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Encyclopedia > Positions on Jerusalem

Jerusalem
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Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. However, there are many differing legal and diplomatic positions on Jerusalem.[1] Image File history File links Jerusalem_Municipality_Emblem. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jerusalem_icon_small2. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article explores the different names of Jerusalem and their linguistic natures, etc. ... Main article: Jerusalem This article chronicles the history of Jerusalem. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... Neighborhoods Baaka German Colony Greek Colony Katamonim Old Katamon Ramot Rekhavia Qiriat HaYovel Talbieh Talpiot Beit Khanina French Hill Neve Yaaqov Old City Jewish Quarter Western Wall The Cardo Muslim Quarter Temple Mount, site of the former Temple in Jerusalem Dome of the Rock Al Aqsa Mosque Armenian... ... Founded around 3000 BCE, the Old City of Jerusalem is divided into Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Armenian quarters. ... This is the list of Mayors of Jerusalem. ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... For Christians, Jerusalems place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, as described above. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

  • Others claim part or all of Jerusalem as Al Quds, the capital of a future Palestinian state.
  • Many United Nations General Assembly members including mostly Arab states, support the Palestinian claim.
  • De jure, the majority of UN member states and most international organisations do not accept Jerusalem as Israel's capital, nor Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem. Embassies are generally located in Tel Aviv, which served as the temporary capital of Israel during the Arab blockade of Jerusalem in 1948.

Contents

For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The following article helps to explain the structure of the United Nations General Assembly, the universal decision-making body of the United Nations. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

Israeli position

According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "Since 1004 B.C.E. when King David established Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish nation, there has remained a constant and enduring Jewish presence in the city, as well as a vigorous spiritual attachment to the city."[2] Israel regards unified Jerusalem as the eternal, undivided capital of the State of Israel and of the Jewish people.[1] This consistent position has been the declared view of all Israeli governments, left-wing and right-wing. Categories: | | ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


Israel also maintains that only Israel has proven to be committed to freedom of worship for all. Israel notes that during the 19 year Jordanian occupation, all Jewish sites in the city were destroyed, desecrated, or isolated:

  • The entire Jewish Quarter of the Old City and its 68 synagogues, including the Hurva Synagogue, was deliberately blown up by Jordanian forces.
  • Jewish cemetaries were desecrated, including the cemetary on the Mount of Olives, and their tombstones removed for use as construction material.
  • The Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was isolated and closed, although under Israeli control.

Israel also notes that these acts were committed in full view of United Nations observers who never intervened, nor were any agreements promising access to holy cites ever enforced. Israelis cite the recent destruction of Joseph's Tomb in Nablus and Shalom Al Israel synagogue in Jericho by Palestinians as examples of what will happen if the city becomes under non-Israeli rule. A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... The dome of the Hurva dominated the Old City skyline. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المشهد Jabal al-Mašhad, جبل ا&#1604... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... The Shalom Al Israel synagogue(Hebrew: שלום על ישראל), is Jerichos ancient synagogue. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...


All Israeli governments since 1967 have encouraged large-scale construction projects in the eastern part of the city, resulting in the Jewish population of East Jerusalem, which is 24% of the Jewish population of the entire city. However, various Israeli governments have agreed to rationalization of the municipal borders of the city, in order to enable the outlying Arab quarters to be merged with Arab urban areas in the West Bank in order to become the capital of a future Palestinian state under the name of al-Quds. East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


All the branches of Israeli government are seated in Jerusalem, including the Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Administrative branches. The city is also home to a number of important Israeli government buildings, including the Knesset and Israeli Supreme Court. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Supreme Court is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ...

Palestinian position

The Palestinians claim Jerusalem (Al-Quds) as the capital of a future Palestinian state. In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000 the Palestinian Authority passed a law designating East Jerusalem as such, and in 2002 this law was ratified by President Arafat. [3] [4] According to the Palestinian Authority Ministry of Information, the official Palestinian position on Jerusalem includes four points: [5] Palestinians are people with family origins mainly in Palestine. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ... The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), in Algiers on 15 November 1988. ... ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ...

