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Encyclopedia > Posidonius
The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. His brow is slightly creased to indicate the effort of thinking, but his expression is calm. His hair and philosopher’s beard are cut short and groomed plainly to indicate his concern with matters deeper than mere appearance.
The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. His brow is slightly creased to indicate the effort of thinking, but his expression is calm. His hair and philosopher’s beard are cut short and groomed plainly to indicate his concern with matters deeper than mere appearance.

Posidonius (Greek: Ποσειδώνιος / Poseidonios) "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ρόδιος) or, alternatively, "of Apameia" (ὁ Απαμεύς) (ca. 135 BCE - 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher. He was acclaimed as the greatest polymath of his age. None of his vast body of work can be read in its entirety today as it exists only in fragments. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (421 × 606 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Posidonius, ancient Greek philosopher. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (421 × 606 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Posidonius, ancient Greek philosopher. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... View of Apameas ruins, Syria. ... (Redirected from 135 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 140 BC 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC - 135 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or...

Contents

Life

Posidonius (also spelled Poseidonius), nicknamed "the Athlete", was born to a Greek family in Apamea, a Roman city on the river Orontes in northern Syria, and probably died in Rome or Rhodes. View of Apameas ruins, Syria. ... The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ...


Posidonius completed his higher education in Athens, where he was a student of the aged Panaetius, the head of the Stoic school. Athens (Greek Αθήνα Athína) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... Panaetius of Rhodes (c. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ...


He settled around 95 BCE in Rhodes, a maritime state which had a reputation for scientific research, and became a citizen. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...


Political offices

In Rhodes, Posidonius actively took part in political life, and his high standing is apparent from the offices he held. He attained the highest public office as one of the prytaneis (presidents, having a six months tenure) of Rhodes. He served as an ambassador to Rome in 87 - 86 BCE, during the Marian and Sullan era. The prytaneis (literally presidents) of ancient Athens were members of the boule chosen to perform executive tasks during their term (a prytany), which lasted about two months and then was rotated to other members of the boule. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ...


Along with other Greek intellectuals, Posidonius favored Rome as the stabilizing power in a turbulent world. His connections to the Roman ruling class was for him not only politically important and sensible but was also important to his scientific researches. His entry into the highest government circles enabled Posidonius to undertake his travels into the west beyond the borders of Roman control, which, for a Greek traveler, would have been impossible without such Roman support.


Travels

After he had established himself in Rhodes, Posidonius made one or more journeys traveling throughout the Roman world and even beyond its boundaries to conduct scientific research. He traveled in Greece, Hispania, Africa, Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, Gaul, Liguria, North Africa, and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ...


In Hispania, on the Atlantic coast at Gades (the modern Cadiz), Posidonius studied the tides. He observed that the daily tides were connected with the orbit and the monthly tides with the cycles of the Moon, and he hypothesized about the connections of the yearly cycles of the tides with the equinoxes and solstices. This article is about the Spanish city. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


In Gaul, he studied the Celts. He left vivid descriptions of things he saw with his own eyes while among them: men who were paid to allow their throats to be slit for public amusement and the nailing of skulls as trophies to the doorways. But he noted that the Celts honored the Druids, whom Posidonius saw as philosophers, and concluded that even among the barbaric 'pride and passion give way to wisdom, and Ares stands in awe of the Muses'. Posidonius wrote a geographic treatise on the lands of the Celts which has since been lost, but which has been assumed to be one of the sources for Tacitus' Germania. This article is about the European people. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ...


School

Posidonius's extensive writings and lectures gave him authority as a scholar and made him famous everywhere in the Graeco-Roman world, and a school grew around him in Rhodes. His grandson Jason, who was the son of his daughter and Menekrates of Nysa, followed in his footsteps and continued Posidonius's school in Rhodes. Although little is known of the organization of his school, it is clear that Posidonius had a steady stream of Greek and Roman students. Nysa can mean: Nysa was a mythical place in Greek mythology where the young god Dionysus was raised. ...


Partial scope of writings

Posidonius was celebrated as a polymath throughout the Greco-Roman world because he came near to mastering all the knowledge of his time, similar to Aristotle and Eratosthenes. He attempted to create a unified system for understanding the human intellect and the universe which would provide an explanation of and a guide for human behavior. Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ...


