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Encyclopedia > Postmodern architecture
1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. Contrast with the modernist Seagram Building and Torre Picasso
1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. Contrast with the modernist Seagram Building and Torre Picasso

Postmodern architecture is an international style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1950s, and which continues to influence present-day architecture. Postmodernity in architecture is generally thought to be heralded by the return of "wit, ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism. As with many cultural movements, some of postmodernism's most pronounced and visible ideas can be seen in architecture. The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist movement are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. 1000 de La Gauchetière, seen from Mount Royal. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, seen from Mount Royal. ... Le 1000 de La Gauchetière 1000 de la Gauchetière is Montreals tallest skyscraper, simply named for its address at 1000, La Gauchetiere Street, West, in the citys downtown. ... The Seagram Building The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City. ... The entrance arch Torre Picasso (Picasso Tower) is a skyscraper located in Madrid, Spain, on Pablo Picasso Square, within the business and commercial complex AZCA next to Paseo de la Castellana, in the financial district of the Spanish capital. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural trend of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


Classic examples of modern architecture are the Lever House and the Seagram Building in commercial space, and the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright or the Bauhaus movement in private or communal spaces. Transitional examples of postmodern architecture are the Portland Building in Portland, OR and the Sony Building (New York City) (originally AT&T Building) in New York City, which borrows elements and references from the past and reintroduces color and symbolism to architecture. A prime example of inspiration for postmodern architecture lies along the Las Vegas Strip, which was studied by Robert Venturi in his 1977 book Learning from Las Vegas celebrating the strip's ordinary and common architecture. Venturi opined that "Less is a bore", inverting Mies Van Der Rohe's dictum that "Less is more". Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, a well known example of modern architecture Modern architecture is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... Lever House, by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill on Park Avenue in New York City, is the quintessential and seminal glass box International Style skyscraper. ... The Seagram Building The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867—April 9, 1959) was one of the most prominent and influential architects during the first half of the 20th century. ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... The Portland Building is a fifteen-story office building in downtown Portland, Oregon designed by Michael Graves and opened in 1980. ... Mayor Tom Potter County Multnomah County Population (2003) 538,544 Time zone Pacific (UTC−8) Portland is the largest city in Oregon, and county seat of Multnomah County. ... The AT&T Building, now the Sony Building, is a 37-story highrise in Manhattan, on Madison Avenue between 55th and 56th streets. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The south end of The Strip. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is a Philadelphia-based architect who worked under Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn before forming his own firm with John Rauch. ... Strip can refer to: as a noun a long narrow piece cut from a sheet material (metal plastic plywood etc) a power strip a landing strip a comic strip other items of a similar shape to that above e. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ...


Postmodern architecture has also been described as "neo-eclectic", where reference and ornament have returned to the facade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles. This eclecticism is often combined with the use of non-orthogonal angles and unusual surfaces, most famously in the State Gallery of Stuttgart (New wing of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart) and the Piazza d'Italia by Charles Willard Moore. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Piazza dItalia, New Orleans Charles Willard Moore (October 31, 1925 in Benton Harbor, Michigan – December 16, 1993 in Austin, Texas) was an American architect, educator, writer, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. ...


Modernist architects regard post-modern buildings as vulgar and cluttered with "gew-gaws". Postmodern architects often regard modern spaces as soulless and bland. The divergence in opinions comes down to a difference in goals: modernism is rooted in minimal and true use of material as well as absence of ornament, while postmodernism is a rejection of strict rules set by the early modernists and seeks exuberance in the use of building techniques, angles, and stylistic references. Modern architecture is a broad term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ...

Contents

Brief discussion

Postmodernism series

Previous: Modernism Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ...

