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Encyclopedia > Posthumous name
Posthumous name
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號
Simplified Chinese: 谥号
Japanese name
Kanji: 諡号
Hiragana: しごう
Korean name
Hangul: 시호
Hanja: 諡號
Vietnamese name
Quốc ngữ: thụy hiệu
Hán tự: 諡號

A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the person's death. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China, Korea, Vietnam and Japan. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ...


Posthumous names in China and Vietnam were also given to honor lifetime accomplishments of many people who did not have hereditary titles, for example to successful courtiers.


In the Japanese funeral tradition, the deceased is given a posthumous Buddhist name, but in practice deceased non-royal persons are still referred to by living name. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


A posthumous name should not be confused with the era name and temple name. An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ...

Contents

History

Having their origins in the Chinese Zhou Dynasty, posthumous names were used 800 years earlier than temple names. The first person named posthumously was Ji Chang (姬昌), named by his son Ji Fa (姬發) of Zhou, as the "Civil King" (文王). The use of posthumous names was stopped in the Qin Dynasty, because Qin Shi Huang proclaimed that it is disrespectful for the descendants, or "later emperors" (嗣皇帝) to judge their elders, or the "prior emperors" (先帝). The practice was revived in the Han Dynasty after the demise of the Qin Empire. This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Temple names (廟號 or less commonly 庙號 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese and certain Korean rulers. ... King Wen (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1099–1050 BC) was the founder of the later Zhou Dynasty. ... King Wu of Zhou (ch 周武王 Pinyin: zhōu wŭ wáng) or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


Chinese emperors

All Chinese posthumous names for rulers end in one or two of the characters for "emperor", Huángdì (皇帝, i.e. emperor), which can be shortened to ; except about a dozen or so less recognized ones who have had only and no Huáng. For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Starting with Emperor Xiaowen of Han China (more commonly "Emperor Wen"), every single Han emperor, except the first one of the Eastern Han Dynasty, has the character of "filial" (孝 xiào) at the beginning of his posthumous names. "Filial" is also used in the full posthumous names of virtually all emperors of the Tang, Song, Ming and Qing Dynasties. For Qing emperors, 孝 xiào is placed in various position in the string of characters, while those Qing empresses who were given posthumous names, 孝 xiào is always initial. Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC) was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


The number of characters in posthumous names was increasing. The emperors of the Tang Dynasty have names in between seven to eighteen characters. Those in the Qing Dynasty have twenty-one characters. For instance, that of the Shunzhi Emperor was "The Emperors of Order who Observes the Heavenly Rituals with a Solemn Fate, Destined to Unify, Establishes with Extreme Talented Insights, Admires the Arts, Manifests the Might, with Great Virtue and Vast Achievement, Reaches Humanity, Purely Filial" (體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝, Listen to pronunciation : tǐ tiān lóng yùn dìng tǒng jiàn jí yīng ruì qīn wén xiǎn wǔ dà dé hóng gōng zhì rén chún xiào zhāng huáng dì). For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Image File history File links Chinese-Emperor_Shunzhi_posthumous_name. ...


The woman with the longest posthumous name is Empress Cixi, who is "The Empress who is Admirably Filial, Initiates Kindness, with Blessed Health, Manifests Much Contentment, Solemn Sincerity, with Longevity, Provides Admiration Prosperously, Reveal Adoration, Prosperous with a Merry Heaven, with a Holy Appearance" (孝欽慈禧端佑康頤昭豫莊誠壽恭欽獻崇熙配天興聖顯皇后 xiào qīn cí xǐ duān yòu kāng yí zhāo yù zhuāng chéng shòu gōng qīn xiàn chóng xī pèi tiān xīng shèng xiǎn huáng hòu). Diverse women. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a...


Posthumous names can be praises (褒字) or depreciations (貶字). There are more praises than depreciations, so posthumous names are also commonly called respectful name (尊號 zūn hào) in Chinese. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian outlines extensively the rules behind choosing the names. Some of those guidelines: Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical...

