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Encyclopedia > Potato
Potato

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. tuberosum
Binomial name
Solanum tuberosum
L.

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. Potatoes are the world's most widely grown tuber crop, and the fourth largest food crop in terms of fresh produce — after rice, wheat, and maize ('corn'). Potatoes originated in the area of modern day Peru[1] and then spread from South America to Spain and from there to the rest of the world after European colonization in the late 1400s and early 1500s. In the Southern Bolivian town of San Andreas, as many as 300 varieties may be showcased at the town's annual potato festival. [2] Potatos may mean: Potatoe, a variant of the spelling potato. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 290 KB) Potato tuber and a cross section If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Orders See text. ... Asteridae is a botanical subclass of flowering plants in class Dicotyledon or Magnoliopsida. ... Families at least the following: Solanaceae Convolvulaceae and others, varying between classification systems; for details see text The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... For fungal genus, see tuber (genus). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Category: ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ...


They soon became an important food staple and field crop. For instance, the potato was a staple food for sailors in Spanish ships. After the wreck of the Spanish Armada in 1588, Irish coastal villagers rescued potatoes and planted them. In 1845, a fungal disease, Phytophthora infestans, also known as late blight, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland, resulting in the Great Irish Famine. Unfortunately the local population had come to rely heavily on the potato and when crops failed, year after year, huge numbers of people died. Others emigrated, largely to the United States, blaming the British government for the situation. The potato is also strongly associated with Idaho, Maine, North Dakota, Prince Edward Island, Ireland, Jersey and Russia because of its large role in the agricultural economy and history of these regions. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... Binomial name Phytophthora infestans (Mont. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741) This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Flowers of a potato plant.

Potato plants grow high to the ground and bear yellow to silver flowers with yellow stamens. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2700x1821, 1086 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2700x1821, 1086 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ...


Potatoes are cross-pollinated mostly by bumble bees that carry pollen from other potato plants, but a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Any potato variety can also be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers, cut to include at least one or two eyes, or also by cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ...


Some commercial potato varieties do not produce seeds at all (they bear imperfect flowers) and are propagated only from tuber pieces. Confusingly, these tubers or tuber pieces are called "seed potatoes". A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


After potato plants flower, some varieties will produce small green fruits that look similar to green cherry tomatoes. These produce seeds like other fruits. Each of the fruits can contain up to 300 true seeds. One can separate seeds from the fruits by putting them in a blender on a slow speed with some water, then leaving them in water for a day so that the seeds will sink and the rest of the fruit will float. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true seed" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. A cherry tomato is a smaller garden variety of tomato. ...


Some horticulturists sell chimeras, made by grafting a tomato plant onto a potato plant, producing both edible tomatoes and potatoes. This practice is not very widespread. Chimeras in botany are single organisms composed of two genetically different types of tissue. ...

Contents

Etymology

The English word potato comes from Spanish patata, ultimately from Nahuatl potatl, potentially its first name. Bulgarian картоф, as well as Russian картофель and German Kartoffel, derive from the Italian word tartufoli, which was given to potato because of its similarity to truffles (Italian: tartufo). Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... Species Tuber aestivum Tuber brumale Tuber gibbosum Tuber himalayensis Tuber magnatum Tuber melanosporum Tuber mesentericum Tuber oregonense Tuber sinensis The true truffles are a group of several valuable and highly sought-after edible species of underground ascomycetes belonging to the fungal genus Tuber. ...


Another common name is "ground apple": pomme de terre in French, aardappel in Dutch, תפוח אדמה in Hebrew (often written just as פוד), and Erdapfel in Austrian German. An analogous name is Finnish as peruna, which comes from the old Swedish term jordpäron "earth pear". In 16th century French, pomme meant "fruit", thus pomme de terre meant "ground fruit" and was probably literally loan translated to other languages when potatoes were introduced. In Polish potato is called just ziemniaki, and in Slovak zemiak, from the word for "ground". In several northern Indian languages and in Nepali the potato is called alu and in Indonesian kentang. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Austrian German is any variety of the German language spoken in Austria. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ...


Different names for the potato developed in China's various regions, the most widely used names in standard Chinese today are "horse-bell yam" (马铃薯 - mǎlíngshǔ), "earth bean" (土豆 - tǔdòu), and "foreign taro" (洋芋 - yángyù).


