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Encyclopedia > Post secondary education
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The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning.
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The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning.

Higher education is education provided by universities, vocational universities (community colleges, liberal arts colleges, and technical colleges, etc.) and other collegial institutions that award academic degrees, such as career colleges. Post-secondary or tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage, third level education, or higher education, is the non-compulsory educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education (sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions). Examples of institutions that provide post-secondary education are vocational schools, community colleges and universities in the United States, the TAFEs in Australia, CEGEPs in Quebec (Canada) and the IEKs in Greece. They are sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas,or academic degrees. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1514x998, 422 KB) View from the Backs to Clare College and Kings Chapel with a punt in the foreground. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1514x998, 422 KB) View from the Backs to Clare College and Kings Chapel with a punt in the foreground. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a technical college, county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees to people like laertes. ... A liberal arts college is an institution of higher education found in the United States, offering programs in the liberal arts at the post-secondary level. ... A technical college focuses on teaching work skills. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... In Canada and the United States, a career college is a for-profit educational institution providing career-specific post-secondary, tertiary, and occasionally quaternary education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A gymnasium (pronounced /gim-/ as opposed to /jim-/) is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... In some educational systems, an undergraduate is a post-secondary student pursuing a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a technical college, county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees to people like laertes. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Technical and Further Education or TAFE institutions are a type of adult education organisation in Australia. ... CÉGEP (Collège denseignement général et professionnel - College of General and Vocational Education, pronounced say-jep [fr/en] or see-jip [en]) is a type of educational institution in Quebec. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... IEK (Greek: Institouto Epagelmatikis Katartisis; Vocational Educational Institute) is a type of vocational education school in Greece. ... A certificate is an official document affirming some fact. ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). In the United Kingdom post-secondary education below the level of higher education is referred to as further education. Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In some educational systems, an undergraduate is a post-secondary student pursuing a Bachelors degree. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A graduate school or grad school is a school that awards advanced degrees, with the general requirement that students must have earned an undergraduate (bachelors) degree. ... Further education is education in addition to that received at secondary school. ... The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ...


In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.


There can be disagreement about what precisely constitutes post-secondary or tertiary education: "It is not always clear, though, what tertiary education includes. Is it only that which results in a formal qualification or might it include leisure classes? In the UK, are A-levels tertiary education as they are post-compulsory but taught in school settings as well as colleges? Is professional updating or on-the-job training part of tertiary education, even if it does not follow successful completion of secondary education?"[1]


There are two types of higher education, the higher general education and the higher vocational education.

Contents


Higher general education

Higher general education and training generally takes place in a university. Such education is based on theoretical expertise. Higher general education might be contrasted with higher vocational education, which concentrate on both practice and theory. A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants degrees like Bachelor's degree, Master's degree and doctorates) in a variety of subjects. However, most professional education is included within higher education, and many postgraduate qualifications are strongly vocationally or professionally oriented, for example in disciplines such as law and medicine. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A practice refers to a way that something is done. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration. ... A professional provides a service in exchange for payment in accordance with established protocols for licensing, ethics, procedures, standards of service and training/certification. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... See also Wikipedias Law Portal. ... This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ...


Higher education in sciences

Main article: Higher education in sciences

Academic disciplines that may be considered to be sciences include:

Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ...

Higher education in arts

Main article: Higher education in arts

Academic disciplines that may be considered to be arts include:

Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... See also Wikipedias Law Portal. ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ...

Higher vocational education

Higher vocational education and training takes place at the non-university tertiary level. Such education combines teaching of both practical skills and theoretical expertise. Higher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education such as that offered by institutions of vocational education, which are more colloquially known as trade schools. Higher vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge. A Vocational university is an institution of higher education and sometime research, which grants Professional degrees like Professional Bachelor's degree, Professional Master's degree and Professional doctorates) in a variety of subjects. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... A vocational school, also sometimes referred to as a trade school is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or system of knowledge, attained by verifiable means. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. ... A concept is an abstract, idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, phenomena or relations between them. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


There is vocational universities in Applied sciences and Applied arts Applied science is the art of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. ... € ...


Higher education in applied sciences

Main article: Higher education in applied sciences

Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. Many applied sciences can be considered forms of engineering.


Academic disciplines that may be considered to be applied sciences include:

There are also applied branches of most other sciences. The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. ... Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ...


Higher education in Applied arts

Main article: Higher education in Applied arts

Performing arts

The performing arts differ from the plastic arts or visual arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some art object. The Plastic arts may refer to: Sculpture Dance The use of Plastics within the arts or as an artform itself. ... In the English language the term Art object may also be encountered in its French form Objet DArt. ...


Performing arts include:

Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognisable opera houses and landmarks. ... It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...

Plastic or visual arts

Main article: Higher education in visual arts

The plastic arts or visual arts are a class of art forms, that involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. Examples are clay, paint and plaster. Arts that can be said to be Plastic Arts are therefore Painting, Sculpture, Drawing, etc. The Plastic arts may refer to: Sculpture Dance The use of Plastics within the arts or as an artform itself. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1891-1892). ...


The plastic arts may refer to:

Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Ceramics is the art form that uses ceramic materials to produce works of art. ... Land art or earth art is a form of art which came to prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s primarily concerned with the natural environment. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... Textile art is the creation of textiles or creation with textiles. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. ...

