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Encyclopedia > Portuguese language
Portuguese
Português 
Pronunciation: [puɾtu'geʃ] (European), [portu'ges], [portu'geis] or [pohtu'geiʃ] (Brazilian)
Spoken in: Andorra, Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, European Union, Guinea Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Luxembourg, Chinese S.A.R. of Macau, Mozambique, Portugal and São Tomé and Príncipe.
Total speakers: Native: 210 million
Total: 230 million [1] 
Ranking: 6 to 7 (native speakers)[1]
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Ibero-Romance
       West-Iberian
        Portuguese-Galician
         Portuguese 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Portuguese variant
Official status
Official language in: 9 countries
African Union (AU)
European Union (EU)
Mercosur
Organization of American States
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Regulated by: International Portuguese Language Institute; CPLP
Language codes
ISO 639-1: pt
ISO 639-2: por
ISO 639-3: por

Portuguese (português  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. It spread worldwide in the 15th and 16th centuries as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire (1415–1999) which spanned from Brazil in the Americas to Goa in India and Macau in China. During that time, many creole languages based on Portuguese also appeared around the world, especially in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Motto Unidade, Luta, Progresso(Portuguese) Unity, Struggle, Progress Anthem Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada(Portuguese) Capital (and largest city) Bissau1 Official languages Portuguese Government Republic  -  President João Bernardo Vieira  -  Prime Minister Martinho Ndafa Kabi Independence from Portugal   -  Declared September 24, 1973   -  Recognised September 10, 1974  Area  -  Total... For other uses, see Macau (disambiguation). ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Portuguese-Galician (in Portuguese and Galician is known as Galaico-Português) was a Iberian Romance language, spoken in the Middle Ages, in the western area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The official Portuguese alphabet consists of the letters of the Latin alphabet minus K, W, and Y: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Z Although not found in vernacular terms, the letters K, W... The following is a list of the 9 countries where Portuguese is an official language: Countries and regions where Portuguese is spoken or has official status. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... Download high resolution version (656x651, 77 KB)Image downloaded from the Organization of American States Photo Gallery, which states: All Photos for free distribution Photographs of official events are available through OAS website and can be used, free of charge, as long as the source is acknowledged. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... Image File history File links CPLP_flag. ... The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. ... The International Portuguese Language Institute (Instituto Internacional de Língua Portuguesa in Portuguese) or IILP is the CPLPs institute supporting the spread and popularity of the Portuguese language in the world. ... The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa or CPLP) is a multilateral forum for mutual friendship between the lusophone nations across the world where Portuguese is an official language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Pt-Portugues. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem A Portuguesa Capital (and largest city) Lisbon Official languages Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  -  President Aníbal Cavaco Silva  -  Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation June 24, 1128   -  Founding of the first County of Portugal 868   -  Battle of São Mamede June 24, 1128   -  Kingdom 25 July 1139   -  Recognized 5... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


Today it is one of the world's major languages, ranked sixth according to number of native speakers (over 200 million). It is the language with the largest number of speakers in South America (188 million, over 51% of the continent's population), and also a major lingua franca in Africa. It is the official language of nine countries (see the table on the right), being co-official with Spanish and French in Equatorial Guinea, with Chinese in the Chinese special administrative region of Macau, and with Tetum in East Timor. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Tetum (also written as Tetun) is the national language of East Timor. ...


In July 2007, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema announced his government's decision to make Portuguese Equatorial Guinea's third official language, in order to meet the requirements to apply for full membership of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. This upgrading from its current Associate Observer condition would result in Equatorial Guinea being able to access several professional and academic exchange programs and the facilitation of cross-border circulation of citizens. Its application is currently being assessed by other CPLP members.[2] The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. ...


Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet language", while Brazilian writer Olavo Bilac poetically described it as a última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela: "the last flower of Latium, wild and beautiful". Cervantes redirects here. ... Olavo Braz Martins dos Guimarães Bilac (December 16, 1865 – December 28, 1918) was a Brazilian poet of the Parnassian school. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Countries and regions where Portuguese is spoken or has official status.