Origin and history

Potato plant

There is general agreement among contemporary botanists that the potato originated in the Andes, all the way from Colombia to northern Argentina, but with a concentration of genetic diversity, both in the form of cultivated and wild species, in the area of modern day Peru. The potatoes cultivated in the Andes are not all the same species. The major species is Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes,) then there are four diploid species (with 24 chromosomes) by the names of Solanum stenotomum, Solanum phureja, Solanum goniocalyx and Solanum ajanhuiri. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes) Solanum chaucha and Solanum juzepczukii, and finally, there is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes) called Solanum curtilobum. Download high resolution version (1860x2790, 832 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1860x2790, 832 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


Andean potatoes are adapted to short day conditions and Chilean potatoes to long day conditions. There is sufficient evidence that the tetraploid Andean short day potato was the one that first arrived in Southern Spain in about 1565, from where it spread to the rest of Europe, adapting to European long day conditions in a period of about two hundred years. In order to botanically distinguish potatoes adapted to short days from those thriving and producing tubers under long day conditions, Solanum tuberosum has been split into two subspecies by present-day taxonomists, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (adapted to long days) and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena (adapted to short days.) Apart from their different photoperiodic reaction, these two subspecies are also distinct morphologically, though the differences are apparent only to an experienced taxonomist. Russian taxonomists did, in fact, create two different species in the early part of the 20th century, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum andigenum, to mark the same distinction. The process of adaptation to long days has happened once before as the potato moved from the Andes to the south of the continent. This was before the Europeans arrived in South America. Chile still has a large amount of valuable potato germplasm adapted to long days.


Historical and genetic evidence suggests that the potato reached India not very much later than Europe, probably taken there by the Portuguese. In isolated areas in the Himalayas of India and Nepal, so called "desi" potatoes are still grown, and they are very similar to the short day adapted modern Andean potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena.


There are about five thousand potato varieties world wide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school. Apart from the five thousand cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated species, which has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. The list of varieties found in European, North American or Asian markets is very limited, and these varieties are all of the same species, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum.


These potatoes are often referred to as "Irish" potatoes in the English speaking world because of their association with the Great Irish Famine, which began in 1845 and lasted for six years. The Irish peasant population had become highly dependent on the potato because of the relatively large amount of food that could be produced on fairly small holdings. Immigrant farmers from the Palatinate region of Germany brought their own crops, such as turnips, to Western Ireland. They were much less dependent on the potato than their native Irish neighbors and were largely spared the effects of the potato famine. The disease killing the Irish potato crop was the late blight fungus Phytophtora infestans. The long lasting after effects of this famine are well known and well documented. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741) This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


What is less well known is the role of the British during the potato famine. Rich aristocratic British landowners continued to export grain from Ireland to other parts of the world even as tens of thousands of Irish men, women and children were starving to death. Fortunately, this was not the practice of all of them, there were some British owned estates where not one Irish peasant starved during the famine. Authors like Salaman have written in detail about that situation, which has also been recognized by contemporary British historians.


Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources. Still, one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, is found as far north as Texas and used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species attacking cultivated potatoes. A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species are found that have been used extensively in modern breeding, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.


The potato became an important staple crop in northern Europe as the climate changed due to the Little Ice Age, when traditional crops in this region did not produce as reliably as before. At times when and where most other crops would fail, potatoes could still typically be relied upon to contribute adequately to food supplies during the colder years. The potato was not popular in France during this time, and it is believed that some of the infamous famines could have been lessened if French farmers had adopted the potato. Today, the potato forms an important part of the traditional cuisine of the British Isles, northern Europe, central Europe and eastern Europe. As of 2007, Germany has a higher consumption of potato per capita than any other country on earth. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ...


Nutrition

The fruits produced by mature potato plants
Potato, raw, with peel
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 80 kcal   320 kJ
Carbohydrates     19 g
- Starch  15 g
- Dietary fiber  2.2 g  
Fat 0.1 g
Protein 2 g
Water 75 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.08 mg   6%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.03 mg   2%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  1.1 mg   7%
Vitamin B6  0.25 mg 19%
Vitamin C  20 mg 33%
Calcium  12 mg 1%
Iron  1.8 mg 14%
Magnesium  23 mg 6% 
Phosphorus  57 mg 8%
Potassium  421 mg   9%
Sodium  6 mg 0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.

