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Encyclopedia > Potassium
19 argonpotassiumcalcium
Na

K

Rb
General
Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19
Chemical series alkali metals
Group, period, block 14, s
Appearance silvery white
Standard atomic weight 39.0983(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 0.89 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.828 g·cm−3
Melting point 336.53 K
(63.38 °C, 146.08 °F)
Boiling point 1032 K
(759 °C, 1398 °F)
Triple point 336.35 K (63°C),  kPa
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.82 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 418.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3052 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4420 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 220 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 243 pm
Covalent radius 196 pm
Van der Waals radius 275 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 102.5 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 83.3 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2000 m/s
Young's modulus 3.53 GPa
Shear modulus 1.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 3.1 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.4
Brinell hardness 0.363 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-09-7
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of potassium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
39K 93.26% 39K is stable with 20 neutrons
40K 0.012% 1.248(3)×109 y β- 1.311 40Ca
ε 1.505 40Ar
β+ 1.505 40Ar
41K 6.73% 41K is stable with 22 neutrons
References
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Potassium (pronounced /pəˈtæsiəm/) is a chemical element. It has the symbol K (Latin: kalium) and atomic number 19. The name "potassium" comes from the word "potash", as potassium was first isolated from potash. Potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that occurs naturally bound to other elements in seawater and many minerals. It oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the evolved hydrogen. In many respects, potassium and sodium are chemically similar, although they have very different functions in organisms in general, and in animal cells in particular. General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The alkali metals are a chemical series. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The s-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the first two groups: the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, plus hydrogen. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Potassium (K) Standard atomic mass: 39. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 1016 seconds (320 million years) and 1017 seconds (3200 million years). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Air redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...

Contents

Occurrence

See also: Category:Potassium minerals
Potassium in feldspar

Potassium metal is never found free, as it reacts violently with the abundant water in nature.[1] As various compounds, potassium makes up about 1.5% of the weight of the Earth's crust and is the seventh most abundant element.[1] As it is very electropositive, potassium metal is difficult to obtain from its minerals. Potassium salts such as carnallite, langbeinite, polyhalite, and sylvite form extensive deposits in ancient lake and seabeds, making extraction of potassium salts in these environments commercially viable. The principal source of potassium, potash, is mined in Saskatchewan, California, Germany, New Mexico, Utah, and in other places around the world. Three thousand feet below the surface of Saskatchewan are large deposits of potash which are important sources of this element and its salts, with several large mines in operation since the 1960s. Saskatchewan pioneered the use of freezing of wet sands (the Blairmore formation) in order to drive mine shafts through them. The main mining company is the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan. The oceans are another source of potassium, but the quantity present in a given volume of seawater is relatively low compared with sodium. Potassium feldspar Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Potassium feldspar Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... An electropositive atom, or element, is one that easily loses electrons. ... CarnalliteBold text ... Langbeinite is a potassium magnesium sulfate mineral with formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3. ... Polyhalite is a mineral, a hydrated sulphate of potassium, Calcium and Magnesium, formula (K.Ca)2. ... Sylvite is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, today generally referred to as PotashCorp, is a Canadian corporation that is the worlds largest producer of potash. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Production

Pure potassium metal can be isolated by electrolysis of its hydroxide in a process that has changed little since Davy.[1] Thermal methods also are employed in potassium production, using potassium chloride.[citation needed] In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of potassium

There are 24 known isotopes of potassium. Three isotopes occur naturally: 39K (93.3%), 40K (0.0117%) and 41K (6.7%). Naturally occurring 40K decays to stable 40Ar (11.2%) by electron capture and by positron emission, and decays to stable 40Ca (88.8%) by beta decay; 40K has a half-life of 1.250×109 years. The decay of 40K to 40Ar enables a commonly used method for dating rocks. The conventional K-Ar dating method depends on the assumption that the rocks contained no argon at the time of formation and that all the subsequent radiogenic argon (i.e., 40Ar) was quantitatively retained. Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium and the amount of radiogenic 40Ar that has accumulated. The minerals that are best suited for dating include biotite, muscovite, plutonic/high grade metamorphic hornblende, and volcanic feldspar; whole rock samples from volcanic flows and shallow instrusives can also be dated if they are unaltered. Potassium (K) Standard atomic mass: 39. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Potassium-argon or K-Ar dating is a geochronological method used in many geoscience disciplines. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... A Biotite slice Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral that contains potassium, magnesium, iron and aluminium. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Outside of dating, potassium isotopes have been used extensively as tracers in studies of weathering. They have also been used for nutrient cycling studies because potassium is a macronutrient required for life. A radioactive tracer is a substance containing a radioactive isotope (radioisotope). ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... In ecology and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (bio-) and abiotic (geo-) compartments of an ecosystem. ... A macronutrient in ecology is an essential chemical element needed in large quantities by all living things in order to function normally. ... This article is about life in general. ...


