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Encyclopedia > Postmodern art
Postmodernism
preceded by Modernism

Postmodernity
Postchristianity
Postmodern philosophy
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern art
Postmodernist film
Postmodern literature
Postmodern music
Postmodern theater
Critical theory
Globalization
Consumerism
Minimalism in art
Minimalism in music Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Belief in God per country (Eurobarometer 2005) Postchristianity [1] or postchristendom is a term used to describe a contemporary cultural attitude strictly linked to postmodernism. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Postmodernist film describes the ideas of postmodernism in film. ... The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... Postmodern theatre is a recent phenomenon in world theatre, coming as it does out of the postmodern philosophy that originated in Europe in the 1960s. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about a musical style. ...

Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general movements such as Intermedia, Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern. The traits associated with the use of the term postmodern in art include bricolage, use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation, depiction of consumer or popular culture and Performance art. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Bricolage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ... Definition To appropriate something is to take possession of it. ... This article is about Performance art. ...

Contents

Use of the term

The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is "contemporary art". Not all art labelled as contemporary art is postmodern, and the broader term encompasses both artists who continue to work in modernist and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject postmodernism for other reasons. Arthur Danto argues that "contemporary" is the broader term, and that postmodern objects represent a "subsector" of the contemporary movement.[1] Some postmodern artists have made a more distinctive break from the ideas of modern art and there is no consensus as to what is "late-modern" and what is "post-modern." Ideas rejected by the modern aesthetic have been reestablished. In painting, postmodernism reintroduced representation.[2] Traditional techniques and subject matter have returned in art. It has even been argued that much of what is called postmodern today, the latest avant-gardism, should still be classified as modern art.[3] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Late modernity (or liquid modernity) is a term for the concept that some present highly developed societies are continuing developments of modernity. ... Arthur Coleman Danto (b. ...


As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, postmodern has also been used to denote a phase of modern art. This position is adopted by both defenders of modernism such as Clement Greenberg[4], as well as radical opponents of modernism such as Felix Guattari, who calls it modernism's "last gasp.".[5] The neo-conservative Hilton Kramer describes postmodernism as "a creation of modernism at the end of its tether."[6] Jean-François Lyotard, in Frederic Jameson's analysis, does not hold that there is a postmodern stage radically different from the period of high modernism; instead, postmodern discontent with this or that high modernist style is part of the experimentation of high modernism, giving birth to new modernisms.[7] Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Hilton Kramer (1928-) is an U.S conservative cultural critic and commentator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fredric Jameson (b. ... High modernism is a particular instance of modernism, coined towards the end of modernism. ...


Many critics hold that postmodern art emerges out of modern art. Suggested dates for the shift from modern to postmodern include 1914 in Europe, [8] and 1962[9]or 1968[10] in America. James Elkins, commenting on discussions about the exact date of the transition from modernism to postmodernism, compares it to the discussion in the 1960s about the exact span of Mannerism and whether it should begin directly after the High Renaissance or later in the century. He makes the point that these debates go on all the time with respect to art movements and periods, which is not to say that they aren't important.[11] The close of the period of postmodern art has been dated to the end of the 1980s, when the word postmodernism lost much of its critical resonance, and art practices began to address the impact of globalization and new media.[12] Yet most artists and critics believe we are still in the postmodern era and that this era is primarily defined by its "pluralism and diversity."[13] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... New Media is the marriage of mediated communications technologies with digital computers. ...


Fredrick Jameson argues that the condition of life and production will be reflected in all activity, including the making of art. Fredric Jameson (b. ...


Jean Baudrillard has had a significant influence on postmodern-inspired art and has emphasised the possibilities of new forms of creativity.[14] The artist Peter Halley describes his day-glo colours as "hyperrealization of real color", and acknowledges Baudrillard as an influence.[15] Baudrillard himself, since 1984, was fairly consistent in his view that contemporary art, and postmodern art in particular, was inferior to the modernist art of the post World War II period.[15] Jean Baudrillard (July 29, 1929 – March 6, 2007) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Peter Halley was born on September 24, 1953 in New York City. ...


As with all uses of the term postmodern there are critics of its application. Kirk Varnedoe, for instance, stated that there is no such thing as postmodernism, and that the possibilities of modernism have not yet been exhausted.[16] These critics are currently in the minority.[17] This article is in need of attention. ...


Defining postmodern art

Postmodernism describes movements which both arise from, and react against or reject, trends in modernism.[18] Specific trends of modernism that are generally cited are formal purity, medium specificity, art for art's sake, authenticity, universal truth, originality and the avant-garde. However, paradox is probably the most important modernist idea against which postmodernism reacts. Paradox was central to the modernist enterprise, having been introduced by Manet. Manet's various violations of representational art brought to prominence the supposed mutual exclusiveness of reality and representation, design and representation, abstraction and reality, and so on. Never more than a technique, the incorporation of paradox was nevertheless highly stimulating from Manet all the way up to the conceptualists. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Medium specificity is a principle in aesthetics and art criticism that developed during the period in art history called Modernism. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... In art, authenticity describes how individuals experience art as being authentic, real or original as opposed to being commercial. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Originality refers to something being new or novel. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ...


