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Encyclopedia > Posthumanism
This article concerns the postmodern critique of humanism. The term posthumanism is also used as a synonym for transhumanism, especially in the United States.

In literary and critical theory, posthumanism, meaning beyond humanism, is a major European continental philosophy of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. It transcends the ideas and images of the world of classical Renaissance humanism to correspond more closely to the 21st century's concepts of technoscientific knowledge. It mainly differentiates from classical humanism in that it restores the stature that had been made of humanity to one of many natural species. According to this claim, humans have no inherent rights to destroy nature or set themselves above it in ethical considerations a priori. Human knowledge is also reduced to a less controlling position, previously seen as the defining aspect of the world. The limitations and fallibility of human intelligence are confessed, even though that doesn't mean abandoning the strong rational tradition of humanism.[1][2] Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Renaissance humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Technoscience is a concept widely used in the interdisciplinary community of science and technology studies to designate the technological and social context of science. ... Humanity refers to the human race or mankind as a whole, to that which is characteristically human, or to that which distinguishes human beings from other animals or from other animal species primal nature. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many related mental abilities, such as the capacities to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey, 286). ...

Performance philosopher Shannon Bell argues that posthumanism attempts "to develop through enactment new understandings of the self and other, essence, consciousness, intelligence, reason, agency, intimacy, life, embodiment, identity and the body."[3] Performance art is art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... The Other or constitutive other is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... In philosophy, essence is the attribute (or set of attributes) that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is, and that it has necessary, in contrast with accident, properties that the object or substance has contingently and without which the substance could have existed. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ... In philosophy, identity is whatever makes an entity definable and recognizable, in terms of possessing a set of qualities or characteristics that distinguish it from entities of a different type. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ...

List of notable posthumanists

Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... N. Katherine Hayles is a noted postmodern literary critic and theorist as well as the author of How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics which won the Rene Wellek Prize for the best book in literary theory for 1998–1999 [1]. // Background Hayles received her B... Peter Sloterdijk Peter Sloterdijk (born June 26, 1947 in Karlsruhe, Germany) is a philosopher. ... Shannon Bell (born 5 May 1955) is a performance philosopher who lives and writes philosophy-in-action. ...

See also

Post Christian, Post-Christian or Postchristian is a term used to describe a personal world view, religious movement or society that is no longer rooted in the language and assumptions of Christianity, though it had previously been in an environment of ubiquitous Christianity (Christendom). ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Antinaturalism or postnaturalism can have the following meanings: Antinaturalism (sociology) Antinaturalism (politics) Appeal to nature Naturalistic fallacy Category: ...


  1. ^ Hayles, N. Katherine (1999). How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226321460. 
  2. ^ Badmington, Neil (2000). Posthumanism (Readers in Cultural Criticism). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333765389. 
  3. ^ Zaretsky, Adam (2005). "Bioart in Question". Retrieved on 2007-01-28.

  Results from FactBites:
Posthuman.com (461 words)
Such posthuman beings do not exist currently, therefore any more detailed description of what they would look like or how they would think and behave is pure speculation.
Nothing could be farther from the truth: We who hope that there exist posthuman beings one day want to preserve humaneness forever.
All the wisdom humans have achieved by departing from blindly following their instincts should be stored for all eternity, but the shape of in what it is stored is completely irrelevant.
Transhumanist FAQ (503 words)
Posthumans could be completely synthetic artificial intelligences, or they could be enhanced uploads [see “What is uploading?”], or they could be the result of making many smaller but cumulatively profound augmentations to a biological human.
Posthuman minds might be able to share memories and experiences directly, greatly increasing the efficiency, quality, and modes in which posthumans could communicate with each other.
Posthumans might shape themselves and their environment in so many new and profound ways that speculations about the detailed features of posthumans and the posthuman world are likely to fail.
  More results at FactBites »



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