Portuguese is the official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe and Mozambique.[3] It is also one of the official languages of Equatorial Guinea (with Spanish and French), East Timor (with Tetum) and of the Chinese S.A.R. of Macau (with Chinese). It is widely spoken, but not official, in Andorra, Luxembourg, Namibia and Paraguay (in the latter country there were 112,520 native Portuguese speakers according to the 2002 census), and in the U.S. states of California, Connecticut[4], Florida[5], Massachusetts, New Jersey[6], New York[7], and Rhode Island.[8] There is also a statistically significant Portuguese-speaking community (approximately 10,000 people) in Jersey. Portuguese Creoles are, while not officially recognized, the standard language for communication in Cape Verde and part of Guinea-Bissau's population. In Cape Verde most also speak standard Portuguese and have native-level proficiency. There are also significant populations of Portuguese speakers in Canada (mainly concentrated in and around Toronto)[9] and Bermuda.[10] There are also small populations of speakers in the former Portuguese colonies of Goa[11] and Daman and Diu[12] which are now part of India. Portuguese is the first language in Angola, Brazil, Portugal and São Tomé and Príncipe, and the most widely used language in Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 38 KB) Summary Map of Lusophone world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 38 KB) Summary Map of Lusophone world. ... Tetum (also written as Tetun) is the national language of East Timor. ... For other uses, see Macau (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ...

The International Institute for the Portuguese Language logo depicts Portuguese as a language spoken in the eight corners of the world (the eight independent nations where it has official status).

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries[3] (CPLP) is an international organization consisting of the eight independent countries that have Portuguese as an official language. Portuguese is also an official language of the European Union,[13] Mercosul and the African Union (one of the working languages) and one of the official languages of other organizations. The Portuguese language is gaining popularity in Africa, Asia, and South America as a second language for study. Image File history File links Iilp. ... Image File history File links Iilp. ... The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. ... Flag of Mercosur Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a trading zone among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, founded in 1991. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29...


Although in the early 21st century, after Macau was ceded to China in 1999, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, the language is becoming a language of opportunity there; mostly because of East Timor's boost in the number of speakers in the last five years but also because of increased Chinese diplomatic and financial ties with Portuguese-speaking countries.


Portuguese (along with Spanish) is the fastest-growing European language, and, according to estimates by UNESCO, the language with the highest potential for growth as an international language in southern Africa and South America. The Portuguese-speaking African countries are expected to have a combined population of 83 million by 2050. Since 1991[14], when Brazil signed into the economic market of Mercosul with other South American nations, such as Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, there has been an increase in interest in the study of Portuguese in those South American countries. The demographic weight of Brazil in the continent will continue to strengthen the presence of the language in the region. Flag of Mercosur Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a trading zone among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, founded in 1991. ...


In March of 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, an interactive museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil, the city with the largest number of Portuguese speakers in the world. Logo of the Museum of the Portuguese Language. ... This article is about the city. ...

Estação da Luz, home of the Museum of the Portuguese Language, in São Paulo, Brazil.

Image File history File links Estação_da_Luz. ... Image File history File links Estação_da_Luz. ... Logo of the Museum of the Portuguese Language. ... This article is about the city. ...

Dialects

Main article: Portuguese dialects

Portuguese is a pluricentric language. It has two main groups of dialects, those of Brazil and those of the Old World. For historical reasons, the dialects of Africa and Asia are generally closer to those of Portugal than the Brazilian dialects, although in some aspects of their phonology, especially the pronunciation of unstressed vowels, they resemble Brazilian Portuguese more than European Portuguese. They have not been studied as exhaustively as European and Brazilian Portuguese. In various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas, Portuguese creoles are spoken, but they are independent languages which should not be confused with Portuguese itself. The Portuguese dialects are variants of the Portuguese language that are shared by a substantial number of speakers over several generations, but are not sufficiently distinct from the official norms to be considered a separate language. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Brazilian Portuguese (Português Brasileiro in Portuguese) is the group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants, mainly in the United States, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... European Portuguese (also named Continental Portuguese or Lusitanian Portuguese) is a group of Portuguese dialects spoken in Portugal. ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ...


Some audio samples of some of the main dialects of Portuguese are available below. There are some differences between the areas but these are the best approximations possible. For example, the caipira dialect has some differences from the one of Minas Gerais, but in general it is very close. A good example of Brazilian Portuguese may be found in the capital city, Brasília, because of the generalized population from all parts of the country. Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Region State Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - City 5,802 km²  (2,240. ...

Portuguese dialects of Angola

Angola Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ... Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ...

  1. BenguelenseBenguela province
  2. Luandense (sample) — Luanda province
  3. SulistaSouth of Angola
Portuguese dialects of Brazil

Brazil Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela, formerly spelled Benguella) is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... Download high resolution version (885x915, 21 KB)Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (885x915, 21 KB)Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ...