The status of the avant-garde is particularly controversial: many institutions argue that being visionary, forward-looking, cutting-edge, and progressive are crucial to the mission of art in the present, and therefore postmodern art contradicts the value of "art of our times". Postmodernism rejects the notion of advancement or progress in art per se, and thus aims to overturn the "myth of the avant-garde". Rosalind Krauss was one of the important enunciators of the view that avant-gardism was over, and that the new artistic era is post-liberal and post-progress.[19] A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


One characteristic of postmodern art is its conflation of the distinction between high and low culture through the use of industrial materials and pop culture imagery. The use of low forms of art were a part of modernist experimentation as well, as documented in Kirk Vanedoe and Adam Gopnik's 1990-91 show High and Low: Popular Culture and Modern Art at New York's Museum of Modern Art, [20] an exhibition that was universally panned at the time as the only event that could bring Douglas Crimp and Hilton Kramer together in a chorus of scorn.[21] Adam Gopnik, an essayist and commentator, is primarily known for his work published by The New Yorker, for which he has written since 1986. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ...


Fredrick Jameson suggests that postmodern works abjure any claim to spontaneity and directness of expression, making use instead of pastiche and discontinuity. [22] Against this definition Charles Harrison and Paul Wood maintain that pastiche and discontinuity are endemic to modernist art, and are deployed effectively by modern artists such as Manet and Picasso.[22] Édouard Manet - 19th century French painter Mobile_ad-hoc_network - A self configuring wireless network This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ...


One compact definition is that postmodernism rejects modernism's grand narratives of artistic direction, eradicating the boundaries between high and low forms of art, and disrupting genre's conventions with collision, collage, and fragmentation. Postmodern art holds that all stances are unstable and insincere, and therefore irony, parody, and humor are the only positions that cannot be overturned by critique or revision. In critical theory, and particularly postmodernism, a metanarrative (sometimes master- or grand narrative) is a global or totalizing cultural narrative schema which orders and explains knowledge and experience.[1] The prefix meta means beyond and is here used to mean about, and a narrative is a story. ... Ironic redirects here. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ...


Avant-garde precursors

Radical movements and trends regarded as influential and potentially as precursors to postmodernism emerged around World War I and particularly in its aftermath. With the introduction of the use of industrial artifacts in art and techniques such as collage, avant-garde movements such as Cubism, Dada and Surrealism questioned the nature and value of art. These movements were influenced by new artforms such as cinema and the rise of reproduction as a means of creating artworks. The ignition point for the definition of modernism, Clement Greenberg's essay, Avant-Garde and Kitsch, first published in Partisan Review in 1939, is a defence of the avant-garde in the face of popular culture. [23] Later, Peter Bürger would make a distinction between the historical avant-garde and modernism, and critics such as Krauss, Huyssen, and Douglas Crimp, following Bürger, identified the historical avant-garde as a precursor to postmodernism. Krauss, for example, describes Pablo Picasso's use of collage as an avant-garde practice that anticipates postmodern art with its emphasis on language at the expense of autobiography.[24] Another point of view is that avant-garde and modernist artists used similar strategies and that postmodernism repudiates both. [25] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Max Ernst. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Avant-Garde and Kitsch is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg in which he claimed that avant-garde and modernist art was a means to resist the dumbing down of culture caused by consumerism. ... Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003. ... Picasso redirects here. ...


Dada

Main article: Dada

In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His point was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art, because he said it was a work of art. He referred to his work as "Readymades." The Fountain, was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art. It is questionable, to some, whether Duchamp--whose obsession with paradox is well known--can be called postmodernist on only the grounds that he eschews any specific medium, since paradox is not medium-specific, although it arose first in Manet's paintings. DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Download high resolution version (594x814, 59 KB) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Download high resolution version (594x814, 59 KB) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... He was a loser. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Fountain 1917; 1964 artist-authorized replica made by the artists dealer, Arturo Schwartz, based on a photograph by Alfred Stieglitz. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ...


Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established styles and forms, along with Surrealism, Futurism and Abstract Expressionism.[26] From a chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within modernism, however a number of critics have held that it anticipates postmodernism, while others, such as Ihab Hassan and Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover point between modernism and postmodernism.[27] For example, according to McEvilly, postmodernism begins with the realization that one no longer believes in the myth of progress, and that Duchamp sensed this in 1914 when he changed his modernist practice to a postmodernist one, "abjuring aesthetic delectation, transcendent ambition, and tour de force demonstrations of formal agility in favor of aesthetic indifference, acknowledgement of the ordinary world, and the found object or readymade."[8] Max Ernst. ... Futurism (or Futurist) may refer to: Futures studies, the philosophical or academic study of the medium to long-term future (also known as futurology). ... Ihab Hassan (born 1925) is an Egyptian literary theorist. ... Steven Connor is the Academic Director of the London Consortium and Professor of Modern Literature and Theory at Birkbeck College, University of London. ...