40K occurs in natural potassium (and thus in some commercial salt substitutes) in sufficient quantity that large bags of those substitutes can be used as a radioactive source for classroom demonstrations. In healthy animals and people, 40K represents the largest source of radioactivity, greater even than 14C. In a human body of 70 kg mass, about 4,400 nuclei of 40K decay per second.[2]


The activity of natural potassium is 31 Bq/g. For other uses, see Becquerel (disambiguation). ...


Properties

Physical properties

The flame test

Potassium is the second least dense metal; only lithium is less dense. It is a soft, low-melting solid that can easily be cut with a knife. Freshly cut potassium is silvery in appearance, but in air it begins to tarnish toward grey immediately.[1] Image File history File links FlammenfärbungK.png‎ Flame test Kalium, violett Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 24. ... Image File history File links FlammenfärbungK.png‎ Flame test Kalium, violett Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 24. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


In a flame test, potassium and its compounds emit a pale violet color, which may be masked by the strong yellow emission of sodium if it is also present. Cobalt glass can be used to filter out the yellow sodium color.[3] Potassium concentration in solution is commonly determined by flame photometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma, or ion selective electrodes. The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ... Cobalt Glass Bromo-Seltzer bottle Cobalt glass is a deep blue colored glass prepared by adding cobalt compounds to the molten glass. ... A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis to determine the concentration of certain metal ions. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Picture of an analytical ICP viewed through green welders glass An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electrical currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields. ... An ion selective electrode (ISE) is an electrode designed to respond to only one type of ion. ...


Chemical properties

Potassium must be protected from air for storage to prevent disintegration of the metal from oxide and hydroxide corrosion. Often samples are maintained under a reducing medium such as kerosene. ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...


Like the other alkali metals, potassium reacts violently with water, producing hydrogen. The reaction is notably more violent than that of lithium or sodium with water, and is sufficiently exothermic that the evolved hydrogen gas ignites. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → H2(g) + 2KOH(aq)

Because potassium reacts quickly with even traces of water, and its reaction products are nonvolatile, it is sometimes used alone, or as NaK (an alloy with sodium which is liquid at room temperature) to dry solvents prior to distillation. In this role, it serves as a potent desiccant. NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ...


Potassium hydroxide reacts strongly with carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate, and is used to remove traces of CO2 from air.


Potassium compounds generally have excellent water solubility, due to the high hydration energy of the K+ ion. The potassium ion is colorless in water.


Methods of separating potassium by precipitation, sometimes used for gravimetric analysis, include the use of sodium tetraphenyl boron, hexachloroplatinic acid, and sodium cobaltinitrite. Gravimetric analysis is a quantitative chemical analysis done by weighing a sample of a purified and dried precipitate. ... Sodium cobaltinitrite, Na3Co(NO2)6, is a compound that is used to test for potassium and ammonium ions (provided that other cations are absent), because although the sodium salt is soluble, those of potassium and ammonium are insoluble due to the large size of the potassium and ammonium ions. ...


Potassium cations in the body

Biochemical function

Main article: Action potential

Potassium ions, (generally referred to as "postasium") are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid.[4]. It is also the major cation in animal cells. A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ...


Potassium may be detected by taste because it triggers three of the five types of tastebuds, according to concentration. Dilute solutions of potassium ion taste sweet (allowing moderate concentrations in milk and juices), while higher concentrations become increasingly bitter/alkaline, and finally also salty to the taste. The combined bitterness and saltiness of high potassium content solutions makes high-dose potassium supplementation by liquid drinks a palatability challenge.[citation needed]


Membrane polarization

Potassium is also important in allowing muscle contraction and the sending of all nerve impulses in animals through action potentials. By nature of their electrostatic and chemical properties, K+ ions are larger than Na+ ions, and ion channels and pumps in cell membranes can distinguish between the two types of ions, actively pumping or passively allowing one of the two ions to pass, while blocking the other. [5] A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ...