  1. CaipiraSão Paulo (state) countryside (ex. towns of Itapetininga and Piracicaba; southern Minas Gerais (ex. towns of Poços de Caldas and Varginha), northern Paraná (ex. town of Maringá), Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul
  2. CearenseCeará
  3. BaianoBahia
  4. Fluminense (sample) — Variants spoken in Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states. (The city of Rio de Janeiro and its adjacent metropolitan areas have a particular way of speaking, the so-called Carioca accent.)
  5. GaúchoRio Grande do Sul. (There are many distinct accents in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to the heavy influx of European immigrants of diverse origins, those which have settled several colonies throughout the state.)
  6. MineiroMinas Gerais (not predominant in Triângulo Mineiro, southern and southeastern Minas Gerais).
  7. Nordestino (sample) — northeastern states of Brazil (the states of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte have a particular way of speaking) Note: the speaker of this sound file is from Rio, and he is talking about his experience with Nordestino and Nortista accents.
  8. NortistaAmazon Basin states
  9. Paulista — Variants spoken around São Paulo city and eastern areas of São Paulo state.
  10. SertanejoStates of Goiás and Mato Grosso (the city of Cuiabá has a particular way of speaking)
  11. Sulista — Variants spoken in the areas between the northern regions of Rio Grande do Sul and southern regions of São Paulo (state) (The cities of Curitiba, Florianópolis, and Itapetininga have fairly distinct accents as well.)

Cape Verde Caipira is a Brazilian Portuguese term used to designate inhabitants of rural, remote areas in some brazilian states, particularly São Paulo, Minas Gerais and the western brazilian states. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Itapetininga is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... Piracicaba is a city located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... Poços de Caldas is a city and municipality in south-western Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the microregion of the same name. ... City location in Minas Gerais Country Region State Minas Gerais Government  - Mayor Mauro Teixeira (PT) Area  - City 395. ... Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... Maringá is a city in southern Brazil that was founded on May 10, 1947. ... Flag of Goiás See other Brazilian States Capital Goiânia Largest City Goiânia Area 341 289 km² Population   - Total   - Density 4 848 725 14. ... Flag of Mato Grosso do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Campo Grande Largest City Campo Grande Area 358,158. ... Flag of Ceará See other Brazilian States Capital Fortaleza Largest City Fortaleza Area 148,016 km² Population   - Total   - Density 6,500,000 43. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Flag of Rio de Janeiro See other Brazilian States Capital Rio de Janeiro Largest City Rio de Janeiro Area 43,696. ... Capital Vitória Largest city Vila Velha Demonym capixaba or espiritossantense Government  -  Governor Paulo Hartung  -  Vice Governor Ricardo Ferraço Area  -  Total 46. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Carioca is an adjective in the Portuguese language that refers to people or things from (i. ... Gauchos fight dramatization A gaucho is a South American cattle herder, the equivalent to the North American cowboy in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and (with the spelling gaúcho) southern Brazil, and formerly the Falkland Islands. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Mineiro is the form of the Portuguese language spoken in Minas Gerais state of Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... The Triângulo Mineiro is an unofficial region in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Capital (and largest city) Natal Demonym Potiguar or Norte-rio-grandense Government  -  Governor Wilma de Faria  -  Vice Governor Iberê Paiva Ferreira de Souza Area  -  Total 52. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... This article is about the city. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Flag of Goiás See other Brazilian States Capital Goiânia Largest City Goiânia Area 341 289 km² Population   - Total   - Density 4 848 725 14. ... Flag of Mato Grosso See other Brazilian States Capital Cuiabá Largest City Cuiabá Area 903,357. ... Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Central-West State Mato Grosso Government  - Mayor Wilson Pereira dos Santos PSDB Area  - City 3,538 km²  (1,366 sq mi) Elevation 165 m (541 ft) Population (2000)  - City 542,861  - Density 153. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Location of Curitiba Country Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Santa Catarina Founded March 23, 1726 Government  - Mayor Dario Elias Berger (PSDB) Area  - City 436. ... Itapetininga is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ...

Portuguese dialects of Portugal

Portugal The Capeverdean Crioulo is a dialect continuum spoken on the islands of Cape Verde, whose extremes lie at the islands of Santiago and that of Santo Antão. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ... Made by user:PedroPVZ from wikipedias Maps File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese language Portuguese dialects Geographic distribution of the Portuguese language Categories: GFDL images ...