Posidonius wrote on physics (including meteorology and physical geography), astronomy, astrology and divination, seismology, geology and mineralogy, hydrology, botany, ethics, logic, mathematics, history, natural history, anthropology, and tactics. His studies were major investigations into their subjects, although not without errors. Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe and their precise formulation in a mathematical framework. ... Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ... This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ēthikos, the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ...


None of his works survive intact. All that we have found are fragments, although the titles and subjects of many of his books are known.[1]


Philosophy

For Posidonius, philosophy was the dominant master art and all the individual sciences were subordinate to philosophy, which alone could explain the cosmos. All his works, from scientific to historical, were inseparably philosophical.


He accepted the Stoic categorization of philosophy into physics (natural philosophy, including metaphysics and theology), logic (including dialectic), and ethics. These three categories for him were, in Stoic fashion, inseparable and interdependent parts of an organic, natural whole. He compared them to a living being, with physics the meat and blood, logic the bones and tendons which held the organism together, and ethics – the most important part – the soul. His philosophical grand vision was that the universe itself was similarly interconnected, as if an organism, through cosmic "sympathy", in all respects from the development of the physical world to the history of humanity.


Although a firm Stoic, Posidonius was, like Panaetius and other Stoics of the middle period, eclectic. He followed not only the older Stoics, but Plato and Aristotle. Although it is not certain, Posidonius may have written a commentary on Plato's Timaeus. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Timaeus (Honour) (or Timæus) is a name that appears in several ancient (Greek) sources: Timaeus (dialogue), a Socratic dialogue by Plato Timaeus of Locri, the 5th-century Pythagorean philosopher, appearing in Platos s Timaeus. ...


He was the first Stoic to depart from the orthodox doctrine that passions were faulty judgments and posit that Plato's view of the soul had been correct, namely that passions were inherent in human nature. In addition to the rational faculties, Posidonius taught that the human soul had faculties that were spirited (anger, desires for power, possessions, etc.) and desiderative (desires for sex and food). Ethics was the problem of how to deal with these passions and restore reason as the dominant faculty.


Posidonius upheld the Stoic doctrine of Logos, which ultimately passed into Judeo-Christian belief. Posidonius also affirmed the Stoic doctrine of the future conflagration. Look up logos, λόγος in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ...


Physics

In Stoic physics, Posidonius advocated a theory of cosmic "sympathy", the organic interrelation of all appearances in the world, from the sky to the earth, as part of a rational design uniting humanity and all things in the universe, even those that were temporally and spatially separate. Although his teacher Panaetius had doubted divination, Posidonius used the theory of cosmic sympathy to support his belief in divination - whether through astrology or prophetic dreams - as a kind of scientific prediction.


Astronomy

Some fragments of his writings on astronomy survive through the treatise by Cleomedes, On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies, the first chapter of the second book appearing to have been mostly copied from Posidonius. Cleomedes was a Greek astronomer who is known chiefly for his book On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies. ...


Posidonius advanced the theory that the Sun emanated a vital force which permeated the world.


He attempted to measure the distance and size of the Sun. In about 90 BCE Posidonius estimated the astronomical unit to be a0/rE = 9893, which was still too small by half. In measuring the size of the Sun, however, he reached a figure larger and more accurate than those proposed by other Greek astronomers and Aristarchus of Samos. The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... Statue of Aristarchus at Aristoteles University in Thessaloniki, Greece Aristarchus (310 BC - c. ...


Posidonius also calculated the size and distance of the Moon. Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


Posidonius constructed an orrery, possibly similar to the Antikythera mechanism. Posidonius's orrery, according to Cicero, exhibited the diurnal motions of the sun, moon, and the five known planets. A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment) The Antikythera mechanism (Greek: O μηχανισμός των Αντικυθήρων transliterated as O mēchanismós tōn Antikythērōn) is an ancient mechanical analog computer (as opposed to most computers today which are digital computers) designed to calculate astronomical positions. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ...


Geography, ethnology and geology

Posidonius’s fame beyond specialized philosophical circles had begun, at the latest, in the eighties with the publication of the work "about the ocean and the adjacent areas". This work was not only an overall representation of geographical questions according to current scientific knowledge, but it served to popularize his theories about the internal connections of the world, to show how all the forces had an effect on each other and how the interconnectedness applied also to human life, to the political just as to the personal spheres. In this work, Posidonius detailed his theory of the effect on a people’s character by the climate, which included his representation of the "geography of the races". This theory was not solely scientific, but also had political implications -- his Roman readers were informed that the climatic central position of Italy was an essential condition of the Roman destiny to dominate the world. As a Stoic he did not, however, make a fundamental distinction between the civilized Romans as masters of the world and the less civilized peoples.