Postmodernity
Postmodern philosophy
Postmodern architecture
Deconstructivist Architecture
Postmodern literature
Postmodernist film
Postmodern music
Critical theory
Globalization
Minimalism in Art
Minimalism in Music
Consumerism

New trends became evident in the last quarter of the 20th century. Some architects started to turn away from modern Functionalism which they viewed as boring, and which most of the public considered unwelcoming and even unpleasant. These architects turned towards the past, quoting past aspects of various buildings and melding them together (even sometimes in an inharmonious manner) became a new means of designing buildings. A vivid example of this was that Postmodernism saw the comeback of the classical pillars and other elements of premodern designs, sometimes adapting (but not aping, as was done in the 19th century) classical Greek and Roman examples. In Modernism the pillar (as an design feature) was either replaced by other technological means such as cantilevers, or masked completly by curtain wall façades. The revival of the pillar was not a technological necessity, rather an aesthetic one. Modernist high-rise buildings had become in most instances monolithic, rejecting the concept of a stack of varied design elements for a single vocabulary from ground level to the top, in the most extreme cases even using a constant "footprint" (with no tapering or "wedding cake" design), with the building sometimes even suggesting the possibility of a single metallic extrusion directly from the ground, mostly by eliminating horizontal elements from the visual presentation — this was seen most strictly in the World Trade Center buildings of Minoru Yamasaki. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Libeskinds Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Postmodernist film describes the ideas of postmodernism in film. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... // A typical - but restrictive - definition can be taken from the International Monetary Fund, which stresses the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Minimalist music is a genre of experimental music named in the 1960s which displays some or all of the following features: emphasis on consonant harmony, if not functional tonality; reiteration of musical phrases or smaller units such as figures, motifs, and cells, with subtle, gradual, and/or infrequent variation (no... Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SAPL3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SAPL3. ... The San Antonio Public Library is a collection of a Central Library and 24 branch libraries (as of the fall of 2007) that serve the City of San Antonio. ... Official language(s) None See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Technology (Gr. ... Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Something that is monolithic is something created in one piece, resembling a monolith such as an obelisk. ... A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, interactions, phenomena, or relationships between them. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... A contemporary White wedding cake A modern wedding cake. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... WTC redirects here. ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ...


Another return was that of “wit, ornament and reference”, seen in older buildings in terra cotta decorative facades and bronze or stainless steel embelishments of the beaux arts and art deco periods. In post-modern structures this was often achieved by placing very contradictory quotes of long ago building styles alongside each other, and even the incorporation of furniture stylistic references at a huge scale. Surprisingly, the buildings manage to (most of the time) retain a generally pleasing aesthetic. However, as with any new aesthetic it would take some time to be accepted by the general public. Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... ... Asheville City Hall. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ...


Contextualism, a trend in thinking in the later parts of 20th Century, influences the ideologies of the Postmodern movement in general. Contextualism was centred on the belief that all knowledge is “context-sensitive”. This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be known without considering its context. This influenced Postmodern Architecture to be sensitive to context as discussed below. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century...


No discussion of postmodern architecture could possibly exclude Robert Venturi. He was surely at the forefront of instantiating this movement. His book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (published in 1966), was instrumental in postmodernist movement in Architecture and was fiercely critical of the dominant Functional Modernism. Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is a Philadelphia-based architect who worked under Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn before forming his own firm with John Rauch. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...


Postmodernist movement began in America around the 1960’s/70’s and then it spread to Europe and the rest of the world, to remain right through to the present. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N...


The aims of Postmodernism or Late-modernism begin with its reaction to Modernism; it tries to address its predecessor’s failures. This list of aims is extended to include communicating ideas with the public often in a then humorous or witty way. Often, the communication is done by quoting extensively from past architectural styles, often many at once. In breaking away with modernism it also strives produce buildings that are sensitive to the context within which they are built. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Look up Communication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ...


Postmodernism has its origins in the failure of Modern Architecture. The failures of its predecessor were manifold. Its obsession with functionalism and economical building meant that ornaments were done away with and the buildings were cloaked in a stark rational appearance. The buildings failed to meet the human’s need for comfort both for body and for the eye in aesthetic. Most humans enjoy looking at beautifully decorated buildings. Modernism didn’t account for this and the problem worsened when the already monotonous apartment blocks degenerated into slums. Post Modernism sought to cure this by reintroducing ornaments and decoration for its own sake. Form was no longer to be defined solely by its functional requirements; it could be anything the architect pleased. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, a well known example of modern architecture Modern architecture is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... A slum is an overcrowded and squalid district of a city or town usually inhabited by the very poor. ... Look up form in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Generally, functional refers to something with and able to fulfill its purpose or function. ... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An Architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ...