  1. Azorean (sample) — Azores - São Miguel
  2. Alentejano (sample) — Alentejo
  3. Algarvio (sample) — Algarve (there is a particular small dialect in the western area)
  4. Alto-Minhoto (sample) — North of Braga (interior)
  5. Baixo-Beirão; Alto-Alentejano (sample) — Central Portugal (interior)
  6. Beirão (sample) — central Portugal
  7. Estremenho (sample) — Regions of Coimbra and Lisbon (can be subdivided into Lisbon Portuguese and Coimbra Portuguese)
  8. Madeirense (sample) — Madeira
  9. Nortenho (sample) — Regions of Braga and Porto
  10. Transmontano (sample) — Trás-os-Montes

Other countries The word Azorean can mean: From or related to the Azores The ethnic group of people who were born in the Azores or whose ancestors were born in the Azores The Azorean dialect of the Portugese language Categories: Languages | Ethnic groups ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... There are parishes that have the name São Miguel (Portuguese for Saint Michael): // In Europe In the Azores São Miguel Island, an island in the eastern part of the Azores São Miguel, a parish in the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo São Miguel Arcanjo, a... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... NUTS II Alentejo region. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Cávado  - District or A.R. Braga Mayor Mesquita Machado  - Party PS Area 183. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Photo of the village of Urjais, concelho of Chaves, by J.B. Cesar Tras-os-Montes is a historical province of Portugal located in the northeastern corner of the country. ...

  • Guineense (sample) — Guinea-Bissau
  • Macanese (sample) — Macau, China
  • Mozambican (sample) — Mozambique
  • Santomense (sample) — São Tomé and Principe
  • East Timorese (sample) — East Timor
  • DamaenseDaman, India
  • Goês — State of Goa, India
  • Dialectos Portugueses del Uruguay (DPU)Uruguay

Guinean Portuguese (Portuguese: Guineense Português) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Macanese Portuguese (Portuguese: Macaense Português) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in Macau. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Look up São Tomé and Príncipe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Assembleia Nacional de São Tomé e Príncipe official site São Tomé and Príncipe Government & Political Resources Page News allAfrica - São Tomé and Principe Overviews BBC News - Country Profile: Sao Tome and... East Timorese Portuguese (Portuguese: Timorense Português) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in East Timor. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...

Classification and related languages

Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages, and it has special ties with the following members of this group: West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...

Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...

Latin and other Romance languages

A distinctive feature of Portuguese is that it preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin, which other Romance languages diphthongized; cf. Fr. pierre, Sp. piedra, Port. pedra, from Lat. petra; or Sp. fuego, It. fuoco, Port. fogo, from Lat. focum. Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and n, sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: cf. Lat. salire, tenere, catena, Sp. salir, tener, cadena, Port. sair, ter, cadeia. Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... In linguistics, an epenthetic vowel breaks up a consonant cluster that is not permitted by the phonotactics of a language. ...


When the elided consonant was n, it often nasalized the preceding vowel: cf. Lat. manum, rana, bonum, Port. mão, rãa (now ), bõo (now bom). This process was the source of most of the nasal diphthongs which are typical of Portuguese. In particular, the Latin endings -anem, -anum and -onem became -ão in most cases: cf. Lat. canem, germanum, rationem with Modern Port. cão, irmão, razão, and their plurals cães, irmãos, razões. In music, see elision (music). ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ...


See Portuguese Vocabulary: From Latin to Portuguese, for other sound changes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite the obvious lexical and grammatical similarities between Portuguese and other Romance languages, it is not mutually intelligible with most of them. Apart from the Galician form of the language, Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study of basic grammar and vocabulary, before attaining a reasonable level of comprehension of those languages (and vice-versa): A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ...

Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar/cear. (Portuguese)
Ela pecha sempre a xanela/fiestra antes de xantar/cear. (Galician)
Ella pieslla siempre la ventana primero de cenar (Asturian)
Ella cierra siempre la ventana antes de cenar. (Spanish)
Ella tanca sempre la finestra abans de sopar. (Catalan)
Ella barra sempre la finestra abans de sopar. (Occitan)
Ella (or lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare. (Italian)
Ea închide întotdeauna fereastra înainte de a cina. (Romanian)
Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper. (French)
Illa claudit semper fenestram ante quam cenat. (Latin)
She always shuts the window before dining/having supper.