Radical movements in modern art

In general Pop Art and Minimalism began as modernist movements: a paradigm shift and philosophical split between formalism and anti-formalism in the early 1970s caused those movements to be viewed by some as precursors or transitional postmodern art. Other modern movements cited as influential to postmodern art are conceptual art and the use of techniques such as assemblage, montage, bricolage, and appropriation. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Paradigm shift is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to describe a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. ... Look up formalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artefacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. ... An imaginary world composed of photorealistic inanimate, human, and plant objects spurs a psychological impact upon the viewer. ... Look up Bricolage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Composition with Fruit, Guitar and Glass. ...


Jackson Pollock and abstract expressionism

During the late 1940s and early 1950s Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To some extent Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined the way art gets made at the mid-century point. Pollock's move - away from easel painting and conventionality - was a liberating signal to his contemporaneous artists and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process - working on the floor, unstretched raw canvas, from all four sides, using artist materials, industrial materials, imagery, non-imagery, throwing linear skeins of paint, dripping, drawing, staining, brushing, essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt and others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them. Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Image File history File linksMetadata No. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ... Painting, Smoking Eating 1972 Oil on Canvas Philip Guston (July 27, 1913 – June 7, 1980) was a notable painter and printmaker in the New York School, which included many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American artist, a painter, and one of the leading figures in Abstract Expressionism. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Adolph Dietmar Friedrich Reinhardt (Ad Reinhardt) (December 24, 1913 – August 30, 1967) was a painter, writer, and pioneer of conceptual and minimal art. ...


In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s Color field painting, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction emerged as radical new directions. Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ...


Performance art and happenings

Main articles: Performance art and Happenings
Carolee Schneemann performing her piece Interior Scroll

During the late 1950s and 1960s artists with a wide range of interests began to push the boundaries of Contemporary art. Yves Klein in France, and Carolee Schneemann, Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman, and Yoko Ono in New York City were pioneers of performance based works of art. Groups like The Living Theater with Julian Beck and Judith Malina collaborated with sculptors and painters creating environments; radically changing the relationship between audience and performer especially in their piece Paradise Now. The Judson Dance Theater located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York, and the Judson dancers, notably Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, Elaine Summers, Sally Gross, Simonne Forti, Deborah Hay, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxton and others collaborated with artists Robert Morris, Robert Whitman, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and engineers like Billy Klüver. These performances were often designed to be the creation of a new art form, combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation. The works were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism, and the spontaneous improvisation, and expressivity of Abstract expressionism. This article is about Performance art. ... Happenings has multiple meanings (besides the straightforward dictionary definition): The Happenings were a 1960s pop music group whose major hits were See You In September and a cover of I Got Rhythm updated for the nascent pop/rock era. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carolee Schneemann (b. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Carolee Schneemann (b. ... Yayoi Kusama (草間弥生 ,born March 29, 1929) has been called Japans greatest living artist. ... Madeline Charlotte Moorman (November 18, 1933–November 8, 1991) was an American cellist and performance artist. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Living Theater Founded in 1947 by Julien Beck and Judith Molina, the Living Theater is a theatrical troupe whose mission is a dedication to the transference of power in all societies from competitive control to cooperative and communal expression. ... Julian Beck (May 31, 1925–September 14, 1985) was an American actor, director, poet, and painter. ... Judith Malina (born June 4, 1926) is an American theater and film actor, writer, and director, who is one of the founders and leaders of The Living Theatre. ... Judson Dance Theater located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York the group of artists that formed Judson Dance Theater are considered the founders of Postmodern dance. ... The Judson Memorial Church is located in Greenwich Village of Manhattan on the south side of Washington Square Park. ... This article is about the state. ... Yvonne Rainer (born November 24, 1934) is an American choreographer and filmmaker. ... Trisha Brown (25 November 1936, Aberdeen, Washington, U.S.) is a postmodernist American choreographer and dancer. ... Elaine Summers is American choreographer, experimental filmmaker, and intermedia pioneer. ... Steve Paxton (born 1939, Tucson, Arizona) is an experimental dancer and choreographer. ... Bronze Gate (2005) is a cor-ten steel work by Robert Morris. ... Robert Whitman (born 1935 in New York City) is an outstanding American artist who is best known for his seminal and continuing work in creating new, non-narrative, imagistic theater pieces. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Billy Klüver (1927-2004) Johan Wilhelm (Billy) Klüver was born in Monaco, November 13, 1927, and grew up in Sweden. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...