A shortage of potassium in body fluids may cause a potentially fatal condition known as hypokalemia, typically resulting from diarrhea, increased diuresis and vomiting. Deficiency symptoms include muscle weakness, paralytic ileus, ECG abnormalities, decreased reflex response and in severe cases respiratory paralysis, alkalosis and cardiac arrhythmia. Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ... Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ...


Filtration and excretion

Potassium is an essential mineral micronutrient in human nutrition; it is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, and it is thus important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Sodium makes up most of the cations of blood plasma at about 145 milliequivalents per liter (3345 milligrams) and potassium makes up most of the cell fluid cations at about 150 milliequivalents per liter (4800 milligrams). Plasma is filtered through the glomerulus of the kidneys in enormous amounts, about 180 liters per day.[6] Thus 602,000 milligrams of sodium and 33,000 milligrams of potassium are filtered each day. All but the 1000-10,000 milligrams of sodium and the 1000-4000 milligrams of potassium likely to be in the diet must be reabsorbed. Sodium must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep the blood volume exactly right and the osmotic pressure correct; potassium must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep serum concentration as close as possible to 4.8 milliequivalents (about 190 milligrams) per liter.[7] Sodium pumps must always operate to conserve sodium. Potassium must sometimes be conserved also, but since the amount of potassium in the blood plasma is very small and the pool of potassium in the cells is about thirty times as large, the situation is not so critical for potassium. Since potassium is moved passively[8][9] in counter flow to sodium in response to an apparent (but not actual) Donnan equilibrium,[10] the urine can never sink below the concentration of potassium in serum except sometimes by actively excreting water at the end of the processing. Potassium is secreted twice and reabsorbed three times before the urine reaches the collecting tubules.[11] At that point, it usually has about the same potassium concentration as plasma. If potassium were removed from the diet, there would remain a minimum obligatory kidney excretion of about 200 mg per day when the serum declines to 3.0-3.5 milliequivalents per liter in about one week,[12] and can never be cut off completely. Because it cannot be cut off completely, death will result when the whole body potassium declines to the vicinity of one-half full capacity. At the end of the processing, potassium is secreted one more time if the serum levels are too high. An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The potassium moves passively through pores in the cell wall. When ions move through pumps there is a gate in the pumps on either side of the cell wall and only one gate can be open at once. As a result 100 ions are forced through per second. Pores have only one gate and there one kind of ion only can stream through at 10 million to 100 million ions per second.[13] The pores require calcium in order to open[14] although it is thought that the calcium works in reverse by blocking at least one of the pores.[15] Carbonyl groups inside the pore on the amino acids mimics the water hydration that takes place in water solution[16] by the nature of the electrostatic charges on four carbonyl groups inside the pore.[17]


Potassium in the diet

Adequate intake can generally be guaranteed by eating a variety of foods containing potassium and deficiency is rare in healthy individuals eating a balanced diet. Foods with high sources of potassium include orange juice, potatoes, bananas, avocados, tomatoes, broccoli, soybeans and apricots, although it is also common in most fruits, vegetables and meats [18]. Diets high in potassium can reduce the risk of hypertension and a potassium deficiency combined with an inadequate thiamine intake has produced heart disease in rats.[19] The 2004 guidelines of the Institute of Medicine specify a DRI of 4,000mg of potassium, though most Americans consume only half that amount per day.[20] Similarly, in the European Union, particularly in Germany and Italy, insufficient potassium intake is somewhat common.[21] For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Mill. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ...


Supplements of potassium in medicine are most widely used in conjunction with loop diuretics and thiazides, classes of diuretics which rid the body of sodium and water, but have the side effect of also causing potassium loss in urine. A variety of medical supplements are available. If potassium supplements are used, such as sodium free baking powder and sodium free table salt, inadequate thiamine can cause beriberi.[22][23][citation needed] Loop diuretics are diuretics that act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney. ... Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ...