Nutritionally, potatoes are best known for their carbohydrate content (approximately 26 grams in a medium potato). Starch is the predominant form of carbohydrate found in potatoes. A small but significant portion of the starch in potatoes is resistant to enzymatic digestion in the stomach and small intestine and, thus, reaches the large intestine essentially intact. This resistant starch is considered to have similar physiological effects and health benefits of fiber (e.g., provide bulk, offer protection against colon cancer, improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, increase satiety, and possibly even reduce fat storage) (Cummings et al. 1996; Hylla et al 1998; Raban et al. 1994). The amount of resistant starch found in potatoes is highly dependent upon preparation methods. Cooking and then cooling potatoes significantly increases resistant starch. For example, cooked potato starch contains about 7% resistant starch, which increases to about 13% upon cooling (Englyst et al. 1992). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 706 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 706 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Resistant starch (RS) is starch that escapes digestion by enzymatic hydrolysis in the small intestine but can be fermented in the large intestine by microflora[1]. There are several health benefits associated with RS-based diets. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ...


Potatoes contain a number of important vitamins and minerals. A medium potato (150g/5.3 oz) with the skin provides 27 mg vitamin C (45% of the Daily Value (DV)), 620 mg of potassium (18% of DV), 0.2 mg vitamin B6 (10% of DV) and trace amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. Moreover, the fiber content of a potato with skin (2 grams) equals that of many whole grain breads, pastas, and cereals. In addition to vitamins, minerals and fiber, potatoes also contain an assortment of phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The notion that “all of the potato’s nutrients” are found in the skin is an urban legend. While the skin does contain approximately half of the total dietary fiber, the majority (more than 50%) of the nutrients are found within the potato itself. The cooking method used can significantly impact the nutrient availability of the potato. Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ...


New and fingerling potatoes offer the advantage that they contain fewer toxic chemicals. Such potatoes offer an excellent source of nutrition. Peeled, long-stored potatoes have less nutritional value, although they still have potassium and vitamin B. The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ...


Potatoes are often broadly classified as “high” on the glycemic index (GI) and thus are frequently excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a “low GI” eating regimen. In fact, the GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the type (i.e., red vs. russet vs. white vs. Prince Edward), origin (i.e., where it was grown), preparation methods (i.e., cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole, etc), and what it is consumed with (i.e., the addition of various high fat or high protein toppings) (Fernandes et al. 2006). Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ...

Various potato dishes.

Potatoes are prepared in many ways: skin-on or peeled, whole or cut up, with seasonings or without. The only requirement involves cooking to break down the starch. Most potato dishes are served hot, but some are first cooked then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips/crisps. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1787x2700, 1129 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1787x2700, 1129 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato ... This article is about the salad. ... Potato chips A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of a potato, deep fried or baked until crisp. ...


Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided that they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping—this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient. Mashed potatoes. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... A baked potato with butter. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... “Roast” redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to the Wikibooks Cookbook using the Transwiki process. ... Rösti Rösti is a potato dish from Switzerland. ... Potato pancakes or latkes (sometimes spelled latkas) are a dish made predominantly of grated potatoes fried in oil. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Microwave oven and Microwave heating. ... A roll of LDPE plastic wrap in a box. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ...


Regional dishes

Peruvian Cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there.[3] Some of the more famous dishes include Papa a la huancaina, Papa rellena, Ocopa, Carapulcra, Causa and Cau Cau among many others. Peruvian cuisine is usually considered one of the most diverse in the world and is on par with French, Chinese and Indian cuisine. ... Papa a la Huancaina (lit. ... Papa rellena Papas rellena (stuffed potato in Spanish) is a Peruvian dish consisting of mashed potatoes stuffed with ground (minced) meat, chopped hard boiled eggs, olives and various spices and then deep fried. ...


Mashed potatoes form a major component of several traditional dishes from the British Isles such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, champ and the 'mashit tatties' (Scots language) which accompany haggis. They are also often sautéed to accompany a meal. This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Shepherds Pie with minced (ground) beef. ... Bubble and squeak (sometimes just called bubble) is a traditional British dish made with the shallow-fried leftover vegetables from a roast dinner. ... Champ (brúitín in Irish) is an Irish dish of mashed potatoes and scallions. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... an uncooked small haggis Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish. ... Sautéing is a method of cooking food using a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ...


Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish involving mashed potato combined with shredded cabbage and onion. Boxty pancakes are eaten all over Ireland, although associated especially with the north, and in Irish diaspora communities: they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire, especially Liverpool, is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. Colcannon is a tradaitional Irish food made of mashed potatoes, cabbage, garlic, leeks, butter, salt, and pepper. ... Boxty is a traditional Irish potato pancake. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


Potatoes are very popular in continental Europe as well. In Italy, they serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. Similarly, cooked and mashed potatoes or potato flour can be used in the knödel or dumpling eaten with or added to meat dishes all over central and Eastern Europe, but especially in Bavaria and Luxembourg. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the pseudo-French vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. In western Norway, komle is popular. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Gnocchi with truffle. ... Klöße (German cuisine; singular: Kloß) are dumplings made from grated raw potatoes and/or mashed potatoes (then called Kartoffelknödel) or dried bread with milk and egg yolks (called Semmelknödel). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Vichyssoise ([1], commonly mispronounced ) is a French-style soup made of puréed leeks, onions, potatoes, cream, and chicken stock. ... This page has been successfully copied to the Wikibooks Cookbook using the Import tool. ...

A baked potato served with butter

In the United States, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops, and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. One popular favorite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have great popularity. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, plus butter & salt for taste. A regional dish of Central New York, salt potatoes are bite-sized new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1886 × 1445 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato Baked potato User:ShadowHalo/Images... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1886 × 1445 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato Baked potato User:ShadowHalo/Images... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Central New York is a term used to broadly describe the central region of New York State, roughly including the following counties and cities: The region has a population of about 1,177,073. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Potatoes in water

In Northern Europe, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Boiled whole and served with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed together with Baltic herring. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... A very popular Scandinavian food item, pickled herring has been around for a long time. ...


A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or Papas arrugadas. Patatas bravas, a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce, is a near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas. Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Canarian Wrinkly Potatoes — Papas arrugadas in Spanish — is the name of a traditional dish eaten in the Canary Islands. ... Puntillitas, battered and fried baby squid Tapas (IPA: ) is the name for a wide variety of appetizers in Spanish cuisine. ...


A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the center, and boiled. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. It is believed to have originated from the German Klöße, prepared by early German settlers who lived among the Acadians. The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Mashed potatoes. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... A baseball is a ball used primarily in the sport of the same name, baseball. ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. ... Klöße (Semmelknödel) Klöße (German cuisine; singular: Kloß) are dumplings made from grated raw and/or mashed potatoes (called Kartoffelknödel) or dried bread with milk and egg yolks (called Semmelknödel). ...


Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of french fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become popular across Canada and can usually be found where Canadians gather abroad. Poutine Poutine (pronunciation in IPA as heard in Quebec French — listen to it in . ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595...


Toxic compounds in potatoes

Potato plants
Seed tuber with sprouts
Early Rose variety

Potatoes contain glycoalkaloids, toxic compounds, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Cooking at high temperatures (over 170 °C or 340 °F) partly destroys these. The concentration of glycoalkaloid in wild potatoes suffices to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloids occur in the greatest concentrations just underneath the skin of the tuber, and they increase with age and exposure to light. Glycoalkaloids may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps and in severe cases coma and death; however, poisoning from potatoes occurs very rarely. Light exposure also causes greening, thus giving a visual clue as to areas of the tuber that may have become more toxic; however, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Some varieties of potato contain greater glycoalkaloid concentrations than others; breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 959 KB) Potato plants File links The following pages link to this file: Potato ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 959 KB) Potato plants File links The following pages link to this file: Potato ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 554 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 554 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Potato Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Glycoalkaloids are a family of poisons commonly found in the plant species Solanum dulcamara (nightshade). ... Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Breeders try to keep solanine levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commercial varieties turn green, even they can approach concentrations of solanine of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). In normal potatoes though, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found.[4] The National Toxicology Program suggests that the average American consumes at most 12.5 mg/person/day of solanine from potatoes (note that the toxic dose is actually several times this, depending on body weight). Dr. Douglas L. Holt, the State Extension Specialist for Food Safety at the University of Missouri - Columbia, notes that no reported cases of potato-source solanine poisoning have occurred in the U.S. in the last 50 years and most cases involved eating green potatoes or drinking potato-leaf tea. Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family. ... The University of Missouri–Columbia, (abbreviated MU and nicknamed Mizzou) is an institution of higher learning located in Columbia, Missouri, USA. Columbia is the flagship campus in the University of Missouri System with approximately 27,000 students. ...