  • Praises
    • Those having a persistent and reasonable governance(剛強直理) are called "Martial" (武 wǔ). (This is one of the most honourable names.)
    • Those who sympathize with the people and recognize their needs (憫民會椅) are called "Civil" (文 wén). (This is one of the most honourable names.)
    • Those who respect the talented and value righteousness (尊賢貴義) are called "Reverent" (恭 gòng).
    • Those who are kind and benevolent in nature(溫柔賢善) are called "Benign" (懿 yì).
    • Those who aid the people out of righteousness(由義而濟) are called "Admirable" (景 jǐng).
    • Those who treat the people compassionately with a gentle quality (柔質慈民) are called "Compassionate" (惠 huì).
    • Those who eliminate destructions and purge cruelty (除殘去虐) are called "Tang" (湯 tāng). (Possibly named after the revered ruler Cheng Tang (成湯), the founder of the Shang Dynasty.)
    • Those who make the people feel satisfied with their policies (安民立政) are called "Constructive" (成 chéng). (Again, possibly named after Chengtang.)
    • Those who are considerate and far-sighted (果慮果遠) are called "Brilliant" (明 míng).
    • Those who preach their virtue and righteousness to the people(布德執義) are called "Majestic" (穆 mù).
    • Those who are aggressive to expand their realm(辟土服遠) are called "Exploratory" (桓 huán).
    • "High(ly respected)" (高 gāo) is particularly reserved for the founders of dynasties.
  • Deprecations
    • Those who lived short lives without much accomplishment (短折不成) are called "Passed Away Prematurely" (殤 shāng).
    • Those who have a constant twinge of depression (often due to political plights) during their governance (在國遭憂) are called "Pitiful" (愍 mǐn).
    • Those who lose their spouses and pass away at their early age (蚤孤短折) are called "Lamentable" (哀 āi).
    • Those who are obliged to make sacrifices to their ancestors (肆行勞祀) are called "Mournful" (悼 dào).

However, most of these qualifications are subjective, repetitive, and highly stereotypical; hence the names are chosen somewhat arbitrarily. Such names are usually given by court historians, according to their good deeds or the bad ones. King Cheng Tang of Shang of China (in Chinese:湯, born Zi Lü, in Chinese:子履) (1675 BC-1646 BC). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ...


Japanese emperors

The posthumous names of Japanese emperors are called teigō (帝号, lit. emperor names). In addition to the appellation Tennō (天皇, lit. heavenly sovereign, usually translated as Emperor) that is a part of all Japanese emperors' posthumous name, most consist of two Kanji characters, although a few consist of three. Some names are given several generations later—this is the case for Emperor Jimmu and Emperor Antoku, for example. Others are given immediately after death, like that of Emperor Mommu. Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Emperor Antoku (安徳天皇 Antoku Tennō) (December 22, 1178 – April 25, 1185) was the 81st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Mommu (文武天皇 Mommu Tennō) (683-707) was the 42nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Many have Chinese-style names, for example:

Some have Japanese-style names. For example: Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Daisen-Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka Emperor Nintoku (仁徳天皇 Nintoku Tennō) was the 16th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor ÅŒjin (応神天皇 ÅŒjin Tennō) was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...

  • those who were named after the place where the emperor was born, lived or frequented:
    • Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇 Saga Tennō), named after a palace (院 in)
    • Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇 Ichijō Tennō), named after an official residence (邸 tei)
    • Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇 Kōmyō Tennō), named after a temple
    • Emperor Higashiyama (東山天皇 Higashiyama Tennō), named after a hill
  • those who were named after an emperor whose admirable characteristics resemble those of an earlier one by adding Go (後, lit. latter) as a prefix to the earlier emperor's name:
    • Emperor Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇 Go-Ichijō Tennō)
    • Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō)
    • Empress Go-Sakuramachi (後桜町天皇 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō)
  • those who were named by combining the characters from two previous emperors' names:
    • Empress Gemmei (元明天皇 Genmei Tennō) + Empress Genshō (元正天皇 Genshō Tennō) = Empress Meishō (明正天皇 Meishō Tennō)
    • Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) + Emperor nin (光仁天皇 Kōnin Tennō) = Emperor Shōkō (称光天皇 Shōkō Tennō)

