed most of Germany's pre-war exports.[1]
  • Poland:
    See also Western betrayal and Territorial changes of Poland after World War II
    • Creation of a Provisional Government of National Unity recognized by all three powers. Recognition of the Soviet controlled government by the Western Powers effectively meant end of recognition for the existing Polish government in Exile.
    • Poles who were serving in British Army formations should be free to return to Poland, with no security upon their return to the communist country guaranteed.
    • The provisional western border should be the Oder-Neisse line, parts of East Prussia and former free City of Danzig should be under Polish administration, but that the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement, which had to await the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany in 1990.
    • Polish share of German war reparation to be taken by Soviet Union instead of Poland.
  • All other issues were to be answered by the final peace conference to be called as soon as possible.

Image File history File links Made myself from EC map of Poland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Made myself from EC map of Poland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ... Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... Decartelization is the transition of a national economy from monopoly control by groups of large businesses, known as cartels, to a free market economy. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Aircraft parts are components manufactured to be used on aircraft. ... Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries, anticipating the defeat of Germany and Japan they had already set up the European Advisory Commission and a proposed Far Eastern Advisory Commission to make recommendations for the post war... Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Decartelization is the transition of a national economy from monopoly control by groups of large businesses, known as cartels, to a free market economy. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Beer in the glass Schlenkerla Rauchbier direct from the cask Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold War... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and...

Potsdam Declaration

Main article the Potsdam Declaration

In addition to the Potsdam Agreement, on July 26 Churchill, Truman and Chiang Kai-shek (the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan during the Conference) issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan during WWII in Asia. The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Potsdam Conference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (706 words)
The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945.
In addition to the Potsdam Agreement, on July 26 the United States, the British Empire and the Republic of China (the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan during the Conference) issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.
Towards the end of the conference, Japan was given an ultimatum (threatening "prompt and utter destruction", without mentioning the new bomb), and hastily after Japan had rejected it, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9 respectively.
Potsdam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1498 words)
Potsdam was probably founded in the 10th century as a Slavic village called "Poztupimi", centred on a castle.
Potsdam's fortunes changed dramatically when it was chosen for the hunting residence of Frederick William I, elector of Brandenburg, in 1660.
The Cecilienhof palace was the scene of the Potsdam Conference from 17 July to 2 August 1945, as the victorious Allied leaders (Harry S. Truman; Winston Churchill followed by Clement Attlee; and Stalin) met to decide the future of Germany and postwar Europe in general.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m