Note that some of the lexical divergence above actually comes from different Romance languages using the same root word with different semantic values. Portuguese for example has the word fresta, which is a cognate of French fenêtre, Italian finestra, Romanian fereastra and so on, but now means "slit" as opposed to "window." Likewise, Portuguese also has the word cear, a cognate of Italian cenare and Spanish cenar, but uses it in the sense of "to have a late supper", while the most frequent word meaning "to dine" is actually jantar (related to archaic castilian yantar) because of semantic changes in the 19th century. Italian has the word ella, cognate of the other words for she, but is considered archaic in most dialects. Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Galician has both fiestra (from medieval fẽestra which is the ultimate origin of standard Portuguese fresta), and the less frequently used xanela. Like the northern dialects of Portuguese, it still uses cear with its original meaning of "dining".


Galician and the Fala

Galician is closer to Portuguese, it is spoken in the autonomous community of Galicia (northwestern Spain). The two branches were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese, but since the political separation of Portugal from Galicia they have diverged somewhat, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary. Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to Castilian. In particular, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect (see the section on the grammar of Portuguese, below). Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 85% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989)[15] is good between Galicians and northern Portuguese, but poorer between Galicians and speakers from central Portugal. Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The Fala language is another descendant of Galician-Portuguese, spoken by a small number of people in the Spanish towns of Valverdi du Fresnu, As Ellas and Sa Martín de Trebellu (autonomous community of Extremadura, near the border with Portugal). Capital Mérida Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ...


Derived languages

Main article: Portuguese Creole

Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia and Africa until the 18th century. Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ...


Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.


Influence on other languages

Many languages have borrowed words from Portuguese, such as Indonesian, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhalese (see Sri Lanka Indo-Portuguese), Malay, Bengali, Konkani, Marathi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Papiamentu, Japanese, Bajan Creole (Spoken in Barbados), Lanc-Patuá (spoken in northern Brazil) and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica, a Tupi-Guarani language which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka in Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese-Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho (1603) was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum (Annamite-Portuguese-Latin dictionary) of Alexandre de Rhodes (1651) introduced quốc ngữ, the modern orthography of Vietnamese, which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language (among others), particularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example is "Mei". A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also, Ceylonese or Ilankai Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lanka Indo-Portuguese or Sri Lanka Portuguese Creole is a language spoken in Sri Lanka. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Tetum (also written as Tetun) is an Austronesian language, and one of its forms, Tetum- Praca, is one of the national languages of East Timor. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. ... Barbados is an independent island nation situated on the boundary of the Atlantic Ocean. ... Lanc-Patuá is a creole language spoken in the state of Amapá in Brazil, primarily around the capital, Macapá. It is a French-based creole, spoken by immigrants from French Guiana and the Caribbean, and their descendants. ... Sranan (also Sranan Tongo Surinamean tongue, Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole English) is a creole language spoken as a native language by approximately 120,000 people in Suriname. ... Old Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native people from Brazil, mostly those who lived close to the sea. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Sikka is a regency in East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, on the island Flores. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... portion of Indonesia with red arrow showing the location of Larantuka Larantuka is a community on the eastern end of Flores Island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. ... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... The Nippo Jisho (日葡辞書, literally the “Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary”) or Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam was a Japanese to Portuguese dictionary published in Nagasaki, Japan in 1603. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Alexandre de Rhodes (March 15, 1591 - November 5, 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... This is a list of the top 100 most common Chinese surnames according to a study published in 2006. ...


See also List of English words of Portuguese origin, Loan words in Indonesian, Japanese words of Portuguese origin, Borrowed words in Malay, Sinhala words of Portuguese origin, Loan words from Portuguese in Sri Lankan Tamil. This is a list of English words borrowed or derived from Portuguese (or Galician-Portuguese language: zebra was actually an extinct striped wild horse that lived south of Pontevedra, Galicia and the name was given by explorers because of the similarities): Albacore  from albacor from Arabic al-bukr (=the young... The Indonesian language has absorbed many loanwords from other languages: Early Hindu and Buddhist influence from India results in many Sanskrit words in Indonesian (and especially Javanese). ... Many Japanese words of Portuguese origin entered the Japanese language when Portuguese Jesuit priests introduced Christian ideas, Western science and technology, among other things to the Japanese during the Muromachi period (15-16th century). ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... This article is about Sinhala words of Portuguese origin. ... Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil came about due contact between colonial powers and the native population. ...