Posidonius measured the Earth's circumference by reference to the position of the star Canopus. As explained by Cleomedes, Posidonius observed Canopus on but never above the horizon at Rhodes, while at Alexandria he saw it ascend as far as 7 1/2 degrees above the horizon (the arc between the latitude of the two locales is actually 5 degrees 14 minutes). Since he thought Rhodes was 5,000 stadia due north of Alexandria, and the difference in the star's elevation indicated the distance between the two locales was 1/48th of the circle, he multiplied 5,000 by 48 to arrive at a figure of 240,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. While translating stadia into modern units of distance is problematic, as an ancient stadium could measure anywhere from about 157 to around 211 meters, it is generally thought that the stadium used by Posidonius was almost exactly 1/10 of a modern statute mile, near the middle of the ancient range. Thus Posidonius' measure of 240,000 stadia translates to 24,000 miles, not much short of the actual circumference of 24,901 miles. Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Canopus (α Car / α Carinae / Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the sky, with a visual magnitude of −0. ... ---- Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ...


Posidonius was informed in his approach to finding the earth's circumference by Eratosthenes, who a century earlier used the elevation of the sun at different latitudes to arrive at a figure of 250,000 stadia (which he rounded to 252,000 so that it would be divisible by 60). As with Posidonius, Eratosthenes' stadium is thought to have equated to 1/10th of a mile, so that his measure translates to 25,000 (or 25,200) miles. Both men's figures for the earth's circumference were uncannily accurate, aided in part in each case by mutually compensating errors in measurement. However, Posidonius later revised his original calculation by correcting the distance between Rhodes and Alexandria to 3,750 stadia, resulting in a circumference of 180,000 stadia, or 18,000 miles. Ptolemy discussed and favored this revised figure of Posidonius over Eratosthenes in his Geographia, and during the Middle Ages scholars divided into two camps regarding the circumference of the earth, identified with Eratosthenes' calculation on the one hand and Posidonius' 180,000-stadium measure on the other. Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Like Pytheas, Posidonius believed the tide is caused by the Moon. Posidonius was, however, wrong about the cause. Thinking that the Moon was a mixture of air and fire, he attributed the cause of the tides to the heat of the Moon, hot enough to cause the water to swell but not hot enough to evaporate it. Pytheas (Πυθέας, 380 – 310 BC) was a Greek merchant, geographer and explorer from the Greek colony Massilia (today Marseille). ... It has been suggested that Earth tide be merged into this article or section. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


He recorded observations on both earthquakes and volcanoes, including accounts of the eruptions of the volcanoes in the Aeolian Islands, north of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Meteorology

Posidonius in his writings on meteorology followed Aristotle. He theorized on the causes of clouds, mist, wind, and rain as well as frost, hail, lightning, and rainbows.


Mathematics

In addition to his writings on geometry, Posidonius was credited for creating some mathematical definitions, or for articulating views on technical terms, for example 'theorem' and 'problem'.


History and tactics

In his Histories, Posidonius continued the World History of Polybius. His history of the period 146 - 88 BCE is said to have filled 52 volumes. His Histories continue the account of the rise and expansion of Roman dominance, which he appears to have supported. Posidonius did not follow Polybius's more detached and factual style, for Posidonius saw events as caused by human psychology; while he understood human passions and follies, he did not pardon or excuse them in his historical writing, using his narrative skill in fact to enlist the readers' approval or condemnation. Polybius (c. ...


For Posidonius "history" extended beyond the earth into the sky; humanity was not isolated each in its own political history, but was a part of the cosmos. His Histories were not, therefore, concerned with isolated political history of peoples and individuals, but they included discussions of all forces and factors (geographical factors, mineral resources, climate, nutrition), which let humans act and be a part of their environment. For example, Posidonius considered the climate of Arabia and the life-giving strength of the sun, tides (taken from his book on the oceans), and climatic theory to explain people’s ethnic or national characters.


Of Posidonius's work on tactics, The Art of War, the Roman historian Arrian complained that it was written 'for experts', which suggests that Posidonius may have had first hand experience of military leadership or, perhaps, utilized knowledge he gained from his acquaintance with Pompey. Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ...