Solanine is also found in other plants, mainly in the mostly-deadly nightshade family, which includes a minority of edible plants including the potato and the tomato, and other typically more dangerous plants like tobacco. This poison affects the nervous system causing weakness and confusion. Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Species See text Nicotiana refers to a genus of short-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America. ...

Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ...

Cultivation

Potato Planting
Washington
Potato output in 2005

Potatoes are generally grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 233 KB) Summary Potato Planting Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 233 KB) Summary Potato Planting Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Fort Fairfield is a town located in Aroostook County, Maine. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of potato output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 73,461,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of potato output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 73,461,500 tonnes). ...


At harvest time, gardeners generally dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e. a spading fork, or a potato hook which is similar to the graip, except the tines are at a 90 degree angle to the handle as is the blade of a hoe. In larger plots, the plow can serve as the most expeditious implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters which scoop up the plant and the surrounding earth. This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs employ different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system or "Flying Willard" to separate the potatoes from the plant. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. This article is about pitchfork, the tool. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ...


Correct potato husbandry is an arduous task in the best of circumstances. Good ground preparation, harrowing, plowing, and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. Potatoes are the most fruitful of the root crops, but much care and consideration is needed to keep them satisfied and fruitful.


It is important to harvest potatoes before heavy frosts begin, since field frost damages potatoes in the ground, and even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting which can quickly ruin a large stored crop.


Seed potato crops are 'rogued' in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop.


Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. It is crucial that the storage area is dark, well ventilated and for long-term storage maintained at temperatures near 40°F (4°C). For short-term storage prior to cooking, temperatures of about 45-50°F (7-10°C) are preferred.[5] Temperatures below 40°F (4°C) convert potatoes' starch into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Under optimum conditions possible in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to six months, but several weeks is the normal shelf life in homes.[5] If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, these areas should be trimmed before using.[5]


FAO reports that the world production of potatoes in 2005 was 319 million tonnes. The largest producer, China, accounted for one-fourth of the global output followed by Russia and India. Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Varieties

Potatoes have been bred into many standard or well-known varieties, each of which have particular agricultural or culinary attributes. Varieties are generally categorized into a few main groups, such as Russets, Reds, Whites, Yellows (aka Yukons), and Purples based on common characteristics. Popular varieties found in markets may include:

  • Desiree
  • Kipfler
  • Nicola
  • Pink Eye
  • Pink Fir Apple
  • Pontiac
  • Russet Burbank
  • Spunta

Genetic research on the potato has resulted in at least one genetically-modified variety, the New Leaf, owned by Monsanto corporation. Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ...


Potatoes of all varieties are generally cured after harvest to thicken the skin. Prior to curing, the skin is very thin and delicate. These potatoes are sometimes sold as "New Potatoes" and are particularly flavorful. New potatoes are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. In additions, markets may sometimes present various thin-skinned potato varieties as "new potatoes".


Pests

A major pest of potato plants is the Colorado potato beetle. Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ...


The potato root nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended. The potato root nematode or potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a 1-mm long roundworm that lives on the roots of plants of the Solanaceae family, such as potatoes. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


Other pests include Aphids, both the Green Peach Aphid and the Potato Aphid. Beetleafhoppers, Thrips, and Mites are also very common potato insect pests. Families Terebrantia Adiheterothripidae Aeolothripidae Fauriellidae † Hemithripidae Heterothripidae † Karataothripidae Melanthripidae Merothripidae Thripidae † Triassothripidae Uzelothripidae Tubulifera Phlaeothripidae Thrips on finger Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names for thrips include thunderflies, thunderbugs, storm flies and... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ...

A major disease of potato plants is potato blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. This is a list of diseases and disorders found in potatoes. ... Binomial name Phytophthora infestans (Mont. ...


Other major diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Black Leg, Powdery Mildew, Powdery Scab, Leafroll Virus, Purple Top, and others.


