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Encyclopedia > Potential effects of tea on health
Bai Hao Yin Zhen white tea
Note: this page only deals with the effects of tea which is made from the plant Camellia sinensis (i.e. black tea, oolong tea, green tea and white tea). This page does not deal with the effects of other teas.

Potential effects of tea on health have been touted for infusions made from the plant Camellia sinensis for over 4700 years; ever since its discovery was attributed to the legendary emperor, Shennong. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing claimed its taste and stimulative properties were useful for treating tumors, abscesses, bladder ailments, lethargy, among other conditions.[1] The possible beneficial health effects of tea consumption have been suggested and supported by some studies, but others have found no beneficial effects. The studies contrast other claims, including antinutritional effects such as preventing absorption of iron and protein, usually attributed to tannin. The vast majority of studies have been of Green tea, however some studies have been made of the other types of tea derived from Camellia sinensis such as White tea, Oolong tea, and Black tea. Green tea has been claimed[2] to be helpful for atherosclerosis, LDL cholesterol, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, liver disease, weight loss, neurodegenerative diseases, and even halitosis. Image File history File links Bai_Hao_Yin_Zhen_tea_leaf_(Fuding). ... Image File history File links Bai_Hao_Yin_Zhen_tea_leaf_(Fuding). ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... Shennong (Traditional Chinese: 神農; Simplified Chinese: 神农; pinyin: Shénnóng), sometimes known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝), is a legendary Emperor of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to have lived some 5,000 years ago and who taught ancient China the practices of agriculture. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Look up Abscess in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... Look up absorption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dÄ“generāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ...

Contents

Potential benefits

Anti-cancer properties

An article in New Scientist magazine[3] mentions that numerous studies suggest that green tea protects against a range of cancers, including lung, prostate and breast cancer. The reason cited is the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), according to Hirofumi Tachibana's team at Kyushu University in Japan. Their research showed that growth of human lung cancer cells that have a cell receptor called 67 LR is slowed significantly after drinking just two or three cups of green tea, which contains EGCG. The research also showed that 67 LR is involved in the propagation of prion diseases such as mad cow disease in humans. So knowledge of EGCG's effect on 67 LR might have implications in the treatment of these diseases.[4] New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... New Hospital bldg Campus of Maidashi area in prior to Greater East Asia War (This picture exists in Department of Medicine attachment library ) Kyushu University ), abbreviated to Kyudai ), is one of Japans most prestigious national universities and the largest public university on the island of KyÅ«shÅ«. It is... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or commonly mad cow disease) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century and appears transmissible to humans. ...


According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, in laboratory studies using animals, catechins inactivated oxidants before cell damage occurred, reduced the number and size of tumors, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells.[citation needed]White tea has been claimed to be even more effective, based upon preliminary work by Santana-Rios et al.[5] The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ...


Another study from the Oxford Life Science journal Carcinogenesis showing a capacity of green tea in combination with tamoxifen is effective in suppressing breast cancer growth in vitro human breast cancer tumors and in vivo animal experiments in mice.[6] Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


Increases metabolic rate

Clinical trials conducted by the University of Geneva in Switzerland indicate that green tea raises metabolic rates and speeds up fat oxidation. In addition to caffeine, green tea contains catechin polyphenols that raise thermogenesis (the rate at which calories are burned), and hence increases energy expenditure.[7] In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. ...


There is also a suggestion that it can increase endurance in exercise by improving fat metabolism.[8]


Possible anti-diabetes effect

There is also epidemiological evidence that drinking green tea (but not black tea or oolong tea) may help prevent diabetes,[9] although it is worth noting that this is evidence of an association, and that future studies are needed to confirm the effect. Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...


Boosts immune system and mental alertness

On 21 April 2003 the Brigham and Women's Hospital released details of a research project which indicated that the amino acid L-theanine may help the body's immune system response when fighting infection, by boosting the disease-fighting capacity of gamma delta T cells. The study included a four-week trial with 11 coffee drinkers and 10 tea drinkers, who consumed 600ml of coffee or black tea daily. Blood sample analysis found that the production of anti-bacterial proteins was up to five times higher in the tea-drinkers, an indicator of a stronger immune response.[10] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... L-theanine Whilst both tea and coffee contain the stimulant caffeine, tea drinking tends to have a more relaxing effect than coffee. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ...