The move away from away from Modernism’s functionalism is well illustrated by Venturi’s witty adaptation of Mies van der Rohe’s maxim “Less is more”. Venturi instead said “less is a bore”. Along with the rest of the Postmodernists he sought to bring back ornament because of its necessity. He explains this and his criticism of Modernism in his Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture by saying that: Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Broadly speaking, a contradiction is an incompatibility between two or more statements, ideas, or actions. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...

Architects can bemoan or try to ignore them (referring to the [ornamental and decorative] elements in buildings) or even try to abolish them, but they will not go away. Or they will not go away for a long time, because architects do not have the power to replace them (nor do they know what to replace them with).

Robert Venturi was possibly the foremost campaigner of the rebellion against Modernist Architecture which became known as Postmodern. His two books Complexity and Contradiction (1966) and Learning from Las Vegas (1972) (although not actual manifestoes of Post Modern Architecture) do well to express many of the aims embodied in Postmodernism. The latter book he co-authored with Steven Izenour and his wife, Denise Scott Brown. Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is a Philadelphia-based architect who worked under Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn before forming his own firm with John Rauch. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Denise Scott Brown, (born October 3, 1931) is an architect, urban designer, planner and principal of the Philadelphia firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates. ...


Complexity and Contradiction highlights an aim that ornamental and decorative elements “accommodate existing needs for variety and communication”. Here Venturi stresses the importance of the building communicating a meaning to the public (which necessitates non-functional elements of the building). The Postmodernists in general strive to achieve this communication through their buildings. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Look up Communication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This communication is not intended to a direct narrating of the meaning. Venturi goes on to explain that it is rather intended to be a communication that could be interpreted in many ways. Each interpretation is more or less true for its moment because work of such quality will have many dimensions and layers of meaning. Look up Communication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing, either simultaneously or consecutively, oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not speaking (or signing) the same language. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Dimension (from Latin measured out) is, in essence, the number of degrees of freedom available for movement in a space. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


This pluralism of meaning is intended to mirror the similar nature of that contemporary society. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Contemporary is an adjective which in its basic form merely means that two individuals, events or movements overlapped in time. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


The pluralism in meaning was also echoed in the Postmodern Architects striving for variety in their buildings. Venturi reminisces in one of his essays, A View from the Campidoglio, to that effect when he says that: Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

When [he] was young, a sure way to distinguish great architects was through the consistency and originality of their work...This should no longer be the case. Where the Modern masters' strength lay in consistency, ours should lie in diversity.

Postmodernism with its diversity possesses sensitivity to the building’s context and history, and the client’s requirements. The Postmodernist architects considered the general requirements of the urban buildings and their surroundings during the building’s design. This could be better explained with the aid of an example: Venice Beach House designed by Frank Gehry(figure needed). In the picture a glimpse can be gained of the neighbouring house’s similar bright flat colour. This vernacular sensitivity is evident in some Postmodern buildings. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... in 1930 was when the first traces of humans where discovered by cochroaches. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Design, usually considered in the context of the applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other such creative endeavours, is used as both a noun and a verb. ... Frank Owen Gehry, (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg in Toronto, Ontario on February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century...


The aims of Postmodernism can mostly be explained through the writings of its champion, Robert Venturi. These include solving the problems of a legacy of Modernism, communicating meanings with ambiguity, and sensitivity for the building’s context. These aims are surprisingly unified for a period of buildings designed by architects who largely never collaborated with each other. The aims do however leave room for various implementations as can be illustrated by the diverse buildings created during the Movement. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is a Philadelphia-based architect who worked under Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn before forming his own firm with John Rauch. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Look up movement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term Movement has a variety of different meanings related to motion: Physical movement between points in space (A to B). The amount of movement is called distance. ...