During the same period - the late 1950s through the mid 1960s various avant-garde artists created Happenings. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in varied specified locations. Often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physical exercise, costumes, spontaneous nudity, and various random and seemingly disconnected acts. Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red Grooms, and Robert Whitman among others were notable creators of Happenings. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Happenings has multiple meanings (besides the straightforward dictionary definition): The Happenings were a 1960s pop music group whose major hits were See You In September and a cover of I Got Rhythm updated for the nascent pop/rock era. ... Nude redirects here. ... Allan Kaprow (August 23, 1927 - April 5, 2006) helped to develop the Environment and Happening in the late 1950s and 1960s, as well as their theory. ... Claes Oldenburg Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring sculptures that are very hard to make. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Red Grooms (born Charles Rogers Grooms on June 7, 1937) is an American multimedia artist best known for his colorful pop-art constructions depicting frenetic scenes of modern urban life. ... Robert Whitman (born 1935 in New York City) is an outstanding American artist who is best known for his seminal and continuing work in creating new, non-narrative, imagistic theater pieces. ...


Assemblage art

Main article: Assemblage art
Robert Rauschenberg Untitled Combine, 1963

Related to Abstract expressionism was the emergence of combined manufactured items - with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting and sculpture. This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Robert Rauschenberg, whose "combines" in the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography. Assemblage is an artistic process in which a three-dimensional artistic composition is made from putting together found objects. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Commercial photography is photography made or licensed for the purpose of selling a product, service or idea where fine-art photography is created as an end in itself. ...


Leo Steinberg uses the term postmodernism in 1969 to describe Rauschenberg's "flatbed" picture plane, containing a range of cultural images and artifacts that had not been compatible with the pictorial field of premodernist and modernist painting.[28] Craig Owens goes further, identifying the significance of Rauschenberg's work not as a representation of, in Steinberg's view, "the shift from nature to culture", but as a demonstration of the impossibility of accepting their opposition. [29] Leo Steinberg (born 1920) is an American art historian. ... Craig Owens (1950 - 1990) was an American art critic and writer of The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism, first published in the journal October. ...


Steven Best and Douglas Kellner identify Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns as part of the transitional phase, influenced by Marcel Duchamp, between modernism and postmodernism. Both used images of ordinary objects, or the objects themselves, in their work, while retaining the abstraction and painterly gestures of high modernism.[30] Image:Steven best. ... Douglas Kellner, born in 1943, is one of the most important “third generation” critical theorists in the tradition of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, or Frankfurt School. ... Jasper Johnss Map, 1961 Jasper Johnss Flag, Encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood,1954-55 Detail of Flag (1954-55). ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the...


Pop art

Main articles: Pop Art and Western painting
Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam! (1963). On display at the Tate Modern, London.

The term "Pop Art" was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era. This movement rejected Abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age. The early works of David Hockney and the works of Richard Hamilton, John McHale, and Eduardo Paolozzi were considered seminal examples in the movement. While later American examples include the bulk of the careers of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein and his use of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. There is a clear connection between the radical works of Duchamp, the rebellious Dadaist - with a sense of humor; and Pop Artists like Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and the others. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Image File history File links Roy_Lichtenstein_Whaam. ... Image File history File links Roy_Lichtenstein_Whaam. ... Roy Lichtenstein (27 October 1923–29 September 1997) was a prominent American pop artist, whose work borrowed heavily from popular advertising and comic book styles, which he himself described as being as artificial as possible. // Roy Lichtenstein was born on 27 October 1923 into an upper-middle-class family in... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Lawrence Alloway (London, 1926 - New York, January 2, 1990) was an English art critic and curator who worked in the United States from the 1960s. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Jackson Pollock, No. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... Richard Hamilton is the name of: Richard Hamilton (artist), a British painter and collage artist Richard Hamilton (basketball), a player with the Detroit Pistons of the National Basketball Association Richard Hamilton (professor), Professor of Mathematics at Columbia University Richard Hamilton (actor) [1] This is a disambiguation page: a list of... John McHale (born Maryhill, Glasgow 1922, died Houston,Texas 1978) was an artist, a founder member of the Institute of Contemporary Arts, and a founder of the Independent Group, which was a British movement that originated Pop Art which grew out of a fascination with American mass culture and post... Paolozzis Newton, bronze (1995) in the courtyard of the British Library Paolozzi follows William Blakes 1795 print Newton in illustrating how Isaac Newtons equations changed our view of the world to being one determined by mathematical laws. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Roy Lichtenstein (27 October 1923–29 September 1997) was a prominent American pop artist, whose work borrowed heavily from popular advertising and comic book styles, which he himself described as being as artificial as possible. // Roy Lichtenstein was born on 27 October 1923 into an upper-middle-class family in... An example of the concept of Benday Dots The Benday Dots printing process is similar to pointilism but uses one primary color and is more spaced out (e. ... Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 - October 2, 1968) was a French/American artist. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Claes Oldenburg Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring sculptures that are very hard to make. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Roy Lichtenstein (27 October 1923–29 September 1997) was a prominent American pop artist, whose work borrowed heavily from popular advertising and comic book styles, which he himself described as being as artificial as possible. // Roy Lichtenstein was born on 27 October 1923 into an upper-middle-class family in...