  • According to previously signed agreements with Israel, the status of "Jerusalem" (and not specifically East Jerusalem) is subject to permanent status negotiations.
  • Jerusalem should be an open city that is freely accessible, and should remain undivided regardless of the resolution of the question of sovereignty.
  • A Palestinian state would be committed to freedom of worship for all and take all measures to protect and safeguard sites of religious significance.

In the mid 1990s, a proposal was floated by Dr. Mahmoud Abbas (today the President of the Palestinian Authority) and Dr. Yossi Beilin (who served as an Israeli government minister in various periods during the 1990s), among others, under which the Palestinian urban mass of East Jerusalem, comprising of part of the eastern Jerusalem areas within the present municipal borders and urban areas currently part of the West Bank (such as Abu Dis and Eizariya), could be redefined as al-Quds, with the remaining Arab East Jerusalem residents being defined as Israeli residents and Palestinian citizens. These proposals did not constitute a plan to resolve the conflict over Jerusalem, as the status of the Old City, the most contentious aspect of the conflict, was not fully addressed. East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya or nom de guerre Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Yossi Beilin Dr. Yossef (Yossi) Beilin (Hebrew: ; born June 12, 1948) is an Israeli politician, Knesset member, and a former , deputy foreign minister and justice minister within the Israeli Labour Party. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ...


United Nations position

The position of the United Nations on the question of Jerusalem is contained in General Assembly resolution 181(11) and subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security Council concerning this question. A total of six UN security council resolutions on Israel have denounced or declared invalid Israel's attempts to unify the city, though none of them have been Chapter VII resolutions. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... The following is a list of United Nations resolutions that concern Israel only or bordering states (such as Lebanon). ... Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Councils powers to maintain peace. ...


The UN Security Council, in UNSC resolution 478, declared that the 1980 Jerusalem Law declaring unified Jerusalem, including annexed East Jerusalem, as Israel's "eternal and indivisible" capital was "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith" (14-0-1, with United States abstaining). The resolution advised member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure. “UNSC” redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. The resolution instructed member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ...


Before this resolution, thirteen countries maintained their embassies in Jerusalem: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, the Netherlands, Panama, Uruguay, Venezuela. Following the UN resolution, all thirteen moved their embassies to Tel Aviv. Costa Rica and El Salvador moved theirs back to Jerusalem in 1984. Costa Rica moved its embassy back to Tel Aviv in 2006 followed by El Salvador a few weeks later.[6] [7] No international embassy remains in Jerusalem, although Paraguay and Bolivia have theirs in Mevasseret Zion, a suburb 10 km west of the city. [8] Jerusalem (Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. ...


The Netherlands maintains an office in Jerusalem serving mainly Israeli citizens. Other foreign governments base Consulate General offices in Jerusalem, including Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States. These consular offices primarily serve the Palestinian population of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and their Consul Generals do not submit letters of credentials to the Israeli President or foreign ministry, but instead, deliver them to the administrative governor of Jerusalem.[citation needed] Since the President of Israel resides in Jerusalem and confirms the foreign diplomats, the ambassadors have to travel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem to swear in upon being appointed. A consulate (or consular office) is a form of diplomatic mission in charge of matters related to individual people and businesses, in other words issues outside inter-governmental diplomacy. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: , Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of state of Israel. ...


European Union position

It is the EU's position that a fair solution should be found to the complex issue of Jerusalem, in the context of the two-state solution set out in the roadmap, taking into account the political and religious concerns of all parties.


"The EU opposes measures which would prejudge the outcome of permanent status negotiations on Jerusalem, basing its policy on the principles set out in UN Security Council Resolution 242, notably the impossibility of acquisition of territory by force.


The EU is concerned that Israeli policies are reducing the possibility of reaching a final status agreement on Jerusalem and are in violation of both Israel’s Roadmap obligations and international law.