The characteristics of Postmodernism allow its aim to be expressed in diverse ways. These characteristics include the use of sculptural forms, ornaments, anthropomorphism and materials which perform trompe l’oeil. These physical characteristics are combined with conceptual characteristics of meaning. These characteristics of meaning include pluralism, double coding, irony and paradox, and contextualism. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Ornament may refer to: Christmas ornament Decoration Ornament (music) Ornament (architecture) Ornamental plant Ornamental stone Human ornamentation, see: Human physical appearance Fashion Jewelry This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... An anthropomorphic character Anthropomorphism, also called personification anthropomorphism, is the attribution of human characteristics and qualities to nonhuman beings, inanimate objects, or natural or supernatural phenomena. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ... Irony, from the Greek ειρων (self-deprecator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ... Robert Boyles self-flowing flask fills itself in this diagram, but perpetual motion machines cannot exist. ... In philosophy, contextualism describes a collection of views in the philosophy of language which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance or expression can only be understood within that context. ...

Detail of Abteiberg Museum

The sculptural forms, not necessarily organic, were created with much ardour. These can be seen in Hans Hollein’s Abteiberg Museum (1972-1982). The building is made up of several building units, all very different. Each building’s forms are nothing like the conforming rigid ones of Modernism. These forms are sculptural and are somewhat playful. These forms are not reduced to an absolute minimum; they are built and shaped for their own sake. The building units all fit together in a very organic way, which enhances the effect of the forms. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x511, 457 KB) Copied from the German Wikipedia Beschreibung: Mönchengladbach, Museum Abteiberg, Detail Quelle: 07. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x511, 457 KB) Copied from the German Wikipedia Beschreibung: Mönchengladbach, Museum Abteiberg, Detail Quelle: 07. ... Organic may refer to: Look up organic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hans Hollein, (March 30, 1934 in Vienna - ) is an Austrian architect Hollein achieved a diploma at the Academy of Fine Arts in [[Vienna in 1956, then in the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1959 and the University of Calfornia in 1960. ... The Museum Abteiberg is a municipal museum for contemporary art in the German city Mönchengladbach. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Organic may refer to: Look up organic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

After many years of being neglected, ornament returned. This can be seen in Frank Gehry’s house, The Venice Beach house (image needed) built in 1986. The house is littered with small details, that would’ve have been considered excessive and needless in Modernism. These are the ornamental features. The Beach House has an assembly of circular logs which exist mostly for decoration. The logs on top do have a minor purpose of holding up the window covers. However, the mere fact that they could have been replaced with a practically invisible nail, makes their exaggerated existence largely ornamental. For a more prominent ornament, Michael Graves' Portland Public Service Building (1980), proves wholly adequate. The two obtruding triangular forms are at most largely ornamental features. They exist for aesthetic or their own purpose. The return of ornament was a necessary one. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1245 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Postmodern architecture Talk:Postmodern architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1245 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Postmodern architecture Talk:Postmodern architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Portland Public Service Building The Portland Building is a 15-story office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... Portland Public Service Building Michael Graves (b. ... Portland Public Service Building The Portland Building is a 15-story office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Ornament is frequently used to denote: An element of decoration. ...


Postmodernism, with its sensitivity the building’s context, did not exclude the anthropomorphic needs of humans from the building. Carlo Scarpa’s Brion Nega Cemetery (1970-72) (fig. 2) exemplifies this. The human requirements of a cemetery is that it posses a solemn nature, yet it must not cause the visitor to become depressed. Scarpa’s cemetery achieves the solemn mood with the dull grey colours of the walls and neatly defined forms, but the bright green grass prevents this being too overwhelming. This sensitivity becomes more obvious when thinking about how a Modern architect would have solved this need. He would have most likely neglected the human element and paved the area with concrete slabs. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Brion-Vega cemetery, 1970-72 Carlo Scarpa (1906, Venice - 1978, Sendai), was an Italian architect with a profound understanding of materials. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Postmodern buildings sometimes perform the age old trompe l'oeil. This involves the illusion of forms or depths where none actually exist and has been used by the renaissance painters. The Portland Public Service Building (1980) has pillars represented on the side of the building that to some extent appear to be real, yet they aren’t. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... This article is about the phenomenon known as an illusion. ... Portland Public Service Building The Portland Building is a 15-story office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon. ...


The Hood Museum of Art (1981-1983) (image needed) has a typical symmetrical façade which was at the time prevalent throughout Postmodern Buildings. The Hood Museum of Art is North Americas oldest museum in continuous operation. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century...


