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Encyclopedia > Postgraduate education
Degree ceremony at Cambridge.

Postgraduate education (often known in North America as graduate education, and sometimes described as quaternary education) involves studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor's degree is required, and is normally considered to be part of tertiary or higher education. In North America this level is generally referred to as graduate school. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... North American redirects here. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The organization and structure of postgraduate education is very different in different countries, and also in different institutions within countries. This article sets out the basic types of course and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history.


In some programs in the traditional German system, there is no legal distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate". In such programs, all education aims towards the Master's degree, whether introductory (Bachelor's level) or advanced (Master's level). The aim of the Bologna process is to abolish this system. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ...

Contents

Types of postgraduate qualification

There are four main types of qualification studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees, and academic and vocational certificates and diplomas.


Degrees

The term "degree" in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another (from the Latin "de-" + "gradus", through Old French "degre"), and first appeared in the 13th century. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


History

Although systems of higher education go back to Ancient Greece, China, India, and Africa, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, and can be traced to the workings of the European mediæval universities. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ...


University studies took six years for a Bachelor degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, which was the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties — law, medicine, or theology — in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees. Theology was the most prestigious area of study, and considered to be the most difficult. In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


The degrees of master (magister) and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, and the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law, Medicine, and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, and that of Master for the latter."[1] Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.[2]


The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach ("doctor" comes from the Latin "docere", meaning "teach"; "magister" is Latin for "master", and is also the root of "magistrate"). A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


Modern situation

In most English-speaking countries, the hierarchy of degrees is as follows:

  1. Associate's degree (chiefly in the United States of America) or Foundation degree (in the UK)
    Usually two years (20 courses or 60 semester credit-hours for the Associate degree); often an intermediate degree before finishing Bachelor's. In the UK, a foundation degree is typically 240 CATS credits equivalent to 120 ECTS European credits (whereas a full Bachelor with honours is 360 CATS credits or 180 ECTS European credits).
  2. Bachelor's degrees (Undergraduate degrees; first degrees).
    Usually three or four years (40 courses or 120 semester credit-hours in the US); in a few cases, a degree called "bachelor" is in fact a postgraduate degree — see, for example, Bachelor of Civil Law, Bachelor of Philosophy. An Honours Bachelor's degree in South Africa and other countries may be conferred upon those completing a four-year program, to differentiate it from a three-year Bachelor's. In France there is the Licence degree which is equivalent of the Bachelor. In the Netherlands there is the Hoger Beroeps Onderwijs(HBO), which is equivalent to a four-year Bachelors education. In the UK, all Honours Bachelor's degrees are three years and worth 360 CATS credits or 180 ECTS European credits, whereas ordinary Bachelor's degrees (also three years) are worth 300 CATS (150 ECTS).
  3. First Professional degree (Undergraduate or postgraduate)
    First professional degrees are required for professional licensure or entrance to a specific career. These degrees may require a bachelor's degree for admission into the program, followed by three to four years of specialized study. The programs that do are mainly found in North America; elsewhere professional education for careers such as law and medicine is mainly undertaken through specialised undergraduate degrees and post-university vocational courses that do not confer academic degrees. Graduates in some cases are called doctor and the degree program sometimes includes the word doctor. In some fields such as engineering, the undergraduate degree (BS or BEng) is the first professional degree.
  4. Master's degrees (Postgraduate)
    These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science, then Master of Philosophy, and finally Master of Letters, and a DEA in France. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a Master's is the terminal degree. In the UK, Master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught Master's include the MSc and MA degrees which last 1 year and are worth 180 CATS credits (equivalent to 90 ECTS European credits), whereas the Master's by research degrees include the MRes (Master of Research) which also lasts 1 year and worths 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits (the difference compared to the MA/MSc being that the research is much more extensive), and the MPhil (Master of Philosophy) degree which lasts 2 years (and is often granted to failed doctorates).
  5. Doctorates (Postgraduate)
    These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates.
    An academic doctorate can be awarded as a PhD (Philosophiæ Doctor), or as a DSc (Scientiae Doctor). The scientiae doctor degree can be also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Dr.sc.math (Doctor scientiarum mathematicarum, Doctor of Mathematics), Dr.sc.agr. (Doctor scientiarum agrariarum, Doctor of Agricultural science), etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the PhD or 'junior doctorate', and the 'higher doctorates' such as the DSc, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a PhD and DSc. In the UK, PhD degrees are often equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not officially defined.

