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Encyclopedia > Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Total population
Regions with significant populations United States (Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana)
Language English, Potawatomi
Religion Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups Ojibwe, Ottawa, and other Algonquian peoples
Rain dance, Kansas, c. 1920
Rain dance, Kansas, c. 1920

The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie or Pottawatomi) are an American Indian people of the upper Mississippi River region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. In the Potawatomi language, they generally call themselves BodĂ©wadmi, a name which means "keepers of the fire" and which was applied to them by their Anishinaabe cousins; however, they originally called themselves NeshnabĂ©, which is a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 15th 82,277 mi²; 213,096 km² 211 mi; 340 km 400 mi; 645 km 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Lincoln Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi  (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Madison Milwaukee Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 23rd 169,790 km² 420 km 500 km 17 42°30N to 47°3N 86°49W to 92°54W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 18th 5,453,896 38. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Largest city Lansing Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 102,384 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Indianapolis Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Image File history File links Potawatomi_rain_dance. ... Image File history File links Potawatomi_rain_dance. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Anishinaabe is a self-description often used by people belonging to the indigenous Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples of North America, who share closely related Algonkian languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Potawatomi were part of a long term alliance with the Ojibwe and Ottawa, called the Council of Three Fires. In the Council of Three Fires, Potawatomi were considered the "youngest Brother". For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Council of Three Fires was a long-standing alliance of the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Native American tribes and First Nations. ...

Contents


History

The Potawatomi are first mentioned in French records which suggest that, in the early 17th century, they lived in what is now southwestern Michigan. During the Beaver Wars, they fled to the area around the Bay of Green Bay to escape attacks by the Iroquois and Neutral Nation. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Largest city Lansing Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 102,384 sq. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) were an intermittent series of conflicts fought in the late 17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and take control of the role of middleman in the fur... A Tall ship sailing into the mouth of the Fox River The Bay of Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The Neutrals were a tribe of American Indians who lived in what is now upstate New York and southern Ontario. ...


Potawatomi warriors were an important part of Tecumseh's Confederacy and took part in Tecumseh's War, the War of 1812 and the Peoria War, although their allegiance switched repeatedly between the English and the Americans. This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ... The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812 to 1815), was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ... The Peoria War was an armed conflict between the U. S. Army and the Native American tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo that took place in the Peoria County, Illinois area, near the current location of the city of Peoria, from September 19 to October 21, 1813. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked...


A band of Pottawattamies were found near Ft. Dearborn, in the current location of Chicago. In the war of 1812 a band of this tribe massacred the settlers here. A Pottawattamie chief named Sauganash, or Billy Caldwell as the settlers called him, tried to prevent the massacre. For his aid to the settlers, he was allowed to remain in the Chicago area. Fort Dearborn was a United States fort built on the Chicago River in 1803 under John Whistler on the site of present-day Chicago. ... Sauganash, or Billy Caldwell, was a half-Potawatomi, half British leader born in the late 18th century. ... Sauganash, also known as Chief Sauganash, or Billy Caldwell, was a half-Potawatomi, half British leader born in the late 18th century. ...


According to an article in the Chicago Tribune, the Prairie Band Potawatomi Indians purchased 1,280 acres of land near Shabbona, IL in rural DeKalb county. The tribal leaders have been silent on what it plans to do with the land, though many residents believe the tribe plans to build a cassino on the property.


Bands

There are several active bands of Potawatomi:

Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq. ... Forest County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Madison Milwaukee Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 23rd 169,790 km² 420 km 500 km 17 42°30N to 47°3N 86°49W to 92°54W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 18th 5,453,896 38. ... Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (also spelled with various transliterations as Mashipinashiwish, Me-chee-pee-nai-she-insh, Mash-i-pi-wish , Mitch-e-pe-nain-she-wish, or Mat-che-pee-na-che-wish) is the name of a chief of a Potawatomi Indian group. ... Dorr Township is a civil township of Allegan County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Allegan County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ... The Hannahville Indian Community is a federally recognized Potawatomi Indian tribe residing in Michigans Upper Peninsula, approximately 15 miles west of Escanaba. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Largest city Lansing Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 102,384 sq. ... The Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi (NHBP) is a federally recognized Potawatomi Indian tribe. ... Calhoun County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Largest city Lansing Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 102,384 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Indianapolis Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 15th 82,277 mi²; 213,096 km² 211 mi; 340 km 400 mi; 645 km 0. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076,395 km... Walpole Island is an island in southwestern Ontario, Canada on the border between Ontario and Michigan in the United States. ... In North America, unceded territory is territory that has never been set apart, legislated, founded, created or established as a reserve. ...

Location

The Potawatomi first lived in lower Michigan, then moved to northern Wisconsin and eventually settled into northern Indiana and central Illinois. In the early 1800s, major portions of Potawatomi lands were annexed by the U.S. government. Following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, most of the Potawatomi people were forcibly removed from the tribe's lands. Many perished en route to new lands in the west, following what became known as "The Trail of Death." Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ...


Language

Main article: Potawatomi language This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Potawatomi is an Algonquian language spoken by fewer than 100 people in Ontario and the north-central United States. The current speakers are all older people and there is fear that the language may die out in the near future. Many places in the midwest have names derived from the Potawatomi language, including Allegan, Waukegan, Muskegon, Skokie and, most famously, Chicago. In the language, the suffix -gan means "land," and whatever prefix is attached would be a defining characteristic. Chicago, for example, has been written down by several people outside of the Potawatomi people, and the name itself has probably been distorted over time, but the original meaning was land of smelly onions, and was prounounced She-Ka-Gan. Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Allegan is a city and a county in the U.S. state of Michigan: Allegan, Michigan Allegan County, Michigan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Waukegan is a city located in Lake County, Illinois, of which it is the county seat. ... Muskegon is a city located in Muskegon County, Michigan. ... Incorporated Village in 1888. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... The Land Of Smelly Onions refers to the swampy area next to Lake Michigan that existed around the 18th century in present day Chicago. ...


External links

  • First Nations Compact Histories: Potawatomi History
  • Prairie Band Potawatomi
  • Citizen Potawatomi Nation
  • Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi
  • Forest County Potawatomi
  • Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi
  • Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians
  • The Potawatomi in historical perspective
  • Treaties with the Potawatomi
  • Potawatomi Author Larry Mitchell
  • Kettle & Stony Point First Nation
  • A Visit to a Pottawatomie Medicine Dance (1842). Catherine Stewart took the opportunity, while residing on a Pottawatomie reservation, in the early 1840s, to attend a number of activities including a Medicine Dance.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Potawatomis (935 words)
French fur traders were welcomed into the Potawatomi villages, where their union with Potawatomi women produced growing numbers of mixed-blood, or Métis, children.
The Potawatomis at Chicago were much involved in the fur trade, first trading beaver pelts to the French, but also supplying traders with muskrat, raccoon, and otter pelts taken from the marshes along the Calumet and Kankakee Rivers.
Potawatomi war parties en route to attack the Osages in Missouri sometimes committed depredations in southern Illinois, and messengers from Tecumseh and the Shawnee Prophet recruited Chicago Potawatomis into their growing pan-Indian movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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