L-theanine has also been found to increase alpha wave production in the brain, which is associated with a state of "alert relaxation".[11] L-theanine Whilst both tea and coffee contain the stimulant caffeine, tea drinking tends to have a more relaxing effect than coffee. ... Alpha waves recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are synchronous and coherent (regular like sawtooth) and in the frequency range of 8 - 12 Hz. ...


Lowers chances of cognitive impairment

A 2006 study[12][13] showed that elderly Japanese people who consumed more than 2 cups of green tea a day had a 50 percent lower chance of having cognitive impairment, in comparison to those who drank fewer than 2 cups a day, or who consumed other tested beverages. This is probably due to the effect of EGEC, which passed through the Blood Brain Barrier. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Campbeltown Airport (IATA: CAL, ICAO: EGEC) is located 3 nautical miles (5. ...


Lowers stress hormone levels

According to a study by UCL researchers published in the journal Psychopharmacology, drinking black tea has an effect on stress hormone levels in the body and thus helps in recovering more quickly from life's stresses. The study showed that, 50 minutes after a high stress event, subjects who drank 4 cups of black tea per day for a 4 week period experienced an average cortisol drop of 47%, compared to 27% for the placebo group. Blood platelet activation, which is linked to blood clotting and the risk of heart attacks was also lower in the tea drinker's group.[14] Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Stress hormones such as cortisol and norepinephrine are released at periods of high stress. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


Effects on HIV

A recent study appearing in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology stated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in Green Tea can help to boost one's immune system, therefore helping to prevent HIV. University of Sheffield Research Professor Mike Williamson stated that, "Our research shows that drinking green tea could reduce the risk of becoming infected by HIV, and could also slow down the spread of HIV" however was quick to point out that, "It is not a cure, and nor is it a safe way to avoid infection, however, we suggest that it should be used in combination with conventional medicines to improve quality of life for those infected" as well as the fact that the research is in very early stages.[15] The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is a scientific journal in the field of allergy and immunology, with an emphasis on clinical relevance. ... Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ...


Black tea compounds, however, has been shown to be even more effective than EGCG, especially Theaflavins and Thearubigins, which bind to HIV's gp41, which unlike gp120, can't be shed easily by HIV. However, far less research has been conducted on black tea compounds as compared to green tea, probably related to reasons of profit. Theaflavins are not found in green tea, but are closely related to EGCG. Theaflavins are polyphenols that are formed from catechins in tea leaves during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. ... Thearubigins are polymeric polyphenols that are formed during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. ... An HIV envelope glycoprotein that is anchored to the membrane through non-covalent bonds along with gp41, both coming from a cleaved protein, gp160. ...


EGCG Specific mechanism

EGCG does this by competing for gp120 binding sites with HIV, and also protects the brain, which modern anti-retrovirals medicines cannot do, since they can't pass the blood brain barrier. This is one reason why HIV can never be eliminated as modern medicines can't penetrate the testes[16], brain, and kupffer cells of the liver[17], where HIV regroups. Both green and black tea compounds do penetrate the blood brain barrier. It has been shown clinically that EGCG and closely related black tea theaflavins have protective effects on many types of dementia, including AIDS related. EGCG particularly has been shown to deactivate HIV related toxins in vitro that are found in the infected brain. EGCG is also intereferes with other stages of HIV replication, including HIV protease. An HIV envelope glycoprotein that is anchored to the membrane through non-covalent bonds along with gp41, both coming from a cleaved protein, gp160. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and the central nervous system itself. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... Kupffer cells are reticulendothelial cells located in the liver. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and the central nervous system itself. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Oxalates

Oxalates, including those found in all teas are a mixed bag (see problems below), oxalates help with HIV and in general infections by mopping up free iron, one less thing for the immune system to do. Oxalates chelate zinc as well, a crucial nutrient for HIV to hijack a cell, as it has zinc fingers. Oxalates are hard lumps of salt crystals formed when Oxalic Acid combines with calcium, iron, sodium, magnesium, or potassium. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Chelation (from Greek, claw like) describes the reversible binding of an organic ligand, the chelator or chelating agent, to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... A zinc finger is part of a protein that can bind to DNA. Zinc finger domains typically consist of two β sheets, each carrying a cysteine residue, and an α helix carrying two histidine residues. ...