Thomas McEvilly, agreeing with Dave Hickey, says that U.S postmodernism in the visual arts began with the first exhibitions of pop art in 1962, "though it took about twenty years before postmodernism became a dominant attitude in the visual arts." [9] Frederic Jameson, too, considers pop art to be postmodern.[31] Dave Hickey is one of the best known American art and cultural critics practising today. ... Fredric Jameson (b. ...


One way that Pop art is postmodern is that it breaks down what Andreas Huyssen calls the "Great Divide" between high art and popular culture.[32] Postmodernism emerges out of a "generational refusal of the categorical certainties of high modernism."[33] Andreas Huyssen is the Villard Professor of German and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. ...


Fluxus

Main article: Fluxus

Fluxus was named and loosely organized in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931-78), a Lithuanian-born American artist. Fluxus traces its beginnings to John Cage's 1957 to 1959 Experimental Composition classes at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in music. Cage's students included Fluxus founding members Jackson Mac Low, Al Hansen, George Brecht and Dick Higgins. Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... George Maciunas (November 8, 1931-May 9, 1978) was a Lithuanian-American artist. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... New School University is an institute of higher learning in New York City. ... Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 - December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of... Al Hansen (1927, New York City - June 22, 1995. ... George Brecht (born Halfway, Oregon, United States 1924) was an early Fluxus artist. ... Dick Higgins (born Cambridge, England 1938, died Quebec, Canada 1998) was a poet and early Fluxus artist. ...


Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues. DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Anti art is a work that is exhibited or delivered in a conventional context but makes fun of serious art or challenges the nature of art. ...


Fluxus can be viewed as part of the first phase of postmodernism, along with Rauschenberg, Johns, Warhol and the Situationist International.[34] Andreas Huyssen criticises attempts to claim Fluxus for postmodernism as, "either the master-code of postmodernism or the ultimately unrepresentable art movement – as it were, postmodernism's sublime." [35]Instead he sees Fluxus as a major Neo-Dadaist phenomena within the avant-garde tradition. It did not represent a major advance in the development of artistic strategies, though it did express a rebellion against, "the administered culture of the 1950s, in which a moderate, domesticated modernism served as ideological prop to the Cold War."[36] The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... Andreas Huyssen is the Villard Professor of German and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. ... Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Minimalism

Main article: Minimalism

By the early 1960s Minimalism emerged as an abstract movement in art (with roots in geometric abstraction via Malevich, the Bauhaus and Mondrian) which rejected the idea of relational, and subjective painting, the complexity of Abstract expressionist surfaces, and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of Action painting. Minimalism argued that extreme simplicity could capture all of the sublime representation needed in art. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella, minimalism in painting, as opposed to other areas, is a modernist movement and depending on the context can be construed as a precursor to the postmodern movement. For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Self-portrait, 1933 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Казимир Северинович Малевич, Polish Malewicz, Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German Kasimir Malewitsch), (February 12, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Mondrian can refer to: The artist, Piet Mondrian; A stimulus used in research into color perception, particularly color constancy. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Frank Stella La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC Frank Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ...


Hal Foster, in his essay The Crux of Minimalism, examines the extent to which Donald Judd and Robert Morris both acknowledge and exceed Greenbergian modernism in their published definitions of minimalism.[37] He argues that minimalism is not a "dead end" of modernism, but a "paradigm shift toward postmodern practices that continue to be elaborated today." [38] Harold Rudolph Foster (August 18, 1892 in Halifax, Nova Scotia - July 25, 1982) created the comic Prince Valiant. ... Untitled (Core Piece), 1969 Untitled sculpture from 1990 Donald Clarence Judd (June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist artist (a term he stridently disavowed) whose work sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it, ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional... Robert Morris is a very common name, and unsurprisingly there are many famous individuals named Robert Morris, including: Robert Morris (merchant), financier of the American Revolution and signatory of three important founding documents of the US Robert Morris, minimalist artist Robert H. Morris, American cryptographer and former chief scientist of...


Postminimalism

Main article: Postminimalism

The term Post-minimalism was coined by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1977 to describe minimalist derived art which had content and contextual overtones which minimalism rejected. His use of the term covered the period 1966 - 1976 and was applied to the work of Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra and new work by former minimalists Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Sol Lewitt, and Barry Le Va, and others.[39] Process art and anti-form art are other terms used to describe this work determined by the space it occupies and the process by which it is made.[40] Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Postminimalism is a term utilised in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop upon the work of Minimalism. ... Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ... Keith Sonnier (born 1941, Mamou, Louisiana) is a minimalist, performance, video and light artist. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born 2 November 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Smithsons Spiral Jetty set in Great Salt Lake, Utah. ... Bronze Gate (2005) is a cor-ten steel work by Robert Morris. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Process Art may be understood as an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment and worldview where the end product of art and craft, the objet d’art, is not the principal focus. ...


Rosalind Krauss argues that by 1968 artists such as Morris, LeWitt, Smithson and Serra had "entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist."[10] The expansion of the category of sculpture to include land art and architecture, "brought about the shift into postmodernism."[41] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... This article is about building architecture. ...