The EU has also called for the reopening of Palestinian institutions in East Jerusalem, in accordance with the Road Map, in particular the Orient House and the Chamber of Commerce, and has called on the Israeli government to cease all discriminatory treatment of Palestinians in East Jerusalem, especially concerning work permits, access to education and health services, building permits, house demolitions, taxation and expenditure." [9]


In 2007 the European Jewish Community Center (EJCC), Finnish Liberal MP Hannu Takkula and the Israeli Ministry for Jerusalem and Diaspora Affairs jointly organized an event inside the European Parliament, marking 40 years to the Six Day War. Takkula declared that Jerusalem was unified and that it belongs to Israel. An estimated 20 representatives from the 785 member large European parliament attended the event. Ambassadors from the EU member states did not participate, citing "the ongoing dispute between Israel and the Palestinians over control of eastern Jerusalem". [10] [11] Hannu Takkula Hannu Takkula (born on 20 November 1963 in Ristijärvi) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Centre Party of Finland, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Culture and Education. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


United States position

The United States Jerusalem Embassy Act, passed by Congress in 1995, states that "Jerusalem should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel; and the United States Embassy in Israel should be established in Jerusalem no later than May 31, 1999". Since then, the relocation of the embassy from Tel Aviv is being suspended by the President semi-annually, each time stating that "[the] Administration remains committed to beginning the process of moving our embassy to Jerusalem". As a result of the Embassy Act, official U.S. documents and web sites refer to Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The United States Jerusalem Embassy Act, passed by Congress on October 23, 1995 , states that Jerusalem should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel; and the United States Embassy in Israel should be established in Jerusalem no later than May 31, 1999. The act explains that every... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


Section 214 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act of 2003 states:

"The Congress maintains its commitment to relocating the United States Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem and urges the President [...] to immediately begin the process of relocating the United States Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem". [12]

However, U.S. presidents, including President Bush, have argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely "advisory", stating that it "impermissibly interferes with the President's constitutional authority". [13] The U.S. Constitution reserves the conduct of foreign policy to the President and resolutions of Congress which make foreign policy are arguably invalid for that reason. The U.S. Congress, however, has the "power of the purse", and could prohibit the expenditure of funds on any embassy located outside Jerusalem. The U.S. Congress has not taken this step. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


The U.S. Department of State maintains a Consulate General in Jerusalem. The Consulate is building an expansion in the neighborhood of Talpiot to provide visa and other consular services to residents of Jerusalem and the Palestinian Territories. The construction site is often mistaken as a site for the future US Embassy; however there are currently no plans to use this location in this manner. [14] Talpiot (; Hebrew: ‎), is a neighbourhood in southeastern Jerusalem that was established in the 1922 by Zionist Jews. ...


U.S. citizens born in Jerusalem do not have "Israel" written on their passports as their country of birth, but rather "Jerusalem". U.S. Congress passed a bill in 2002 which would allow citizens to choose to have "Israel" listed as their country of birth, but the President regards the bill as advisory rather than mandatory and has not implemented its provisions. The issue is, as of 2006, still pending before the courts, following a lawsuit filed in 2003.[15] [16] A similar bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives in February 2007, but has not been voted on as of June 2007. [17]


On June 5, 2007, the U.S House of Representatives passed concurrent resolution 152 by voice vote, stating that Congress:[18] [19] Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the Senate. ...

  1. congratulates the citizens of Israel on the 40th anniversary of the Six Day War in which Israel defeated enemies aiming to destroy the Jewish State;
  2. congratulates the residents of Jerusalem and the people of Israel on the 40th anniversary of the reunification of that historic city;
  3. commends those former combatant states of the Six Day War, Egypt and Jordan, who in subsequent years had the wisdom and courage to embrace a vision of peace and coexistence with Israel;
  4. commends Israel for its administration of the undivided city of Jerusalem for the past 40 years, during which Israel has respected the rights of all religious groups;
  5. reiterates its commitment to the provisions of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 and calls upon the President and all United States officials to abide by its provisions; and
  6. urges the Palestinians and Arab countries to join with Israel in peace negotiations to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict, including realization of the vision of two democratic states, Israeli and Palestinian, living side-by-side in peace and security.