Individuals suffering from kidney diseases may suffer adverse health effects from consuming large quantities of dietary potassium. End stage renal failure patients undergoing therapy by renal dialysis must observe strict dietary limits on potassium intake, since the kidneys control potassium excretion, and buildup of blood concentrations of potassium may trigger fatal cardiac arrhythmia. Acute hyperkalemia can be reduced through eating baking soda,[24] or glucose,[25][26] hyperventilation[27] and perspiration.[28] The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. ... This article is about clinical dialysis; for the laboratory technique, see Dialysis (biochemistry) In medicine, dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea from the blood when the kidneys are incapable of this, i. ... Hyperkalemia is an elevated blood level (above 5. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In medicine, hyperventilation (or hyperpnea) is the state of breathing faster or deeper (hyper) than necessary, and thereby reducing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood below normal. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ...


Applications

Biological applications

Potassium is an essential component of plant nutrition and is found in most soil types. Its primary use in agriculture, horticulture and hydroponic culture as a fertilizer as the chloride (KCl), sulfate (K2SO4) or nitrate (KNO3). For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (also known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


In animal cells, potassium ions are vital to keeping cells alive (see Na-K pump). For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Food applications

Potassium is a nutrient necessary for human life and health. Potassium chloride is used as a substitute for table salt by those seeking to reduce sodium intake so as to control hypertension. Good dietary sources of potassium include celery juice.[29] The USDA lists tomato paste, orange juice, beet greens, white beans, bananas, and many other good dietary sources of potassium, ranked according to potassium content per measure shown.[30] The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...


Potassium sodium tartrate, or Rochelle salt (KNaC4H4O6) is the main constituent of baking powder. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a strong oxidiser, used as a flour improver (E924) to improve dough strength and rise height. Potassium sodium tartrate is a double salt first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ... Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder. ...


The sulfite compound, Potassium bisulfite (KHSO3) is used as a food preservative, for example in wine and beer-making (but not in meats). It is also used to bleach textiles and straw, and in the tanning of leathers. Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... Potassium hydrogen sulfite or potassium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KHSO3. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ...


Non-dietary uses of potassium chloride include its use to stop the heart, e.g. in cardiac surgery and in a solution used in executions by lethal injection. The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


Industrial applications

Potassium vapor is used in several types of magnetometers. An alloy of sodium and potassium, NaK (usually pronounced "nack"), that is liquid at room temperature, is used as a heat-transfer medium. It can also be used as a desiccant for producing dry and air-free solvents. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ...


Potassium metal reacts vigorously with all of the halogens to form the corresponding potassium halides, which are white, water-soluble salts with cubic crystal morphology. Potassium bromide (KBr), potassium iodide (KI) and potassium chloride (KCl) are used in photographic emulsion to make the corresponding photosensitive silver halides. The cubic crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Silver-gelatin photographic paper, film and plates are made by coating sensitizing material called emulsion, consisting of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin, on a substrate material, which may be glass, plastic film, paper or fabric. ... Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens, usually silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl) and silver iodide (AgI). ...


Potassium hydroxide KOH is a strong base, used in industry to neutralize strong and weak acids and thereby finding uses in pH control and in the manufacture of potassium salts. Potassium hydroxide is also used to saponify fats and oils and in hydrolysis reactions, for example of esters and in industrial cleaners. The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigment ground into a medium of oil - especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ...


Potassium nitrate KNO3 or saltpeter is obtained from natural sources such as guano and evaporites or manufactured by the Haber process and is the oxidant in gunpowder (black powder) and an important agricultural fertilizer. Potassium cyanide KCN is used industrially to dissolve copper and precious metals particularly silver and gold by forming complexes; applications include gold mining, electroplating and electroforming of these metals. It is also used in organic synthesis to make nitriles. Potassium carbonate K2CO3, also known as potash, is used in the manufacture of glass and soap and as a mild desiccant. R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... Evaporites are sediments formed when mineral rich water evaporates. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Potassium cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... Electroforming is a highly specialized process of metal part fabrication using electrodeposition in a plating bath over a base form or mandrel which is subsequently removed. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms...