Since the death of Emperor Meiji (明治天皇 Meiji Tennō) in 1912, the posthumous name of an emperor has always been the name of his era. For example, after his death Hirohito (by which he is usually called outside Japan) was formally renamed Emperor Shōwa (昭和天皇 Shōwa Tennō) after his era; Japanese now refer to him by only that name. Hirohito was his given name, but most Japanese never refer to their emperors by their given names, even in life. Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇, Saga tennō) (786–842) was the 52nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇 Ichijō Tennō) (980-1011) was the 66th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇 Kōmyō Tennō) (January 11, 1322 – July 26, 1380) was the second of the Ashikaga Pretenders, although he was actually the first to be supported by the Ashikaga Bakufu. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Emperor Higashiyama (東山天皇 Higashiyama Tennō) (October 21, 1675 - January 16, 1710) was the 113th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Hills redirects here. ... Emperor Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇 Go-Ichijō Tennō) (October 12, 1008 – May 15, 1036) was the 68th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Woodblock print triptych by Gekko Ogata. ... Empress Go-Sakuramachi (後桜町天皇 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō) (September 23, 1740 – December 24, 1813) was the 117th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Gemmei (also Empress Genmyō; 元明天皇 Genmei Tennō) (661 – December 7, 721) was the 43rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the fourth woman to hold such a position. ... Empress Genshō (元正天皇 Genshō Tennō) (680 – April 21, 748) was the 44th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Meishō (明正天皇 Meishō Tennō) (January 9, 1624–December 4, 1696) was the 109th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 22, 1629 to November 14, 1643. ... Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō) also Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) (718 – August 28, 770[1]) was both the 46th and 48th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Kōnin ) (November 18, 709[1] – January 11, 782[2]) was the 49th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Shōkō (称光天皇 Shōkō-tennō) (May 12, 1401 - August 30, 1428) was the 101st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...


Korean emperors and kings

Although Korean emperors and kings had elaborate posthumous names, they are usually referred to by their temple names today. Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ...


Officials

It was also common for persons with no hereditary titles, especially accomplished scholar-officials or ministers, to be given posthumous names by the imperial court. The characters used are mostly the same ones used for emperors, with the same denotations as described above. The length, however, was restricted to one or two characters. See List of Posthumous Names for examples. In China, posthumous names è«¡ were conferred upon Emperors, Empresses, and notable officials by the imperial court up until the fall of Qing Dynasty in 1911. ...


Confucius has been given long posthumous names in almost every major dynasty. One of the most commonly used was Zhìshèngxiānshī 至聖先師. Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ...


Sometimes a person is given a posthumous name not by the court, but by his own family or disciples. Such names are private posthumous names (Sĩshì, 私諡). For example, Tao Qian was given Sishi Jìngjié 靖節. {flotador del style= de |cellpadding=3px cellspacing=0px bgcolor=#f7f8ff : la derecha; frontera: sólido 2px; margen: ¡5px ! fondo del style= : #ccf; frontera-tapa: sólido 2px; frontera-fondo: |align=right| sólido de colspan=2| 2px Names chinos | - Xìng: 陶 del ||Táo | - valign=top| del |align=right M...


Miscellaneous

To combine an emperor's temple name and posthumous name, place temple first.


A fuller description of this naming convention for royalty appears in the Chinese sovereign entry. Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ...


See also

For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Yamada Tarō (), a typical Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... Vietnamese names generally consist of three parts: a family name, a middle name, and a given name, used in that order. ...

References

  • Yizhoushu (逸周書), ch. 54 (meanings of posthumous names), [1].

External links

  • More adjectives used [dead link – history]

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