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Encyclopedia > Potato chips
Saratoga chips
Saratoga chips

Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. They serve as an appetizer or snack. Commercial varieties are packaged for sale, usually in bags. The simplest chips are simply cooked and salted, but manufacturers can add a wide variety of seasonings (mostly made using MSG and herbs or spices). Chips are an important part of the snack food market in English-speaking countries and many other "western" nations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1567 KB) Description: Saratoga chips at the Mississippi State Fair in Jackson, Mississippi Source: http://flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1567 KB) Description: Saratoga chips at the Mississippi State Fair in Jackson, Mississippi Source: http://flickr. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... An advertisement for an automated deep fryer from 1973 A deep fried twinkie. ... Baking is the technique of cooking food in an oven by dry heat applied evenly throughout the oven. ... Appetizer has several meanings: Appetizer is another name for Hors doeuvre, a meal served before the main dishes of a meal. ... Assorted snacks, including many varieties of candy. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Flavouring (CwE) or flavoring (AmE) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... Monosodium glutamate formula Monosodium glutamate, sodium glutamate, flavour enhancer 621 EU food additive code: E621. ... A herb (see also pronunciation differences) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Shop with spices in Morocco A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavouring. ... Assorted snacks, including many varieties of candy. ...


There is little consistency in the English speaking world for names of fried potato slices. North American English uses chips for the above mentioned dish, and French fries for the chewier dish. In British English, crisps are used for the crispy dish and chips for the chewy dish (as in "fish and chips"). In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, both forms of potato product are simply known as chips, as are the larger "home-style" potato chips. Sometimes the distinction is made between hot chips and packet chips. Kumara (sweet potato) chips are eaten in New Zealand and Japan. [citation needed] North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... French fried potatoes, known as french fries, fries or pommes frites in North America and as chips elsewhere, are long pieces of potato that have been deep-fried. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... Although widely available, fish and chips have become particularly popular in seaside towns. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ...

Contents


Origins

It is believed that the original potato chip recipe was created by Native American/African American chef George Crum, at the Moon Lake Lodge in Saratoga Springs, New York on August 24, 1853. He was fed up with a customer — by some accounts Cornelius Vanderbilt — who continued to send his fried potatoes back, because they were too thick and soggy. Crum decided to slice the potatoes so thin that they couldn't be eaten with a fork. Against Crum's expectation the guest was ecstatic about the new chips. They became a regular item on the lodge's menu under the name "Saratoga Chips". They soon became popular throughout New England. Eventually, potato chips spread beyond chef-cooked restaurant fare and began to be mass produced for home consumption; Dayton, Ohio-based Mike-sell's Potato Chip Company, founded in 1910, calls itself the "oldest potato chip company in the United States." [1] An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... George Crum was the head chef of Moon Lake Lodge, a resort in Saratoga Springs, New York. ... Saratoga Springs is a city located in Saratoga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 26,186. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Cornelius Vanderbilt Cornelius Vanderbilt (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877) was a U.S. entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Gem City Location Coordinates , Government Country  State   County United States  Ohio   Montgomery Founded Incorporated April 1, 1796 1805 Mayor Rhine L. McLin Geographical characteristics Area     City 146. ... Mike-sells Potato Chip Company is a Dayton, Ohio-based producer of potato chips and other snack foods. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Before the airtight sealed bag was developed, chips were stored in barrels or tins. The chips at the bottom were often stale and damp. Then Laura Scudder invented the bag by ironing together two pieces of wax paper, thereby creating an airtight seal and keeping the chips fresh until opened. Today, chips are packaged in plastic bags, with nitrogen gas blown in prior to sealing to lengthen shelf life, and provide protection against crushing. Laura Scudder Laura Clough Scudder (1881 – 1959) was an entrepreneur in Monterey Park, California who made and sold potato chips. ... Wax paper (also called waxed paper) is a kind of paper that is made moisture proof through the application of wax. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ...