Potatoes and Art

Potato Ceramic. Moche Culture. Larco Museum Collection

The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Maine companies are exploring the possibilities of using waste potatoes to obtain polylactic acid for use in plastic products. Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

  • Potatoe, archaic spelling
  • Sweet potato, distantly related to the potato
  • Chuño, traditional freeze-dried potato of Altiplano
  • Larry Zuckerman (1999). Potato, The: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World. Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0-86547-578-4.
  • Lang, James (2001). Notes of a Potato Watcher, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
  • Salaman, Redcliffe N. (1989). The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press (originally published in 1949; reprinted 1985 with new introduction and corrections by J.G. Hawkes).
  • Hawkes, J.G. (1990). The Potato: Evolution, Biodiversity & Genetic Resources, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D., and Weingartner, D.P. (2001) Compendium of Potato Diseases, 2nd ed, Amer. Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Potatoe is an archaic spelling of the word potato as a variant form, with the most recent usage cited from 1880: She found the parson in his garden. ... Binomial name L. “Camote” redirects here. ... Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Perú and Bolivia, and is known in various countries of South America, including Perú, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. ... Puno, Peru, is one of larger cities of the Altiplano. ...

References and external links

Footnote References

  1. ^ http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/41/14694.
  2. ^ http://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/wpa/Peru#Peru-VARIETIESANDSEEDSYSTEMS
  3. ^ Peru Celebrates Potato Diversity
  4. ^ Glycoalkaloid and calystegine contents of eight potato cultivars J-Agric-Food-Chem. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964-73
  5. ^ a b c "Potato storage and care" - Healthy Potato.com
  6. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York:Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Wikibooks Gardening has more about this subject:
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Solanum tuberosum
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  • Spooner, David; et al. (October 2005). "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (41): 14694-14699. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0507400102. 
  • World Geography of the Potato at http://www.lanra.uga.edu/potato/
  • mr Travers
  • Reference for potato history: The Vegetable Ingredients Cookbook by Christine Ingram, Lorenz Books, 1996 ISBN 1-85967-264-7
  • The History and Social Influence of the Potato by Redcliffe N. Salaman ISBN 0-521-31623-5
  • Hamilton, Andy & Dave, (2004), Potatoes - Solanum tuberosums retrieved on 4 May 2005
  • Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA, Englyst HN. Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br J Nutr. 1996;75:733-747.
  • Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH. Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992;46:S33-S50.
  • Fernandes G, Velangi A, Wolever TMS. Glycemic index of potatoes commonly consumed in North America. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:557-62.
  • Gauldie, Enid (1981). The Scottish Miller 1700 - 1900. Pub. John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-067-7.
  • Hylla S, Gostner A, Dusel G, Anger H, Bartram HP, Christl SU, Kasper H, Scheppach W. Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:136-42.
  • Raban A, Tagliabue A, Christensen NJ, Madsen J, Host JJ, Astrup A. Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:544-551.

Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Almond potato is a potato known since the 19th century. ... The Amandine potato is a variety of early potato, descended from the varieties Charlotte and Mariana. ... Desiree is a red-skinned main crop potato originally bred in the Netherlands. ... Golden Wonder is a late maincrop russet skinned variety of potato and is reputed by some to have the best flavour of all potato varieties. ... Jersey Royal potatoes are Jerseys local variety of new potato. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rooster is a red-skinned potato, duller in colour than the Desiree, with floury yellow flesh. ... Luther Burbank around 1922. ... Vitelotte (also called Negrèsse or Truffle de Chine) is a very rare species (quite like an heirloom rose) of blue-violet potato. ... The Vivaldi potato is a variety of potato developed by a company called Naturally Best, based in Lincolnshire, UK. Lab studies have shown Vivaldi to be lower in calories and carbohydrates than many other popular potato varieties. ... Yellow Finn is a variety of potato founded in North America. ... Yukon Gold is a variety of potato closly akin to the Yellow Finn. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2864x1861, 1195 KB) The potato is the vegetable of choice in the United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Potato - Encyclopedia Article (2261 words)
The potato Solanum tuberosum is a perennial tuber of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, which is one of the most widely used vegetables in Europe and North and South America.
Potatoes can also be baked whole; cut into cubes and roasted; grated and formed into dumplings or potato pancakes; and cut into long, thin pieces and fried or baked (French fries, called "chips" in the UK).
Potatoes, as an article of human food, are, next to wheat, of the greatest importance in the eye of a political economist.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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