Minimalists like Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Agnes Martin, John McCracken and others continued to produce their late modernist paintings and sculpture for the remainder of their careers. Untitled (Core Piece), 1969 Untitled sculpture from 1990 Donald Clarence Judd (June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist artist (a term he stridently disavowed) whose work sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it, ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional... Ohne Titel (to Bob and Pat Rohm), 1970. ... Carl Andre (born September 16, 1935) American minimalist artist. ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American minimalist painter. ... John McCracken (b. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ...


Movements in postmodern art

New Classicism

The clear distinction between what defines modern art, with its constant reinvention, and the return to classical painting and sculpture is a central movement in postmodernism. Chief among the proponents of this aspect of postmodernism is the Art Renewal Center with its staunch rejection of all art it perceives to be modern. This movement is often referred to as classical realism. The Art Renewal Center is an organization dedicated to classical realism in art, as opposed to the Modernist developments of the 20th century. ... This article refers to the art movement. ...


Conceptual art

Main article: Conceptual Art

Conceptual art is sometimes labelled as postmodern because it is expressly involved in deconstruction of what makes a work of art, "art". Conceptual art, because it is often designed to confront, offend or attack notions held by many of the people who view it, is regarded with particular controversy. Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ...


Precursors to conceptual art include the work of Duchamp, John Cage's 4' 33" which is four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence and Rauschenberg's Erased De Kooning Drawing. Many conceptual works take the position that art is created by the viewer viewing an object or act as art, not from the intrinsic qualities of the work itself. Thus, because Fountain was exhibited, it was a sculpture. For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ...


Installation art

Main article: Installation art

An important series of movements in art which have consistently been described as postmodern involved installation art and creation of artifacts that are conceptual in nature. One example being the signs of Jenny Holtzer which use the devices of art to convey specific messages, such as "Protect Me From What I Want". Installation Art has been important in determining the spaces selected for museums of contemporary art in order to be able to hold the large works which are composed of vast collages of manufactured and found objects. These installations and collages are often electrified, with moving parts and lights. Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... The third phase of Holzers For the City, projected on the Fifth Avenue side of the New York Public Library, October 6-9, 2005. ...


They are often designed to create environmental effects, as Christo and Jeanne-Claude's Iron Curtain which was a row of barrels intended to create a traffic jam. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. ... Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ...


Lowbrow art

Lowbrow is a widespread populist art movement with origins in the underground comix world, punk music, hot-rod street culture, and other California subcultures. It is also often known by the name pop surrealism. Lowbrow art highlights a central theme in postmodernism in that the distinction between "high" and "low" art are no longer recognized. Cover Art by Mark Ryden Cover Art by Joe Coleman Todd Schorr, Futility in the Face of a Hostile World, 2003. ...


Performance art

This article is about Performance art. ... // Alan Abel Marina Abramovic Vito Acconci The-O Adams damali ayo G.G. Allin Laurie Anderson Ron Athey Franko B Magali Babin Troy Banarzi Artur Barrio Joseph Beuys Nicole Blackman Black Sun Productions Mark Bloch Blue Man Group Kate Bornstein Leigh Bowery George Brecht Alexander Brener Stuart Brisley Robert Delford...

Intermedia and multi-media

Main article: Intermedia

Another trend in art which has been associated with the term postmodern is the use of a number of different media together. Intermedia, a term coined by Dick Higgins and meant to convey new artforms along the lines of Fluxus, Concrete Poetry, Found objects, Performance art, and Computer art. Higgins was the publisher of the Something Else Press, a Concrete poet, married to artist Alison Knowles and an admirer of Marcel Duchamp. Ihab Hassan includes, "Intermedia, the fusion of forms, the confusion of realms," in his list of the characteristics of postmodern art.[42] One of the most common forms of "multi-media art" is the use of video-tape and CRT monitors, termed Video art. While the theory of combining multiple arts into one art is quite old, and has been revived periodically, the postmodern manifestation is often in combination with performance art, where the dramatic subtext is removed, and what is left is the specific statements of the artist in question or the conceptual statement of their action. For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... Dick Higgins (born Cambridge, England 1938, died Quebec, Canada 1998) was a poet and early Fluxus artist. ... Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Found objects are materials found (such as pebbles, candy wrappers, or leaves) and not made (such as inks, paints, and crayons. ... This article is about Performance art. ... This computer generated image was created using the program Sterling Fractal, which uses a fractal to seed the colouring algorithms and filters. ... Something Else Press was founded by Dick Higgins in 1963. ... Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Alison Knowles (1933 - ) is an American artist who produced work in a number of forms. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Ihab Hassan (born 1925) is an Egyptian literary theorist. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... This article is about Performance art. ...