In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the U.S., the master's degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master's degree almost disappeared. In the second half of the 19th century, however, U.S. universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master's degrees parallelling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by the American model.[3] An associate degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, business colleges and some bachelors degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. ... The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ... Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom to monitor, record and reward passage through a modular degree course and to facilitate movement between courses and institutions. ... European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil. ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom to monitor, record and reward passage through a modular degree course and to facilitate movement between courses and institutions. ... European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union. ... A first professional degree is a type of academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... In the usage of the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and some other countries, the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil. ... The Master of Letters (MLitt from the Latin magister litterarum) is a postgraduate Masters degree. ... In France, a DEA (diplôme détudes approfondies, or diploma of advanced studies) is a former postgraduate degree. ... Social Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... North American redirects here. ... A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest academic degree in a field of study. ... Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom to monitor, record and reward passage through a modular degree course and to facilitate movement between courses and institutions. ... In the U.K., the Master of Research degree is an advanced postgraduate degree available in a range of academic diciplines. ... In the usage of the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and some other countries, the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... DSC is an initialism or abbreviation for: DCS1800 — European PCS frequencies in the 1800 MHz range. ... A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest academic degree in a field of study. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom to monitor, record and reward passage through a modular degree course and to facilitate movement between courses and institutions. ... European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union. ...


Honorary degrees

Most universities award honorary degrees, usually at the postgraduate level. These are awarded to a wide variety of people, such as artists, musicians, writers, politicians, businesspeople, etc., in recognition of their achievements in their various fields. (Recipients of such degrees do not normally use the associated titles or letters, such as "Dr".)


Non-degree qualifications

Postgraduate education can involve studying for qualifications such as postgraduate certificates and postgraduate diplomas — normally held to be lower than degrees. They are sometimes used as steps on the route to a degree, or as part of training for a specific career, or as a qualification in an area of study too narrow to warrant a full degree course. A Postgraduate certificate is generally a postgraduate qualification designed to provide students with specialized knowledge that is less extensive than a Postgraduate diploma or Masters degree. ... A postgraduate diploma is a qualification awarded typically after a bachelors degree. ...


See also

A postgraduate diploma is a qualification awarded typically after a bachelors degree. ... A Postgraduate certificate is generally a postgraduate qualification designed to provide students with specialized knowledge that is less extensive than a Postgraduate diploma or Masters degree. ... The Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) is a one-year course in England, Wales and Northern Ireland for undergraduate degree holders that allows them to train to be a teacher. ... The Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE), also known as a Graduate Diploma of Education (GradDipEd) is a one-year courses in several places like Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong, for existing bachelors degree holders leading to become a qualified teacher. ... Postgraduate research (commonly referred to as graduate research in the United States) represents a formal area of study which is recognized by a university or institute of higher learning. ... This is a list of articles on education organized by country: Education in Afghanistan Education in Albania Education in Algeria Education in Argentina Education in Armenia Education in Australia Education in Austria Education in Bangladesh Higher Education in Bangladesh Education in Belarus Education in Belgium Education in Bolivia Education in... The follow is a list of brick and mortar institutions that primarily offer postgraduate degrees with distinction in research publication and research. ... This is a list of universities, colleges and other educational institutions providing higher education (meaning tertiary, quaternary or in some cases post-secondary education). ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Burns
  2. ^ Curiously, Oxford and Cambridge (and Dublin) still continue to awards Masters of Arts (MA) degrees to undergraduates without any further study seven years after matriculation. These universities also award Bachelor's degrees for some forms of postgraduate study (e.g., see BCL)
  3. ^ EUROPA - Education and Training - The Bologna processs

In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to Bachelors of Arts of those universities on application after seven years seniority as members of the university. ... G90 g0 x0 y0 z0 g1 x100 y10 m2 ...

Sources and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Postgraduate education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (188 words)
Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level (sometimes referred to as "fourth-level education", and follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university.
Graduate school is an example of quaternary education; some consider masters-level degrees as part of tertiary education; some consider postdoctoral positions to be quaternary education while others consider them to be jobs.
Postgraduate study is considered part of tertiary education.
Education in Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1118 words)
As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.
Free higher education is the main reason why more than 20% of Russians age 30–59 hold six-year degrees (this number is twice as high as that of the United States).
Many private higher education institutions have emerged, mostly in the fields where Soviet system was inadequate or was unable to provide enough specialists for post-Soviet realities, such as economics, business/management, and law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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