This bill is a legislative proposal that does not require the signature of the President and does not have the force of law. The bill was sent to the U.S. Senate to be voted on on June 7, 2007. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the...


United Kingdom position

According to the United Kingdom, Jerusalem was supposed to be a corpus separatum, or international city administered by the UN. This was never set up: immediately after the UNGA resolution partitioning Palestine, Israel occupied West Jerusalem and Jordan occupied East Jerusalem (including the Old City). The UK recognised the de facto control of Israel and Jordan, but not sovereignty. In 1967, Israel occupied East Jerusalem, which the UK considers an illegal military occupation. The UK Embassy to Israel is in Tel Aviv, not Jerusalem. In East Jerusalem there is a Consulate-General, with a Consul-General who is not accredited to any state: this is an expression of the view that no state has sovereignty over Jerusalem. Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ...


The UK believes that the city’s status has yet to be determined, and maintains that it should be settled in an overall agreement between the parties concerned, but considers that the city should not again be divided. The Declaration of Principles and the Interim Agreement, signed by Israel and the PLO on 13 September 1993 and 28 September 1995 respectively, left the issue of the status of Jerusalem to be decided in the ‘permanent status’ negotiations between the two parties. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


UK Foreign Office position on Jerusalem


References

  1. ^ a b "Brian Whitaker. "Rivals for holy city may have to turn to God." Guardian Unlimited. August 22, 2000; "Marilyn Henry. "Disney response on Jerusalem exhibit calms Arabs." Jerusalem Post Service October 1, 1999; Deborah Sontag. "Two Dreams of Jerusalem Converge in a Blur" New York Times. May 21, 2000.
  2. ^ The Status of Jerusalem, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, published March 14, 1999.
  3. ^ Arafat Signs Law Making Jerusalem Palestinian Capital, People's Daily, published October 6, 2002.
  4. ^ Arafat names Jerusalem as capital, BBC News, published October 6, 2002.
  5. ^ The Palestinian Official Position, Palestinian National Authority, Ministry of Information, copy from Archive.org, retrieved June 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Costa Rica to relocate embassy to TA, Jerusalem Post, published August 17, 2006.
  7. ^ El Salvador to move embassy in Israel from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv, People's Daily, published August 26, 2006.
  8. ^ Embassies and Consulates in Israel, Israel Science and Technology Homepage, retrieved June 20, 2007.
  9. ^ The EU & the Middle East Peace Process: FAQ, European Commission, retrieved June 20, 2007.
  10. ^ "European parliament marks Jerusalem Day", Ynet News, published May 14, 2007.
  11. ^ "'Jerusalem Day' celebrated at the European Parliament in Brussels" European Jewish Press, published May 16, 2007.
  12. ^ "Jerusalem: Provisions of Foreign Relations Authorization act of 2003 HR 1646." MidEast Web. October 1, 2002.
  13. ^ Statement on FY 2003 Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Statement by the President, released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, September 30, 2002.
  14. ^ "Diplomatic construction", Jerusalem Post, published December 1, 2005.
  15. ^ Powell sued over Jerusalem's status, BBC News, published September 17, 2003.
  16. ^ The Jerusalem passport will have its day in court, Shmuel Rosner, Haaretz, published February 22, 2006.
  17. ^ U.S. House of Representatives, H.R. 895 (bill status), GovTrack.us, published February 7, 2007.
  18. ^ U.S. House of Representatives, H. Con. Res. 152 (bill status), GovTrack.us, published June 5, 2007.
  19. ^ U.S. House of Representatives, H. Con. Res. 152 (text of bill), GovTrack.us, published June 5, 2007.

 
 

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