Robert Venturi’s Vanna Venturi House (1962-64) (image needed) illustrates Postmodernist aim of communicating a meaning and the characteristic of symbolism. This façade is , according to Venturi, a symbolic picture of house, looking back to the 18th century . This is partly achieved through the use of symmetry and the arch over the entrance. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ...

Piazza d'Italia by Charles Willard Moore, New Orleans.

Perhaps the best example of irony in Postmodern buildings is Charles Willard Moore’s Piazza d’Italia (1978). Moore quotes (architecturally) elements of Italian renaissance and Roman Antiquity. However he does so with a twist. The irony comes when it is noted that the pillars are covered with steel. It is also paradoxical in the way he quotes Italian antiquity for away from the original in New Orleans. Image File history File links Charles_Moore_Piazza_d'Italia. ... Image File history File links Charles_Moore_Piazza_d'Italia. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Piazza dItalia, New Orleans Charles Willard Moore (October 31, 1925 in Benton Harbor, Michigan – December 16, 1993 in Austin, Texas) was an American architect, educator, writer, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... For other meanings of Paradox, see Paradox (disambiguation). ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Double coding meant the buildings convey many meanings simultaneously. The AT&T Building does this very well. The building is a tall skyscraper which brings with it connotations of very modern technology. Yet, the top contradicts this. The top section conveys elements of the antiquity. This double coding is a prevalent trait of Postmodernism. Meaning, studied in philosophy and linguistics, as well as being central to the fields of literary theory and critical theory, the philosophical field of epistemology, and some branches of psychoanalysis, is a difficult concept to pin down. ... The AT&T Building, now the Sony Building, is a 37-story highrise in Manhattan, on Madison Avenue between 55th and 56th streets. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building architecturally, is located in Taipei City, Taiwan. ... In logic and in some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. ... Modern can simply mean something that is up-to-date, trendy, new, or from the present time. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a level of thinking mastery sufficient to leave the surface of the planet for the first time and explore space. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ...


The characteristics of Postmodernism were rather unified given their diverse appearances. The most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant forms and the humour of the meanings the buildings conveyed. Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Meaning, studied in philosophy and linguistics, as well as being central to the fields of literary theory and critical theory, the philosophical field of epistemology, and some branches of psychoanalysis, is a difficult concept to pin down. ...


Influential Architects

Some of the most well-known and influential architects in the postmodern style are:

John Burgee is an American architect important in post-modern architecture. ... Portland Public Service Building Michael Graves (b. ... Jon Jerde is an American architect based in Venice Beach California, principle of the Jerde Partnership and known for innovative mall design and experience architecture. After 13 years in the mall business working for others, Jerdes first big break was the 1977 design for Horton Plaza in downtown San... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Ricardo Legorreta Vilchis is a Mexican architect. ... Richard Meier (born October 12, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey) is a late twentieth century American architect known for his use of the purist white. ... Piazza dItalia, New Orleans Charles Willard Moore (October 31, 1925 in Benton Harbor, Michigan – December 16, 1993 in Austin, Texas) was an American architect, educator, writer, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. ... Pellis Petronas Twin Tower César Pelli (born October 12, 1926 in Tucumán, Argentina) is a noted architect known for designing some of the worlds tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. ... Antoine Predock, San Diegos baseball stadium Petco Park Antoine Predock (born 1936 in Lebanon, Missouri) is an American architect based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Robert Arthur Morton Stern, usually credited as Robert A. M. Stern, (born May 23, 1939) is an American architect and Dean of the Yale University School of Architecture. ... Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is a Philadelphia-based architect who worked under Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn before forming his own firm with John Rauch. ...