Seasoned chips

An old advertisement for Smith's Potato Crisps
An old advertisement for Smith's Potato Crisps

The potato chip remained unseasoned, which limited its appeal, until an innovation by Joe "Spud" Murphy (1923 – 2001), the owner of an Irish crisp company called Tayto, who developed a technology to add seasoning in the 1950s. Though he had a small company, consisting almost entirely of his immediate family who prepared the crisps, the owner had long proved himself an innovator. After some trial and error, he produced the world's first seasoned crisps, "Cheese and Onion" and "Salt 'n' Vinegar". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x819, 375 KB) Old Smiths Potato chips ad - Tilba Tilba general store File links The following pages link to this file: Potato chips ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x819, 375 KB) Old Smiths Potato chips ad - Tilba Tilba general store File links The following pages link to this file: Potato chips ... This article refers to Tayto in the Republic of Ireland. ... Trial and error is a method for obtaining knowledge, both propositional knowledge and know-how. ... Salt & vinegar is a very popular and common flavoring of potato chips (also know as crisps in most British dialects). ...


Chips seasoned with salt had been sold previously, but the salt was supplied in a sealed packet inside the bag, to be added when required. A variation on this is still available in the UK, "Smiths Salt'n'Shake" comes with a small blue bag of salt.


The innovation became an overnight sensation in the food industry, with the heads of some of the biggest potato chip companies in the United States heading to the small Tayto company to examine the product and to negotiate the rights to use the new technology. When eventually the Tayto company was sold, it made the owner and the small family group who had changed the face of potato chip manufacture very wealthy. Companies worldwide sought to buy the rights to Tayto's technique.


The Tayto innovation changed the whole nature of the potato chip. Later chip manufacturers added natural and artificial seasonings to potato chips, with varying degrees of success. A product that had had a large appeal to a limited market on the basis of one seasoning now had a degree of market penetration through vast numbers of seasonings. In the US, the most popular forms of seasoned potato chips include "sour cream and onion," "barbecue," and cheese-seasoned chips. Various other seasonings of chips are sold in different locales, including the original "salt and vinegar," produced by Tayto, which remains by far Ireland's biggest manufacturer of crisps. Market penetration is one of the four growth strategies as defined by Ansoff. ...


Some potato chip manufacturers, such as Lay's, produce seasoned chips based on regional interest. Particularly notable in North America are the wide varieties available in parts of Canada, where seasonings include "dill pickle", "ketchup" and even "poutine" and "bacon". On occasion these products will be released for a limited time in the United States. Bag of Lays Classic Chips Lays is the brand name for a number of potato chip varieties as well as the name of the company that founded the chip brand in 1938. ... Poutine (pronounced, roughly, poo-tsin; exact Quebecer pronunciation is IPA — listen to it in . ...


Similar foods

The regular shape of "Pringles" and similar products betrays their non-traditional manufacturing method, involving reconstituted potato
The regular shape of "Pringles" and similar products betrays their non-traditional manufacturing method, involving reconstituted potato

Another type of potato chip, notably the Pringles and Lay's Stax brands, is made by extruding or pressing a dough made from ground potatoes into the familiar potato chip shape before frying. This makes chips that are very uniform in size and shape, which allows them to be stacked and packaged in rigid tubes. In America, the de jure term for Pringles is "crisps", but they are rarely referred to as such. Conversely Pringles may be termed "potato chips" in Europe, to distinguish them from traditional "crisps". Download high resolution version (1024x796, 105 KB)Potato chips Photographer: jefras Source: Stock. ... Download high resolution version (1024x796, 105 KB)Potato chips Photographer: jefras Source: Stock. ... Three Pringles cans Pringles is a brand of potato chip or crisps snack produced by Procter & Gamble. ... Lays Stax is a snack food made from potatoes and produced by Frito Lay. ... Extrusion is a manufacturing process where a material, often in the form of a billet, is pushed and/or drawn through a die to create long objects of a fixed cross-section. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The terms de jure and de facto are used instead of in principle and in practice, respectively, when one is describing political situations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Potato chips. ...


Some companies have also marketed baked potato chips as an alternative with lower fat content. Additionally, some varieties of fat-free chips have been made using artificial, and indigestible, fat substitutes. These became well-known in the media when an ingredient many contained, Olestra, was linked in some individuals to abdominal discomfort and loose stools.[2] A ball and stick model of Olestra, showing a central sucrose molecule with ester-linked fatty acids Olestra (also known by its brand name Olean) is an artificial fat substance created by Procter & Gamble in 1968. ...