Effects on bad breath

Researchers at the University of Chicago stated that polyphenols help inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause bad breath.[18] The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Halitosis, breath odour, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odours exhaled in breathing. ...


Iron overload disorders

Researchers in Germany have found that a daily cup of black tea can help stop excess iron damaging the bodies of people who suffer from haemochromatosis due to its high content of tannin which limits iron absorption.[19] Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper dietary iron metabolism (making it an iron overload disorder), which causes the accumulation of iron in a number of body tissues. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ...


Effects associated with caffeine

Main article: Caffeine

A cup of green tea contains between 15 and 50 mg of caffeine. Certain cognitive benefits are associated with caffeine consumption, such as a reduction in the likelihood of Parkinson's disease and a temporary increase in short term memory [citation needed]. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). ...


Potential drawbacks

Effects of fluoride

All tea leaves contain fluoride, however the mature, old tea leaves contain more fluoride, as much as 10-20 times of the fluoride levels in the young leaves of the same tea plant.[20] In general, the level of fluoride in tea is inversely related to the EGCG contents. The more natural EGCG in the tea leaves, the less fluoride. White tea contains less fluoride than green tea and black tea, cause it's made of buds and young leaves only. Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ...


According to Andreas Schuld of the Canadian "Parents of Fluoride Poisoned Children" tea is very high in fluoride content, much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) set for fluoride in drinking water.[21] Decaffeinated teas have an even higher fluoride content as compared to their caffeinated counterparts. It is thought that this is due to the high fluoride content in the water involved in the de-caffeination process. According to him, fluoride could possibly reduce the anti-cancer properties of tea, or even cause cancer as fluoride is considered a cancer promotor. For instance, he mentions a 1998 study which found positive correlation between colon cancer and tea intake. The high fluoride content could also cause neurological and renal damage, especially in the presence of aluminum. Additionally, the high fluoride content could cause osteoporosis, arthritis, and other bone disorders. This ecology-related article is a stub. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


The fluoride content of tea depends directly of soil and air pollution with this contaminant; the danger lies in the fact that the plant absorbs this element at a greater rate than other plants. Care in the choice of the location where the plant is grown is bound to eliminate the risk.[citation needed] Cancers of the digestive tract, which have a higher incidence in Far East countries, have manifold environmental causes and cannot be blamed solely in those peoples' habit of consuming tea.


Effects associated with caffeine

Caffeine is an addictive substance and overuse of tea can result in harmful side-effects such as an increased likelihood of certain sleep disorders. Decaffeination reduces total catechins in both black and green dry teas by about 15 times and 3 times respectively.[22] For other uses, see addicted. ...


Oxalates

Tea contains oxalate, which overconsumption could cause kidney damage, as well as soak up free calcium in the body. Other minerals could be soaked up as well. An oxalate (called also: ethanedioate) is a salt or ester of oxalic acid. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ...