Reputation and influence

In his own era, his writings on almost all the principal divisions of philosophy made Posidonius a renowned international figure throughout the Graeco-Roman world and he was widely cited by writers of his era, including Cicero, Livy, Plutarch, Strabo (who called Posidonius "the most learned of all philosophers of my time"), Cleomedes, Seneca the Younger, Diodorus Siculus (who used Posidonius as a source for his Bibliotheca historia ("Historical Library"), and others. Although his ornate and rhetorical style of writing passed out of fashion soon after his death, Posidonius was acclaimed during his life for his literary ability and as a stylist. A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Posidonius appears to have moved with ease among the upper echelons of Roman society as an ambassador from Rhodes. He associated with some of the leading figures of late republican Rome, including Cicero and Pompey, both of whom visited him in Rhodes. In his twenties, Cicero attended his lectures (77 BCE) and they continued to correspond. Cicero in his De Finibus closely followed Posidonius's presentation of Panaetius's ethical teachings. Posidonius met Pompey when he was Rhodes's ambassador in Rome and Pompey visited him in Rhodes twice, once in 66 BCE during his campaign against the pirates and again in 62 BCE during his eastern campaigns, and asked Posidonius to write his biography. As a gesture of respect and great honor, Pompey lowered his fasces before Posidonius's door. Other Romans who visited Posidonius in Rhodes were Velleius, Cotta, and Lucilius. Roman fasces. ... Lucilius is the nomen of the gens Lucilia of ancient Rome. ...


Ptolemy was impressed by the sophistication of Posidonius's methods, which included correcting for the refraction of light passing through denser air near the horizon. Ptolemy's approval of Posidonius's result, rather than Eratosthenes's earlier and more correct figure, caused it to become the accepted value for the Earth's circumference for the next 1,500 years. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ...


Posidonius fortified the Stoicism of the middle period with contemporary learning. Next to his teacher Panaetius, he did most, by writings and personal contacts, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world. A century later, Seneca referred to Posidonius as one of those who had made the largest contribution to philosophy.


His influence on philosophical thinking lasted until the Middle Ages, as is shown by citation in the Suda, the massive medieval lexicon. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At one time, scholars perceived Posidonius's influence in almost every subsequent writer, whether warranted or not. Today, Posidonius seems to be recognized as having had an inquiring and wide-ranging mind, not entirely original, but with a breadth of view that connected, in accordance with his underlying Stoic philosophy, all things and their causes and all knowledge into an overarching, unified world view.


The Posidonius crater on the Moon is named for him. Posidonius is a lunar impact crater that is located on the western edge of Mare Serenitatis, to the south of Lacus Somniorum. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


References

  • Posidonius (from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica)
  • E. Vernon Arnold, Roman Stoicism, 1911.
  • Edwyn Bevan, Stoics and Skeptics. ISBN 0-89005-364-2, 1913.
  • J.B. Harley & David Woodward, The History of Cartography, Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, pp. 168-170. ISBN 0-226-31633-5 (v. 1), 1987.
  • I. G. Kidd, Posidonius: Volume 3, The Translation of the Fragments. ISBN 0-521-60441-9, 1999.
  • Juergen Malitz, Poseidonios from Grosse Gestalten der griechischen Antike. 58 historische Portraits von Homer bis Kleopatra. Hrsg. von Kai Brodersen. München: Verlag C.H. Beck. S. 426-432.
  • F. H. Sandbach, The Stoics, 2nd ed. ISBN 0-87220-253-4, 1994.

(Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Edwyn Robert Bevan (1870-1943) was a versatile British philosopher and historian of the Hellenic world . ... DAVID WOODWARD, according to Malcolm Lewis in the (London) Independent, transformed the history of cartography from a directionless Eurocentric field into a respectable subject now global in scope. ...

See also

Twin Study A twin study is a kind of genetic study done to determine heritability. ...


External links

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Posidonius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2168 words)
Posidonius (also spelled Poseidonius), nicknamed "the Athlete", was born to a Greek family in Apamea, a Roman city on the river Orontes in northern Syria, and probably died in Rome or Rhodes.
Posidonius completed his higher education in Athens, where he was a student of the aged Panaetius, the head of the Stoic school.
Posidonius was celebrated as a polymath throughout the Greco-Roman world because he came near to mastering all the knowledge of his time, similar to Aristotle and Eratosthenes.
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