Changes in History Teaching

The rise of interest in history that came as a consequence of the general Postmodernist turn had a profound impact on architectural education. History courses became increasingly regularized and insisted upon. With the demand for professors knowledgeable in the history of architecture, one saw the emergence of several Ph.D. programs in schools of architecture, Ph.D. programs that differentiated themselves from art history Ph.D. programs, where architectural historians had previously trained. In the US, MIT and Cornell were the first, created in the mid 1970s, followed by Columbia, Berkeley, and Princeton. Among the founders of new architectural history programs were Bruno Zevi at the Institute for the History of Architecture in Venice, Stanford Anderson and Henry Millon at MIT, Alexander Tzonis at the Architectural Association, Anthony Vidler at Princeton, Manfredo Tafuri at the University of Venice, Kenneth Frampton at Columbia University, and Werner Oechslin and Kurt Forster at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH.[1] Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Cornell is the name of some places in the United States of America. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey in the United States of America. ... Bruno Zevi (born January 22nd 1918, Rome, died January 9th 2000) was an Italian organic architect, historian, professor, curator, author and editor. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The Architectural Association (also known as AA School of Architecture) is the oldest independent school of architecture in the UK. It was founded by a group of dissatisfied young architects in 1847 to provide a self-directed, independent education at a time when there ws no formal training available. ... Italian architectural and art/social theorist and historian. ... Kenneth Frampton is Ware Professor at the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Columbia University, New York. ... Columbia University is a private research university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ...


The creation of these programs was paralleled by the hiring, in the 1970s, of professionally trained historians by schools of architecture: Margaret Crawford (with a Ph.D. from U.C.L.A) at SCI-Arch; Elisabeth Grossman (Ph.D., Brown University) at Rhode Island School of Design; Christian Otto[2] (Ph.D., Columbia University) at Cornell University; Richard Chafee (Ph.D., Courtauld Institute) at Roger Williams University; and Howard Burns (M.A. Kings College) at Harvard, to name just a few examples. A second generation of scholars then emerged that began to extend these efforts in the direction of what is now called “theory.” One thinks of K. Michael Hays (Ph.D., MIT) at Harvard, Mark Wigley (Ph.D., Auckland University) at Princeton (though he now teaches at Columbia University), and Beatriz Colomina (Ph.D., School of Architecture, Barcelona) at Princeton; Mark Jarzombek (Ph.D. MIT) at Cornell (though he is now at MIT), Jennifer Bloomer (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) at Iowa State and Catherine Ingraham (Ph.D., John Hopkins) now at Pratt Institute. The Rhode Island School of Design (RISD, pronounced /RIZ-dee/) is one of the premier fine arts institutions in the United States. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Roger Williams University, commonly abbreviated as RWU, is a private, coeducational American liberal arts college located on 120 acres in Bristol, Rhode Island, above Mt. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Mark Wigley is an architect, author, and educator. ... Columbia University is a private research university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ... Iowa State University (ISU) is a public land-grant university located in Ames, Iowa. ... Pratt Institute is a specialized, private college in New York City with campuses in Manhattan and Brooklyn. ...


Notes

An example of an attempt at post-modernism (Shanghai), arguably overdone
An example of an attempt at post-modernism (Shanghai), arguably overdone
  1. ^ Mark Jarzombek, “The Disciplinary Dislocations of Architectural History,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 58/3 (September 1999), p. 489. See also other articles in that issue by Eve Blau, Stanford Anderson, Alina Payne, Daniel Bluestone, Jeon-Louis Cohen and others.
  2. ^ Cornel University dept. of Architecture website[1]

Building in Shangai seen September 29, 2002. ... Building in Shangai seen September 29, 2002. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the eighth largest in the world. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ... The Society of Architectural Historians, (SAH), is an international not-for-profit organization that promotes the study and preservation of the built environment worldwide. ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Post-modern architecture

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alt.Postmodern FAQ (7246 words)
Postmodernism, on the contrary, is committed to modes of thinking and representation which emphasize fragmentations, discontinuities and incommensurable aspects of a given object, from intellectual systems to architecture.
The postmodern challenge constitutes not only a diverse body of cultural criticism, it must also be seen as a contextual discourse that has challenged specific disciplinary boundaries in such fields as literary studies, geography, educa- tion, architecture, feminism, performance art, anthropology, sociology, and many other areas.
A postmodern artist or writer is in the position of a philosopher: the text he writes, the work he produces are not in principle governed by preestablished rules, and they cannot be judged according to a determining judgment, by applying familiar categories to the text or to the work.
Postmodern architecture - Definition, explanation (557 words)
Postmodernity or postmodern architecture is a period whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1950's, which runs through the present.
Postmodernity in architecture is generally thought to be heralded by the return of "wit, ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.
Postmodern architecture has also been described as "neo-eclectic", where reference and ornament have returned to the facade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles as, for example, in this building from Boston Massachusetts.
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