United States FDA

In a July 2005 review of claims made about the health benefits of green tea, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that it was highly unlikely that green tea reduces the risk of breast and prostate cancer. The FDA believes that the evidence does not support qualified health claims for green tea consumption and a reduced risk of cancer.[23] hi “FDA” redirects here. ... A pregnant womans breasts. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Effect of milk on tea

A study[24] at the Charité Hospital at the University of Berlin in Mitte showed that adding milk to tea will block the normal, healthful effects that tea has in protecting against cardiovascular disease. This occurs because casein from the milk binds to the molecules in tea that cause the arteries to relax, especially EGCG. Milk may also block tea's effect on other things, such as cancer.[25] Other studies have found little to no effect from milk on the observed increase in total plasma antioxidant activity. [26] Teas with high EGCG content, such as green tea, are not typically consumed with milk. Previous studies have observed a beneficial effect from black tea which was not attributable to the catechin content.[27] Plant-based "milks", such as soy milk, do not contain casein and are not known to have similar effects on tea. The Charité is the largest university hospital in Europe. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Casein is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a type of catechin and is the most abundant catechin in tea. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Soymilk (also called soya milk or soybean milk, and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage and even soy latte) is a beverage made from soybeans originating from China. ...


Milk also binds the tannin in the tea, rendering it harmless.[28] Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ...


References

  1. ^ N. H. Woodward, Teas of the World (1980), as cited in D. A. Balentine, M. E. Harbowy, H. N. Graham, Tea: The Plant and Its Manufacture; Chemistry and Consumption of the Beverage in Caffeine ed G. Spiller (1998)
  2. ^ Green Tea: from the University of Maryland Medical Center Alternative/Complementary Medicine library
  3. ^ New Scientist, 20 March 2004
  4. ^ Structural and Molecular Biology, DOI:10.1038/nsmb743
  5. ^ Santana Rios, G.; Orner, G. A.; Amantana, A.; Provost, C.; Wu, S-Y.; Dashwood, R. H.; Potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea in the Salmonella assay Mutation Research, 495 61-74 (2001)
  6. ^ "The combination of green tea and tamoxifen is effective against breast cancer." Sartippour MR, et al. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Dec;27(12):2424-33. Epub 2006 Jun 19.
  7. ^ Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans -- Dulloo et al. 70 (6): 1040 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [1]
  8. ^ Takatoshi Murase, Satoshi Haramizu, Akira Shimotoyodome, Ichiro Tokimitsu, and Tadashi Hase Green tea extract improves running endurance in mice by stimulating lipid utilization during exercise Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290: R1550-R1556, 2006. [2]
  9. ^ Iso H et al. (2006). "The Relationship between Green Tea and Total Caffeine Intake and Risk for Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults" 144 (8): 554–62. 
  10. ^ Drinking Tea May Boost Immune System
  11. ^ Juneja, LR, Chu, DC, Okubo, T, Nagato, Y, & Yokogoshi, H. (1999). L-Theanine - a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 10(2), 199-204.
  12. ^ "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition" (Vol. 83, pp.355-361).
  13. ^ Green tea could protect against Alzheimer’s
  14. ^ Black tea soothes away stress
  15. ^ Green tea 'may keep HIV at bay'
  16. ^ [3]
  17. ^ [4]
  18. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-05/uoia-tfb051403.php
  19. ^ http://members.tripod.com/~hemochromatose/onderwerpen/teabbc
  20. ^ http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=58604-calls-for-fda
  21. ^ http://www.bruha.com/pfpc/html/green_tea___.html
  22. ^ Bhagwat, T et al., "Flavonoid composition of tea: Comparison of black and green teas", USDA Agricultural Research Service
  23. ^ FDA Issues Information for Consumers about Claims for Green Tea and Certain Cancers
  24. ^ Lorenz, M et al., "Addition of milk prevents vascular protective effects of tea", European Heart Journal (DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl442)
  25. ^ Milk wrecks the health benefits of tea, New Scientist, 09 January 2007
  26. ^ Vijayakumar C. Reddy, G.V. Vidya Sagar, D. Sreeramulu, L. Venu, M. Raghunath, Addition of Milk Does Not Alter the Antioxidant Activity of Black Tea, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2005;49:189-195 PMID 16020939 [5]
  27. ^ Widlansky ME, Duffy SJ, Hamburg NM, Gokce N, Warden BA, Wiseman S, Keaney JF Jr, Frei B, Vita JA. Effects of black tea consumption on plasma catechins and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 February 15;38(4):499-506. PMID 15649652
  28. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0876/is_n56/ai_9164614

is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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