Potassium chromate (K2CrO4) is used in dyes and stains (bright yellowish-red colour), in explosives and fireworks, in safety matches, in the tanning of leather and in fly paper. Potassium fluorosilicate (K2SiF6) is used in specialized glasses, ceramics, and enamels. Potassium sodium tartrate, or Rochelle salt (KNaC4H4O6) is used in the silvering of mirrors. Potassium Chromate is a yellow chemical indicator used for Identifying concentrations of Chloride ions in a salt solution with Silver nitrate. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Stain (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Potassium sodium tartrate is a double salt first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France. ... Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance, originally silver, in order to create a mirror. ... This article is about wave reflectors (mainly, specular reflection of visible light). ...


The superoxide KO2 is an orange coloured solid used as a portable source of oxygen and as a carbon dioxide absorber. It is useful in portable respiration systems. It is widely used in submarines and spacecrafts as it takes extreamely less volume than O2(g). Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... This article is about the breathing apparatus. ...

 4KO2 + 2CO2 --- 2K2CO3 + O2 4KO2 + 4CO2 --- 4KHCO3 + 3O2 

Potassium chlorate KClO3 is a strong oxidant, used in percussion caps and safety matches and in agriculture as a weedkiller. Glass may be treated with molten potassium nitrate KNO3 to make toughened glass, which is much stronger than regular glass. Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention needed to make fire-arms that could fire in any weather. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... This article is about the material. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A vandalized telephone booth with toughened glass Toughened glass or tempered glass is a type of glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter into small fragments when broken. ...


History

Potassium was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash (KOH). Before the 18th century, no distinction was made between potassium and sodium. Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.[31] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...


Potassium was not known in Roman times, and its names are not Classical Latin but rather neo-Latin. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ...

  • The name kalium was taken from the word "alkali", which came from Arabic al qalīy = "the calcined ashes".
  • The name potassium was made from the word "potash", which is English, and originally meant an alkali extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves.

Alkaline redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Alkaline redirects here. ...

Precautions

Peroxides (Yellow) and Ozonides (Red) on surface of potassium metal.

Potassium reacts very violently with water producing hydrogen gas which then usually catches fire. Potassium is usually kept under a mineral oil such as kerosene to stop the metal reacting with water vapour present in the air. Unlike lithium and sodium, however, potassium should not be stored under oil indefinitely. If stored longer than 6 months to a year, dangerous shock-sensitive peroxides can form on the metal and under the lid of the container, which can detonate upon opening. It is recommended that potassium, rubidium or caesium not be stored for longer than three months unless stored in an inert (oxygen free) atmosphere, or under vacuum.[32] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (885x800, 125 KB) Image of potassium metal chunk with peroxides/superoxides (yellow crystals) and ozonide (red coloring) on the surface of the metal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (885x800, 125 KB) Image of potassium metal chunk with peroxides/superoxides (yellow crystals) and ozonide (red coloring) on the surface of the metal. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ...


As potassium reacts with water to produce highly flammable hydrogen gas, a potassium fire is only exacerbated by the addition of water, and only a few dry chemicals are effective for putting out such a fire (see the precaution section in sodium). This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ...


Potassium also produces potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the reaction with water. Potassium hydroxide which is an strong alkali and so is a caustic hazard causing burns. The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Alkaline redirects here. ...


Due to the highly reactive nature of potassium, it should be handled with great care, with full skin and eye protection being used and preferably a explosive resistant barrier between the user and the source of the potassium.


