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Encyclopedia > Potsdam Agreement

The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. It was drafted and adopted by the major victorious powers, the USSR, USA and UK, at the Potsdam Conference between July 17 and August 2, 1945. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Potsdam Agreement

The participants were the top leaders of those three states, Josef Stalin, Harry Truman, Winston Churchill, and the ministers of foreign affairs of those states. After Churchill lost the general election and resigned, the prime minister of the United Kingdom, Clement Attlee, joined. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... For the victim of Mt. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


In a second document adopted at the conference, the Potsdam Declaration, the United States and its allies also warned Japan to surrender or face complete destruction. The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the...


The Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government came to the following conclusions:

  1. Establishment of a Council of Foreign Ministers.
    See the London Conference of Foreign Ministers and the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers which took place later in 1945.
  2. The principles to govern the treatment of Germany in the initial control period.
    See European Advisory Commission and Allied Control Council
    • A. Political principles.
    Democratization. Treatment of Germany as a single unit. Disarmament and Demilitarization. Elimination of all Nazi influence.
    • B Economic principles.
    Reduction or destruction of all civilian heavy-industry with war-potential, such as ship-building, machine production and chemical factories. Restructuring of German economy towards agriculture and light-industry.
  3. Reparations from Germany.
    This section covered reparation claims of the USSR from the Soviet zone in Germany. The section also agreed that 10% of the industrial capacity of the western zones unnecessary for the German peace economy should be transferred to the Soviet Union within 2 years
  4. Disposal of the German navy and merchant marine.
    All but thirty submarines to be sunk and the rest of the German navy was to be divided equally between the three powers.
    The German merchant marine was to be divided equally between the three powers, and they would distribute some of those ships to the other Allies. But until the end of the war with Japan all the ships would remain under the authority of the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board and the United Maritime Authority.
  5. City of Koenigsberg and the adjacent area.
    The United States and Britain declared that they would support the transfer of Koenigsberg and the adjacent area to the Soviet Union at the peace conference.
  6. War criminals
    This was a short paragraph and covered the creation of the London Charter and the subsequent Nuremberg Trials:
    The Three Governments have taken note of the discussions which have been proceeding in recent weeks in London between British, United States, Soviet and French representatives with a view to reaching agreement on the methods of trial of those major war criminals whose crimes under the Moscow Declaration of October, 1943 have no particular geographical localization. The Three Governments reaffirm their intention to bring these criminals to swift and sure justice. They hope that the negotiations in London will result in speedy agreement being reached for this purpose, and they regard it as a matter of great importance that the trial of these major criminals should begin at the earliest possible date. The first list of defendants will be published before 1st September.
  7. Austria:
    The government of all of Austria was to be decided after British and American forces entered Vienna, and that Austria should pay reparations.
  8. Poland
    See also Western betrayal and Territorial changes of Poland after World War II
    There should be a Provisional Government of National Unity recognised by all three powers, and that those Poles who were serving in British Army formations should be free to return to Poland. The provisional western border should be the Oder-Neisse line, parts of East Prussia and former free City of Danzig should be under Polish administration, but that the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement, which had to await the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany in 1990.
  9. Conclusion on peace treaties and admission to the United Nations organization.
    See Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers which took place later in 1945.
    It was noted that Italy had fought on the side of the Allies and was making good progress towards establishment of a democratic government and institutions and that after the Peace Treaty the three Allies would support an application from a democratic Italian Government for membership of the United Nations. Further
    "The three Governments have also charged the Council of Foreign Ministers with the task of preparing Peace Treaties for Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Romania. The conclusion of Peace Treaties with recognized democratic governments in these States will also enable the three Governments to support applications from them for membership of the United Nations. The three Governments agree to examine each separately in the near future in the light of the conditions then prevailing, the establishment of diplomatic relations with Finland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary to the extent possible prior to the conclusion of peace treaties with those countries."
  10. Territorial Trusteeship
    Italian former colonies would be decided in connection with the preparation of a peace treaty for Italy.
  11. Revised Allied Control Commission procedure in Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary
    Now that hostilities in Europe were at an end the Western Allies should have a greater input into the Control Commissions of Eastern Europe, the Annex to this agreement included detailed changes to the workings of the Hungarian Control Commission.
  12. Orderly transfer of German Populations
    Main article Expulsion of Germans after World War II
    "The Three Governments, having considered the question in all its aspects, recognize that the transfer to Germany of German populations, or elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner. "
    Because the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany in Germany were under great strain the Czechoslovak Government, the Polish Provisional Government and the Control Council in Hungary were asked to submit an estimate of the time and rate at which further transfers could be carried out having regard to the present situation in Germany and suspend further expulsions until these estimates were integrated into plans for an equitable distribution of these Germans among the several zones of occupation.
  13. Oil equipment in Romania
  14. Iran
    Allied troops were to withdrawn immediately from Tehran and that further stages of the withdrawal of troops from Iran should be considered at the meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers to be held in London in September, 1945.
  15. The international zone of Tangier.
    The city of Tangier and the area around it should remain international and discussed further.
  16. The Black sea straits.
    The Montreux Convention should be revised and that this should be discussed with the Turkish Government.
  17. International inland waterways
  18. European inland transport conference.
  19. Directives to the military commanders on allied control council for Germany.
  20. Use of Allied property for satellite reparations or war trophies
    These were detailed in Annex II
  21. Military Talks
  • Annex I
  • Annex II

Council of Foreign Ministers was an organization agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 and announced in the Potsdam Agreement. ... The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (also know as the Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers) of the United States (James F. Byrnes), the United Kingdom (Ernest Bevin), and the Soviet Union (Vyacheslav Molotov) met between December 16 and December 26, 1945, to discuss the problems of occupation, establishing peace, and... The formation of the European Advisory Commission (EAC) was agreed on at the Moscow Conference on October 30, 1943 between the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, Anthony Eden, the United States of America, Cordell Hull, and the Soviet Union, Vyacheslav Molotov, and confirmed at the Teheran Conference in November. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (also know as the Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers) of the United States (James F. Byrnes), the United Kingdom (Ernest Bevin), and the Soviet Union (Vyacheslav Molotov) met between December 16 and December 26, 1945, to discuss the problems of occupation, establishing peace, and... Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. ...

External links

  • Agreements of the Berlin (Potsdam) Conference
  • Trouble in Germany Time Magazine, Monday, Oct. 22, 1945
  • Cornerstone of Steel Monday, Jan. 21, 1946
  • The Road Back Time Magazine, Monday, Sep. 8, 1947

 
 

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