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Encyclopedia > Postmodern feminism
Feminism

Subtypes
Anarcha-feminism
Black feminism
Christian Feminism
Cultural feminism
Cyborg feminism
Ecofeminism
Fat feminism
Individualist feminism
Islamic feminism
Lesbian feminism
Liberal feminism
Marxist feminism
Postmodern feminism
Psychoanalytic feminism
Radical feminism
Religious feminism
Separatist feminism
Socialist feminism
Womanism
Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of women and men morally, socially, and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Cyborg feminism is a sub-movement of feminism that uses the notion of a cyborg, machine-organism hybrid, to explore feminism. ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... Psychoanalytic feminism is based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theories. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Defined by feminist author Alice Walker, Womanism is a commonly used term that was coined to mean specifically African American Feminism, but it has developed into a more encompassing version of feminism that crosses lines of race and class. ...


Topics
Feminist movement
Pro-feminism
Anti-feminism
Sex-positive feminism
Theory / film theory
Feminist sexology
Women's rights
Feminist economics
The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ...


History
Women's history
Feminist history
History of feminism
Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... The History of Feminism is the history of the Feminist movement, as well as its origins. ...


Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Suffragette
Timeline
New Zealand
United Kingdom
United States
The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ...


Waves of Feminism
First-wave feminism
Second-wave feminism
Third-wave feminism
First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


By country
Indonesia
Iran
Latin America
Nicaragua
Norway
United Kingdom
United States
Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ...


Lists
Feminists
Literature
Topics
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

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Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory. The largest departure from other branches of feminism, is the argument sex is itself constructed through language. The most notable proponent of this argument is Judith Butler, in her 1990 book, Gender Trouble, which draws on, and critiques the work of Simone de Beauvoir, Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan. Butler criticises the distinction drawn by previous feminisms between (biological) sex and (socially constructed) gender. Butler's argument is that this does not allow for a sufficient criticism of essentialism: although feminists have recognized that gender is not naturally given but socially constructed, they have nonetheless tended to assume that gender is always constructed in the same way. This argument leads to the conclusion that there is no single cause for women's subordination, and no single approach towards dealing with the issue. This has lead to criticism of postmodern feminism for offering no clear path to action. However, although Butler herself has been labelled as a 'post-structionalist', applying the tag of 'post-modernist' to her work is seen as missing the point. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Image:J Butler. ... Gender Trouble is a 1990 book by Judith Butler that is highly influential in academic feminism and queer theory. ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ; English-speakers pronunciation varies) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ...


Although postmodernism resists characterization, it is possible to identify certain themes or orientations that postmodern feminists share. Mary Joe Frug suggested that one "principle" of postmodernism is that human experience is located "inescapably within language." Power is exercised not only through direct coercion, but also through the way in which language shapes and restricts our reality. However, because language is always open to re-interpretation, it can also be used to resist this shaping and restriction, and so is a potentially fruitful site of political struggle. Postmodernism is a controversial term partly because it implies that the modern historical period has ended. ... Mary Joe Frug was a professor at New England School of Law from 1981 to 1991. ...


Frug's second postmodern principle is that sex is not something natural, nor is it something completely determinate and definable. Rather, sex is part of a system of meaning, produced by language. Frug argues that "cultural mechanisms ... encode the female body with meanings," and that these cultural mechanisms then go on explain these meanings "by an appeal to the 'natural' differences between the sexes, differences that the rules themselves help to produce."[1] Rejecting the idea of a natural basis to sexual difference allows us to see that it is always susceptible to new interpretations. Like other systems of meaning, it is less like a cage, and more like a tool: it constrains but never completely determines what one can do with it. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Mary Joe Frug, "A Postmodern Feminist Legal Manifesto (An Unfinished Draft)," Harvard Law Review, Vol. 105, No. 5. (Mar., 1992), pp. 1045-1075, at p. 1049.

Bibliography

  • Susan H. Williams and David C. Williams "A Feminist Theory of Malebashing" published in Michigan Journal of Gender & Law, 4 Mich. J. Gender & L. 35 (1996)

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Postmodern feminism Totally Explained (525 words)
Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory.
Although postmodernism resists characterization, it's possible to identify certain themes or orientations that postmodern feminists share.
Mary Joe Frug suggested that one "principle" of postmodernism is that human experience is located "inescapably within language." Power is exercised not only through direct coercion, but also through the way in which language shapes and restricts our reality.
Feminism (2658 words)
Postmodern discourses are all deconstructive in that they seek to distance us from and make us sceptical about beliefs concerning truth, knowledge, power, the self, and language that are taken for granted within, and serve as legitimation for, contemporary Western culture (p.
Whilst a 'postmodern' position may be one I would have great empathy with I would risk the accusation of writing from the position of a 'true believer' of the fundamentalist creed according to 'postmodernism' if I did not outline some of the 'tensions' between modernism/postmodernism within feminism.
Postmodern theorists would be in danger of constructing yet another 'regime of truth', yet in so doing the way is left open for these theories to be co-opted for ends which may not have envisaged.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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