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Encyclopedia > Positron
Positron
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Lepton
Generation: First
Interaction: Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak
Antiparticle: Electron
Theorized: Paul Dirac, 1928
Discovered: Carl D. Anderson, 1932
Symbol: β+, e+
Mass: 9.1093826(16) × 10−31 kg[1]

11836.15267261(85) u[2]
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In physics, a particle is a lepton if it has a spin of 1/2 and does not experience the strong nuclear force. ... In particle physics, a generation is a division of the elementary particles. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... e- redirects here. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... The invariant mass or intrinsic mass or proper mass or rest mass or just mass is a measurement or calculation of the mass of an object that is the same for all frames of reference. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ...

0.510998918(44) MeV/c2[3]
Electric charge: 1.602176462(63) × 10−19 C[4]
Spin: ½
The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson

The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electric charge of +1, a spin of 1/2, and the same mass as an electron. When a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron, annihilation occurs, resulting in the production of two gamma ray photons (see electron-positron annihilation). The first scientist deemed to have captured positrons through electron-positron annihilation was Chung-Yao Chao, a graduate student at Caltech in 1930, though he did not realize what they were at that time. An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Image File history File links Cloud chamber, Wilson chamber - trail of a positron File links The following pages link to this file: Positron Cloud chamber ... Image File history File links Cloud chamber, Wilson chamber - trail of a positron File links The following pages link to this file: Positron Cloud chamber ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... In particle physics, antimatter extends the concept of the antiparticle to matter, whereby antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. ... e- redirects here. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Annihilation is defined as total destruction or complete obliteration of an object;[1] having its root in the Latin nihil (nothing). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... Electron-positron annihilation is the process that occurs when an electron (which is matter) and a positron (which is antimatter) collide. ... Chung-Yao Chao (赵忠尧; 1902–1998), physical scientist. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...


Positrons may be generated by positron emission radioactive decay (a weak interaction), or by pair production from a sufficiently energetic photon. Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... Pair production refers to the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle, usually from a photon (or another neutral boson). ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ...


The existence of positrons was first postulated in 1928 by Paul Dirac as a consequence of the Dirac equation. In 1932, positrons were discovered by Carl D. Anderson, who gave the positron its name. The positron was the first evidence of antimatter and was discovered by passing cosmic rays through a gas chamber and a lead plate surrounded by a magnet to distinguish the particles by bending differently charged particles in different directions. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... In particle physics, antimatter extends the concept of the antiparticle to matter, whereby antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


Today, positrons are routinely produced in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners used in hospitals and in accelerator physics laboratories used in electron-positron collider experiments. Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... One of the early particle accelerators responsible for development of the atomic bomb. ...


The positron in fiction

  • The most famous use of the positron in fiction was Isaac Asimov's use in his robots' positronic brains. According to Asimov, in his book The Relativity of Wrong, he decided to use positrons as they seemed a more interesting name for what is essentially an "electronic brain".
  • In the Star Trek universe the android Data, his "brother" Lore, "daughter" Lal, and kindred Soong-type androids have positronic brains.
Antimatter
Overview
Annihilation
Devices
Antiparticles
Uses
Bodies
People
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  • In Hideaki Anno's Neon Genesis Evangelion, the positron rifle, based upon the ATHENA tests in Europe, is used to defeat the invading Angels on numerous occasions; the most notable one being Ramiel.
  • In the film Ghostbusters, Peter Venkman refers to his proton pack as a "positron collider" while he and his fellow teammates trap their first ghost since going into business.
  • In the film Barbarella, the villainous Duran Duran was the developer of the Positronic ray.
  • In the video game Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow, completing the Boss Rush under a certain time will grant the player access to the Positron Rifle. Its description reads: "Fires positive electrons."
  • In the video game Pikmin, one of the spaceship parts that needs to be collected is named "Positron Generator". Its description says it can generate unlimited amounts of energy.
  • In the video game Freelancer, the positron is the basis for a defensive shield.
  • In comics the Black superhero Icon created by Milestone Media and published by DC Comics has the ability to generate and blast positron energy from his hands.

Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920? – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda. ... A positronic brain is a fictional technological device, originally conceived by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series. ... “Mechanoid” redirects here. ... Data,[1] portrayed by Brent Spiner, is a character in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, Lore is the name of a prototype for the android Data, often referred to as his evil brother and was played by the same actor, Brent Spiner. ... In the television program Star Trek: The Next Generation, Lal (played by Hallie Todd) is the name of Lieutenant Commander Datas daughter. ... In particle physics, antimatter extends the concept of the antiparticle to matter, whereby antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. ... In particle physics, antimatter extends the concept of the antiparticle to matter, whereby antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. ... Annihilation is defined as total destruction or complete obliteration of an object;[1] having its root in the Latin nihil (nothing). ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... The antineutron is the antiparticle of the neutron. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Antimatter or contra-terrene matter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter. ... An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. ... The ALPHA collaboration consists of scientists from a number scientific institutions whose goal it is to trap neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen in a magnetic trap and consecutively conduct experiments with the trapped antiatoms. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... The ATRAP collaboration at CERN developed out of TRAP, a collaboration whose members pioneered cold antiprotons, cold positrons, and first made the ingredients of cold antihydrogen to interact. ... CERN logo The Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire (English: European Organization for Nuclear Research), commonly known as CERN, pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Carl Anderson at LBNL 1937 Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... Hideaki Anno (庵野秀明 Anno Hideaki, born 22 May 1960 in Ube, Japan) is a Japanese animation and video director. ... Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 No. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Râmîêl (Aramaic: דעמאןל Greek:‘Ραμιήλ) is the 6th leader mentioned in the Book of Enoch, he is a Grigori or Watcher. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Mobile Suit Gundam SEED ), shortened to Gundam SEED, is an anime television series by Sunrise and Bandai Visual. ... A sequel is a work of fiction in literature, film, and other creative works that is produced after a completed work, and is set in the same universe but at a later time. ... Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny ) is the second TV series set in the Cosmic Era universe of Gundam. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Original run April 2, 2000 – March 25, 2001 No. ... Digimon , short for デジタルモンスター dejitaru monsutā, Digital Monster) is a popular Japanese series of media and merchandise, including anime, manga, toys, video games, trading card games and other media. ... Imperialdramon is a fictional character from the Digimon series and is one of the Four Great Dragon Digimon. ... Ghostbusters is a 1984 sci-fi comedy film about three eccentric New York City parapsychologists. ... The Proton Pack is a fictional piece of nuclear accelerative machinery created by the Ghostbusters that serves as their primary tool in the 1984 film of the same name for the purpose of busting ghosts. ... Barbarella, also known as Barbarella, Queen of the Galaxy is a 1968 erotic science fiction film, based on the French Barbarella comic book created by Jean-Claude Forest. ... Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow is a game that is a part of the Castlevania video game series. ... Pikmin (ピクミン in Japanese) is a real-time strategy video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube video game console in 2001. ... Freelancer is a space simulation computer game developed by Digital Anvil and published by Microsoft. ... Icon is a fictional superhero created by Milestone Comics and published by DC Comics. ...

See also

Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Anti-gravity is a recurring theme in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. ...

External links

  • Original Publication by Anderson (DOI Link)
  • What is a Positron? (from the Frequently Asked Questions :: Center for Antimatter-Matter Studies)
  • Positron information search at SLAC
  • Positron Annihilation as a method of experimental physics used in materials research.


Quantum electrodynamics
v  d  e

electron | positron | photon
self-energy | vacuum polarization | vertex function
Gupta-Bleuler formalism | ξ gauge | Ward-Takahashi identity
Compton scattering | Bhabha scattering | Møller scattering
anomalous magnetic dipole moment
bremsstrahlung | positronium Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electromagnetism. ... e- redirects here. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... In theoretical physics, a particles self-energy represents the contribution to the particles energy or effective mass due to interactions between the particle and the system it is apart of. ... In quantum physics, if we expand about the Fock vacuum, the true vacuum contains short-lived virtual particle-antiparticle pairs which are created in pairs out of the Fock vacuum and then annihilate each other. ... In quantum electrodynamics, the vertex function is the one particle irreducible correlation function involving ψ, and the vector potential A. It is unfortunate that the effective action Γeff and the vertex function Γμ happen to be described by the same letter. ... In quantum field theory, the Gupta-Bleuler formalism is a way of quantizing the electromagnetic field. ... In the physics of gauge theories, gauge fixing (also called choosing a gauge) denotes a mathematical procedure for coping with redundant degrees of freedom in field variables. ... In quantum field theory a Ward-Takahashi identity is nowadays used to designate an identity between correlation functions that follows from symmetries, either global or gauged, of the theory, and which remains valid after renormalization. ... In physics, Compton scattering or the Compton effect, is the decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, when it interacts with matter. ... In quantum electrodynamics, Bhabha scattering is the electron positron scattering process represented by . ... Møller scattering is the name given to electron-electron scattering in Quantum Field Theory. ... In quantum electrodynamics, anomalous magnetic moment of a particle is a contribution of effects of quantum mechanics, expressed by Feynman diagrams with loops, to the magnetic moment of that particle. ... (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... Positronium (Ps) is a quasi-stable system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom. The orbit of the two particles and the set of energy levels is similar to that of the hydrogen atom (electron and proton). ...

 v  d  e 
Particles in physics - elementary particles
Fermions: Quarks: (Up · Down · Strange · Charm · Bottom · Top) | Leptons: (Electron · Muon · Tau · Neutrinos)
Gauge bosons: Photon | W and Z bosons | Gluons
Not yet observed: Higgs boson | Graviton | Other hypothetical particles

  Results from FactBites:
 
Positron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (468 words)
When a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron, undergoing an annihilation event, their mass is converted into the kinetic energy of two gamma ray photons (see electron-positron annihilation).
The existence of positrons was first postulated in 1928 by Paul Dirac as an inevitable consequence of the Dirac equation.
Anderson also unsuccessfully suggested renaming electrons "negatrons." The positron was the first evidence of antimatter and was discovered by passing cosmic rays through a gas chamber and a lead plate surrounded by a magnet to distinguish the particles by bending differently charged particles in different directions.
Positron (City of Heroes) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1116 words)
Positron (Dr. Raymond Keyes) is a fictional superhero from the City of Heroes backstory.
During this arc in the series, Positron and Synapse would become entrusted in protecting Candy Lebeaux, one of three people with the cosmic potential the Circle of Thorns needed to summon their patron god.
Positron has the ability to general and control anti-matter, which upon contact with regular matter, generally explodes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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