The success of crisp fried potato chips also gave birth to fried corn chips, with such brands as Fritos, CCs and Doritos dominating the market. "Swamp chips" are similarly made from a variety of root vegetables such as parsnips, rutabagas and carrots. Japanese-style variants include extruded chips, like products made from rice or cassava. A corn chip is a snack food, of which maize corn is the main ingredient, as well as oil, salt and water. ... External links Frito-Lay Frito-Lay Canada Frito-Lay company history Frito-Lay company timeline Categories: Food and drink stubs | PepsiCo subsidiaries | Food companies of the United States | Snack companies of the United States ... New Doritos packaging Nacho Cheesier Doritos (old style) Mexican Nacho Flavored Doritos, Israel (old style) Cool American Flavored Doritos found in Amsterdam. ... Binomial name Pastinaca sativa L. The parsnip is a root vegetable related to the carrot, which it resembles, although it has a paler color and a stronger flavor. ... Binomial name Brassica napobrassica The rutabaga or swede or (yellow) turnip (Brassica napobrassica, or Brassica napus var. ... Binomial name Daucus carota L. The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange or white in color with a woody texture. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. Rice is an annual plant, growing to 1-1. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz The cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate. ...


There are lots of other products which might be called "crisps" in Britain, but would not be classed a "potato chips" because they aren't made with potato and/or aren't chipped. For example, Wotsits. Wotsits is a brand of puffed cornmeal snack sold by Walkers (previously sold by Golden Wonder — Before buying the brand Walkers sold a rival known as Cheetos. ...


In recipes

In American cuisine, a whole class of recipes exists that use crushed potato chips, often as one would use seasoned bread crumbs. Recipes include those for cookies, pies, breadings for meatloaves and hamburgers, crumb toppings for casseroles, and in sauces or dips, among others.


A classic of American "White trash" or "Trailer park trash" cuisine is the "Potato Chip Sandwich" made from a base of two slices of white sandwich bread generously spread with mayonnaise. As many potato chips as possible are heaped on one of the slices, then the second slice is placed on top and pushed down hard until all the potato chips are crushed. "Crisp sandwiches" are also popular in the UK, a student favourite sees them made with Vitalite spread. Potato chips, particularly salt and vinegar flavour, are also a possible addition to tuna salad sandwiches. The chips are layered on top of the tuna as an additional filling. White trash is an American ethnic slur with a social class component. ... Trailer park trash (or trailer trash) is a derogatory U.S. English term for people who live in trailers or mobile homes, especially in trailer parks. ... European sweetbread (strucla) Four loaves French bread has a somewhat rigid crust Breads and Bread Rolls at a bakery Continental Italian Bread Tin Vienna Bread Bread in a traditional oven, in Portugal, with hot coal in front Pre-sliced bread has become more common in many countries Bread rolls Pain... Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce, usually of a white or light yellow color. ... Tuna salad is a blend of tuna fish, emulsified thick and creamy vegetable oil based sauce, garnished with edible products and then served between two slices of various styles of bread. ...


References

  • Jones, Charlotte Foltz (1991). Mistakes That Worked. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-262469. - Origins of potato chips

External links

  • Taquitos.net (reviews of more than 900 potato chips)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Potato Chip History - Invention of Potato Chips (1557 words)
Potato chips originated in New England as one man's variation on the French-fried potato, and their production was the result not of a sudden stroke of culinary invention but of a fit of pique.
He began making chips in his kitchen and delivering to neighborhood stores but later converted a barn in the rear of his house into "one of the first potato chip factories" in the country.
It was the invention of the mechanical potato peeler in the 1920s that paved the way for potato chips to soar from a small specialty item to a top-selling snack food.
Atlas of Popular Culture in the Northeastern US - Potato Chips (3378 words)
Potato chip manufacture in the first part of the century was done in small batches and small kettles.
The first (English) settlers to bring the potato to this country regarded it primarily as animal fodder and it was not until large numbers of German and northern European migrants began to arrive that the potato became the human food item it is today.
At times when good chipping potatoes are available nearby they make use of that source but when those inputs are consumed or no longer available, they have to reach further for the most important input to the potato chip.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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