Appropriation art and neo-conceptual art

Main articles: Appropriation art and Neo-conceptual art

In his 1980 essay The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism, Craig Owens identifies the re-emergence of an allegorical impulse as characteristic of postmodern art. This impulse can be seen in the appropriation art of artists such as Sherrie Levine and Robert Longo because, "Allegorical imagery is appropriated imagery." [43] Appropriation art debunks modernist notions of artistic genius and originality and is more ambivalent and contradictory than modern art, simultaneously installing and subverting ideologies, "being both critical and complicit."[44] Definition To appropriate something is to take possession of it. ... Neo-conceptual art describes art practices that derive from the conceptual art movement of the 1960s and 70s. ... Craig Owens (1950 - 1990) was an American art critic and writer of The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism, first published in the journal October. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Definition To appropriate something is to take possession of it. ... Sherrie Levine (born April 17, 1947 in Hazelton, Pennsylvania, United States) is a photographer and image appropriator. ... Robert Longo (b. ...


Neo-expressionism

Main article: Neo-expressionism

The return to the traditional art forms of sculpture and painting in the late 1970s and early 1980s seen in the work of Neo-expressionist artists such as Georg Baselitz and Julian Schnabel has been described as a postmodern tendency,[45] and one of the first coherent movements to emerge in the postmodern era.[46] Its strong links with the commercial art market has raised questions, however, both about its status as a postmodern movement and the definition of postmodernism itself. Hal Foster states that neo-expressionism was complicit with the conservative cultural politics of the Reagan-Bush era in the U.S.[38] Felix Guattari disregards the "large promotional operations dubbed 'neo-expressionism' in Germany," (an example of a "fad that maintains itself by means of publicity") as a too easy way for him "to demonstrate that postmodernism is nothing but the last gasp of modernism."[5] These critiques of neo-expressionism reveal that money and public relations really sustained contemporary art world credibility in America during the same period that conceptual and feminist art practices were systematically reevaluating modern art.[47] Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Julian Schnabel (b. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...


Institutional critique

Critiques on the institutions of art (principally museums and galleries) are made in the work of Marcel Broodthaers, Daniel Buren and Hans Haacke. Institutional Critique is an artistic term meant as a commentary of the various institutions and assumed normalities of art and/or a radical disarticulation of the the institution of art (radical is linguistically understood in its relation to radix which means to get to the root of something). ... Marcel Broodthaers (born January 28, 1924 in Brussels, Belgium - died January 28, 1976 in Cologne, Germany), was a Belgian poet, filmmaker and artist with a highly literate and often witty approach to creating art works. ... Daniel Buren (born March 25, 1938) is a French conceptual artist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