Working in higher education

Universities are fairly large employers. Depending on the funding, a university typically has a teacher per 3-20 students. According to the ideal of research-university, the university teaching staff is actively involved in the research of the institution. In addition, the university usually also has dedicated research staff and a considerable support staff. Typically to work in higher education as a member of the academic faculty, one must first obtain a doctorate in an academic field, although some lower teaching positions require only master's degree. Member of the staff or administration usually have education that is necessary for the fulfilment of their duties. Depending on the university, the main administration is more or less centralized. Typically most of the administrative staff works in different administrative sections, such as Student Affairs. In addition, there may be central support units, such as a university library which have a dedicated staff. A faculty is a division within a university. ... An academic administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities. ... Student Affairs staff are responsible for out-of-classroom learning in colleges and universities (higher education) in the United States and abroad. ... A modern-style library in Chambéry In the traditional sense of the word, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ...


The professional field involving the collection, analysis, and reporting of higher education data is called institutional research. Professionals in this field can be found, in addition to universities, in e.g. state educational departments. Overview Institutional research is a broad category of work done at colleges and universities to inform campus decision making and planning in areas such as admissions, financial aid, curriculum, enrollment, staffing, student life, finance, facilities, athletics, and alumni relations. ...


Asia

A total of about 104 institutions represent the conventional higher education institution (HEI) in Bangladesh. ... // Andhra Pradesh Universities Andhra University(AU), Vizag University of Rajasthan Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU) , Hyderabad Acharya Nagarjuna University , Guntur Osmania University, Hyderabad Kakatiya University, Warangal Venkateswara University, Tirupathi University of Hyderabad (Central University) , Hyderabad Engineering Colleges Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) Hyderabad National Institute of Technology (NIT) Warangal...

Europe

The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the objective of the Bologna process - to create more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. ... Most United Kingdom universities can be classified into 5 main categories, Ancient universities - universities founded before the 19th century Red Brick universities - universities founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A listing of universities and major tertiary education institutions in France. ... Many of the worlds oldest universities are located in Italy, in particular the University of Bologna (1088). ... Several of the worlds oldest universities are located in Spain, for example the University of Salamanca which was founded by King Alfonso IX of Leon in 1218. ...

North America

On September 15, 2005 the Federal Bureau of Investigation created the National Security Higher Education Advisory Board. The board will "provide advice on the culture of higher education." The details of how involved the FBI will be involved on campus is left ambiguous. The board will help develop research, degree programs, course work, internships, opportunities for graduates, and consulting opportunities for faculty relating to national security. Graham Spanier, President of Pennsylvania State University, will chair the Board. Universities involved: Johns Hopkins University, University of California Los Angeles, Carnegie Mellon University, University of California, San Diego, Texas A&M University, Iowa State University, University of Pennsylvania, West Virginia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Purdue University, University of Florida, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, University of Maryland, University of Wisconsin, and University of Washington. Source: http://www.researchfor.com In the United States, the term University refers to institutions of higher learning that offer a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees and conduct research in those fields. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the federal criminal investigative and intelligence agency, which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Analytic Quality Glossary

See also

United Kingdom: further education, foundation degree Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ... A German classroom, circa 1930s. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Day care. ... A kindergarten in Afghanistan. ... Primary or elementary education consists of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school, (Intermediate/Junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In education, the phrase alternative school usually refers to a school based on a non-traditional, new, or non-standard educational philosophy. ... Thomas Edison attended compulsory school for only three months, after which he was taught at home by his mother and a tutor. ... Libraries are a useful resource for adult learners. ... Further education is education in addition to that received at secondary school. ... The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ...

For the examination in Scotland, see Higher (Scottish) Art school National Association of Schools of Art and Design Educational policies of the European Union Liberal arts List of academic disciplines List of education topics Glossary of education-related terms Libraries are a useful resource for adult learners. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a technical college, county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees to people like laertes. ... This is a list of articles on education organized by country: Education in Afghanistan Education in Albania Education in Algeria Education in Argentina Education in Australia Education in Austria Education in Belgium Education in Brazil Education in Bulgaria Education in Canada Education in Québec Education in the Peoples... Further education is education in addition to that received at secondary school. ... Lifelong learning is the concept that Its never too soon or too late for learning, a philosophy that has taken root in organisations such as the UK Governments Department for Education and Skills. ... In Scotland the Higher is one of the national school-leaving certificate exams and university entrance qualifications of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) offered by the Scottish Qualifications Authority which superceded the old Higher Grade on the Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE). ... Art school is a colloquial term for any educational institution (whether secondary, post-secondary/undergraduate, or graduate/postgraduate) with a primary focus on the visual arts, especially graphic design, illustration, painting, photography, and sculpture. ... National Association of Schools of Art and Design, known as NASAD for short, is an organisation of colleges, schools and universities. ... In the European Union education is the responsibility of member states, and European Union institutions play only a minor role in this field. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... This is a list of education topics. ... This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. ...


Further reading

Higher education in the United States
  • Davies, Antony and Thomas W. Cline (2005). The ROI on the MBA, BizEd.
  • El-Khawas, E. (1996). Campus trends. Washington, DC.: American Council on Education.
  • Ewell, P.T. (1999). Assessment of higher education and quality: Promise and politics. In S.J. Messick (Ed.), Assessment in higher education: Issues of access, quality, student development, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Finn, C. E. (1988, Jul.-Aug.). Judgment time for higher education: In the court of public opinion. Change, 20(4), 34-39.
  • Green, Madeleine, F., ed. 1988. Leaders for a New Era: Strategies for Higher Education. New York: Macmillan.
  • Snyder, Benson R. (1970). The Hidden Curriculum. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Veblen, Thorstein (1918). The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Businessmen. New York: Huebsch
  • Forest, James and Kevin Kinser (2002). Higher Education in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  • Douglass, John A. and Todd Greenspan, eds. "The History of the California Master Plan for Higher Education."
Higher education in Canada and other Countries

The Hidden Curriculum (1973 edition) The Hidden Curriculum (1970) is a book by Benson R. Snyder, the then-Dean of Institute Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... David M. Cameron is Professor of Political Science at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...

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