References

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  2. ^ background radiation - potassium-40 - γ radiation.
  3. ^ Anne Marie Helmenstine. Qualitative Analysis - Flame Tests. About.com.
  4. ^ Campbell, Neil (1987). Biology, 795. ISBN 0-8053-1840-2. 
  5. ^ Lockless SW, Zhou M, MacKinnon R.. Structural and thermodynamic properties of selective ion binding in a K+ channel. Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysic, Rockefeller University. Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
  6. ^ Potts, W.T.W.; Parry, G. (1964). Osmotic and ionic regulation in animals. Pergamon Press. 
  7. ^ Lans HS, Stein IF, Meyer KA (1952). "The relation of serum potassium to erythrocyte potassium in normal subjects and patients with potassium deficiency". Am. J. Med. Sci. 223 (1): 65–74. doi:10.1097/00000441-195201000-00011. PMID 14902792. 
  8. ^ Bennett CM, Brenner BM, Berliner RW (1968). "Micropuncture study of nephron function in the rhesus monkey". J Clin Invest 47 (1): 203–216. PMID 16695942. 
  9. ^ Solomon AK (1962). "Pumps in the living cell". Sci. Am. 207: 100–8. PMID 13914986. 
  10. ^ Kernan, Roderick P. (1980). Cell potassium (Transport in the life sciences). New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471048062. ; p. 40 & 48.
  11. ^ Wright FS (1977). "Sites and mechanisms of potassium transport along the renal tubule". Kidney Int. 11 (6): 415–32. doi:10.1038/ki.1977.60. PMID 875263. 
  12. ^ Squires RD, Huth EJ (1959). "Experimental potassium depletion in normal human subjects. I. Relation of ionic intakes to the renal conservation of potassium". J. Clin. Invest. 38 (7): 1134–48. doi:10.1172/JCI103890. PMID 13664789. 
  13. ^ Gadsby DC (2004). "Ion transport: spot the difference". Nature 427 (6977): 795–7. doi:10.1038/427795a. PMID 14985745. ; for a diagram of the potassium pores are viewed, see Miller C (2001). "See potassium run". Nature 414 (6859): 23–4. doi:10.1038/35102126. PMID 11689922. 
  14. ^ Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (2002). "Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated potassium channel". Nature 417 (6888): 515–22. doi:10.1038/417515a. PMID 12037559. 
  15. ^ Shi N, Ye S, Alam A, Chen L, Jiang Y (2006). "Atomic structure of a Na+- and K+-conducting channel". Nature 440 (7083): 570–4. doi:10.1038/nature04508. PMID 16467789. ; includes a detailed picture of atoms in the pump.
  16. ^ Zhou Y, Morais-Cabral JH, Kaufman A, MacKinnon R (2001). "Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K+ channel-Fab complex at 2.0 A resolution". Nature 414 (6859): 43–8. doi:10.1038/35102009. PMID 11689936. 
  17. ^ Noskov SY, Bernèche S, Roux B (2004). "Control of ion selectivity in potassium channels by electrostatic and dynamic properties of carbonyl ligands". Nature 431 (7010): 830–4. doi:10.1038/nature02943. PMID 15483608. 
  18. ^ http://www.pamf.org/patients/pdf/potassium_count.pdf
  19. ^ Folis, R.H. (1942). "Myocardial Necrosis in Rats on a Potassium Low Diet Prevented by Thiamine Deficiency". Bull. Johns-Hopkins Hospital 71: 235. 
  20. ^ Grim CE, Luft FC, Miller JZ, et al (1980). "Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity". J Chronic Dis 33 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1016/0021-9681(80)90032-6. PMID 6986391. 
  21. ^ Karger, S. (2004). "Energy and nutrient intake in the European Union" (pdf). Ann Nutr Metab 48 (2 (suppl)): 1–16. 
  22. ^ Mineno, T (1969). "Effect of some vitamins and other substances on K metabolism in the myocardia of vitamin deficient rats - Experimental investigation.". J. Nagoya Med. Assoc. 92;: 80–95. 
  23. ^ Gould, SE (ed) (1968). Pathology of the Heart and Blood Vessels. Charles C. Thomas, 851.  p. 508.
  24. ^ Berliner RW, Kennedy TJ, Orloff J (1951). "Relationship between acidification of the urine and potassium metabolism; effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on potassium excretion". Am. J. Med. 11 (3): 274–82. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(51)90165-9. PMID 14877833. 
  25. ^ Knochel JP (1984). "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia". Am. J. Med. 77 (5A): 18–27. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(84)80004-2. PMID 6496556. 
  26. ^ Kolb H, Burkart V (1999). "Nicotinamide in type 1 diabetes. Mechanism of action revisited". Diabetes Care 22 Suppl 2: B16–20. PMID 10097894. 
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  29. ^ Celery - Nutritional Analysis http://www.juicingbook.com/vegetables/celery
  30. ^ )Potassium / K (mg.) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content | USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20 http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR20/nutrlist/sr20w306.pdf
  31. ^ Enghag, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the elements. Wiley-VCH Weinheim. 
  32. ^ Thomas K. Wray. DANGER: PEROXIDIZABLE CHEMICALS. Environmental Health & Public Safety (North Carolina State University).

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See also

Potassium is the main intracellular ion for all types of cells. ...

External links

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The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (2412 words)
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