References

  1. ^ After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History Arthur C. Danto
  2. ^ Wendy Steiner, Venus in Exile: The Rejection of Beauty in 20th-Century Art, New York: The Free Press, 2001, ISBN 0684857812
  3. ^ Post-Modernism: The New Classicism in Art and Architecture Charles Jencks
  4. ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, 1979. URL accessed on June 26, 2007
  5. ^ a b Felix Guattari, the Postmodern Impasse in The Guattari Reader, Blackwell Publishing, 1996, pp109-113. ISBN 0631197087
  6. ^ Quoted in Oliver Bennett, Cultural Pessimism: Narratives of Decline in the Postmodern World, Edinburgh University Press, 2001, p131. ISBN 0748609369
  7. ^ Frederic Jameson, Foreword to Jean-François Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition, Manchester University Press, 1997, pxvi. ISBN 0719014506
  8. ^ a b Thomas McEvilly in Richard Roth, Jean Dubuffet, Susan King, Beauty Is Nowhere: Ethical Issues in Art and Design, Routledge, 1998. p27. ISBN 9057013118
  9. ^ a b Thomas McEvilly in Richard Roth, Jean Dubuffet, Susan King, Beauty Is Nowhere: Ethical Issues in Art and Design, Routledge, 1998. p29. ISBN 9057013118
  10. ^ a b The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Sculpture in the Expanded Field pp.287
  11. ^ James Elkins, Stories of Art, Routledge, 2002, p16. ISBN 0415939429
  12. ^ Zoya Kocur and Simon Leung, Theory in Contemporary Art Since 1985, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, pp2-3. ISBN 0631228675
  13. ^ Michael Woods: Art of the Western World, Summit Books, 1989, p323. ISBN 0-671-67007-7
  14. ^ Nicholas Zurbrugg, Jean Baudrillard, Jean Baudrillard: Art and Artefact, Sage Publications, 1997, p150. ISBN 0761955801
  15. ^ a b Gary Genosko, Baudrillard and Signs: Signification Ablaze, Routledge, 1994, p154. ISBN 0415112567
  16. ^ William R. Everdell, The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-century Thought, University of Chicago Press, 1997, p4. ISBN 0226224805
  17. ^ The Citadel of Modernism Falls to Deconstructionists, - 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006, Hilton Kramer, pp218-221.
  18. ^ The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Part I, Modernist Myths, pp.8-171
  19. ^ The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Part I, Modernist Myths, pp.8-171, Part II, Toward Post-modernism, pp. 196-291.
  20. ^ Maria DiBattista and Lucy McDiarmid, High and Low Moderns: literature and culture, 1889-1939, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp6-7. ISBN 0195082664
  21. ^ Kirk Varnedoe, 1946-2003 - Front Page - Obituary - Art in America, Oct, 2003 by Marcia E. Vetrocq
  22. ^ a b Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, Blackwell Publishing, 1992, p1014. ISBN 0631227083
  23. ^ Avant-Garde and Kitsch
  24. ^ Rosalind E. Krauss, In the Name of Picasso in The Originality of the Avant-Garde and other Modernist Myths, MIT Press, 1985, p39. ISBN 0262610469
  25. ^ John P. McGowan, Postmodernism and its Critics, Cornell University Press, 1991, p10. ISBN 0801424941
  26. ^ Simon Malpas, The Postmodern, Routledge, 2005. p17. ISBN 0415280648
  27. ^ Mark A. Pegrum, Challenging Modernity: Dada Between Modern and Postmodern, Berghahn Books, 2000, pp2-3. ISBN 1571811303
  28. ^ Douglas Crimp in Hal Foster (ed), Postmodern Culture, Pluto Press, 1985 (first published as The Anti-Aesthetic, 1983). p44. ISBN 0745300030
  29. ^ Craig Owens, Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, and Culture, London and Berkeley: University of California Press (1992), pp74-75.
  30. ^ Steven Best, Douglas Kellner, The Postmodern Turn, Guilford Press, 1997, p174. ISBN 1572302216
  31. ^ Frederick Jameson in Hal Foster, Postmodern Culture, Pluto Press, 1985 (first published as The Anti-Aesthetic, 1983). p111. ISBN 0745300030
  32. ^ Simon Malpas, The Postmodern, Routledge, 2005. p20. ISBN 0415280648
  33. ^ Stuart Sim, The Routledge Companion to Postmodernism, Routledge, 2001. p148. ISBN 0415243076
  34. ^ Richard Sheppard, Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism, Northwestern University Press, 2000. p359. ISBN 0810114925
  35. ^ Andreas Huyssen, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia, Routledge, 1995. p192. ISBN 0415909341
  36. ^ Andreas Huyssen, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia, Routledge, 1995. p196. ISBN 0415909341
  37. ^ Hal Foster, The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century, MIT Press, 1996, pp44-53. ISBN 0262561077
  38. ^ a b Hal Foster, The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century, MIT Press, 1996, p36. ISBN 0262561077
  39. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  40. ^ Erika Doss, Twentieth-Century American Art, Oxford University Press, 2002, p174. ISBN 0192842390
  41. ^ The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Sculpture in the Expanded Field (1979). pp.290
  42. ^ Ihab Hassan in Lawrence E. Cahoone, From Modernism to Postmodernism: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, 2003. p13. ISBN 0631232133
  43. ^ Craig Owens, Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, and Culture, London and Berkeley: University of California Press (1992), p54
  44. ^ Steven Best and Douglas Kellner, The Postmodern Turn, Guilford Press, 1997. p186. ISBN 1572302216
  45. ^ Tim Woods, Beginning Postmodernism, Manchester University Press, 1999. p125. ISBN 0719052114
  46. ^ Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Thomson Wadsworth, 2006, p842. ISBN 0495004804
  47. ^ Erika Doss, Twentieth-Century American Art, Oxford University Press, 2002, p210. ISBN 0192842390

Arthur Coleman Danto (b. ... Jencks Landform at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art Charles Jencks (b. ... Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic, professor, and theorist. ... Hilton Kramer (1928-) is an U.S conservative cultural critic and commentator. ... Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic, professor, and theorist. ... Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic, professor, and theorist. ... Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic, professor, and theorist. ...

Sources

  • The Triumph of Modernism: The Art World, 1985-2005, Hilton Kramer, 2006, ISBN 0 1-56663-708
  • Pictures of Nothing: Abstract Art since Pollock (A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts), Kirk Varnedoe, 2003
  • Art of the Postmodern Era: From the Late 1960s to the Early 1990s, Irving Sandler
  • Postmodernism (Movements in Modern Art) Eleanor Heartney
  • Sculpture in the Age of Doubt Thomas McEvilley 1999

Hilton Kramer (1928-) is an U.S conservative cultural critic and commentator. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Postmodern art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (385 words)
Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism.
Postmodern art uses a vocabulary of media, genres or styles as parts of an extended visual language that goes beyond the boundaries of the modernist vocabulary.
Seeing as such, postmodernism is in a sense art's reconcilliation of itself and its past, and postmodernists typically collect influences from all periods and schools, using several media in a given piece in a pastiche-like form.
Postmodernism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6516 words)
Postmodernism is a term describing a major movement of intellectual thought which has made a major impact on philosophy, art, critical theory, literature, architecture, history, and culture generally, since the mid 20th century.
Postmodern style is often characterized by eclecticism, digression, collage, pastiche, irony, the return of ornament and historical reference, and the appropriation of popular media.
Postmodern philosophy is a radical criticism of Western philosophy, because it rejects the universalizing tendencies of philosophy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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