History

Main articles: Galician-Portuguese and History of Portuguese

Arriving in the Iberian Peninsula in 218 BC, the Romans brought with them the Latin language, from which all Romance languages descend. The occidental territories to the south of the Tagus River were only conquered after the victory of Licinius Crassus in the year 93 BC. [16] The language was spread by arriving Roman soldiers, settlers and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly near the settlements of previous civilizations. Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Portuguese language developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin brought there by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC. It began to diverge from other Romance languages after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the barbarian invasions in the 5th century, and started... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Medieval
Portuguese poetry
Das que vejo
nom desejo
outra senhor se vós nom,
e desejo
tam sobejo,
mataria um leon,
senhor do meu coraçom:
fim roseta,
bela sobre toda fror,
fim roseta,
nom me meta
em tal coita voss'amor!
João de Lobeira
(c. 1270–1330)

Between AD 409 and 711, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples (Migration Period). The newcomers, mainly Suevi and Visigoths, quickly adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula. After the Moorish invasion of 711, Arabic became the administrative language in the conquered regions, but most of the population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabic. The influence exerted by Arabic on the Romance dialects spoken in the Christian kingdoms of the north was small, affecting mainly their lexicon. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... For other uses, see moor. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ...


The earliest surviving records of a distinctively Portuguese language are administrative documents of the 9th century, still interspersed with many Latin phrases. Today this phase is known as Proto-Portuguese (between the 9th and the 12th century). Portugal was formally recognized as an independent kingdom by the Kingdom of Leon in 1143, with Afonso Henriques as king. In the first period of Old Portuguese - Portuguese-Galician Period (from the 12th to the 14th century) - the language gradually came into general use. Previously it had been the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much like Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadors. In 1290, king Dinis created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon (the Estudos Gerais, later moved to Coimbra) and decreed that Portuguese, then simply called the "Vulgar language" should be known as the Portuguese language and used officially. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina, or twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las M... Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ... Dinis of Portugal (in archaic Portuguese Diniz; in English Denis), the Farmer (Port. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ...


In the second period of Old Portuguese, from the 14th to the 16th century, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to many regions of Asia, Africa and the Americas (nowadays, the great majority of Portuguese speakers live in Brazil, in South America). By the 16th century it had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities. Its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people, and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts, which led to the formation of a creole called cristão ("Christian") in many parts of Asia. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal. For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Papiá Kristang (Christian language) is a creole language. ...


The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral de Garcia de Resende, in 1516. The early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans from the 16th century to present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of erudite words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek during the Renaissance, which greatly enriched the lexicon.


Vocabulary

Main article: Portuguese vocabulary

Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived from Latin. Nevertheless, because of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages, and the participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery, it has adopted loanwords from across the world. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ...


Very few Portuguese words can be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal, which included the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Lusitanians, and Celts. Some notable examples are abóbora "pumpkin" and bezerro "year-old calf", from nearby celtiberian languages; cerveja "beer", from Celtic; saco "bag", from Phoenician; and cachorro "dog, puppy", from Basque. In the 5th century, the Iberian Peninsula (the former Roman region of Hispania) was conquered by the Suevi, Visigoths and Alans, Germanic tribes who had been displaced from Central Europe by the Huns. As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed only a few words to the lexicon, mostly related to warfare — such as espora "spur", estaca "stake", and guerra "war", from Gothic *spaúra, *stakka, and *wirro, respectively. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ...


Between the 9th and 15th centuries Portuguese acquired about 1000 words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. They are often recognizable by the initial Arabic article a(l)-, and include many common words such as aldeia "village" from الضيعة aldaya, alface "lettuce" from الخس alkhass, armazém "warehouse" from المخزن almahazan, and azeite "olive oil" from زيت azzait. From Arabic came also the grammatically peculiar word oxalá "God willing". The name of the Portuguese town of Fátima, where the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared, is originally the name of one of the daughters of Muhammad. Mozambique's Portuguese name, Moçambique, itself was from Arabic name, Muça Alebique (Musa Alibiki), a sultan. The Mozambican currency Metical was derived from the word mitķāl, an Arabic unit of weight. Arabic redirects here. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... InshaAllah (ان شاء الله ) is an Arabic phrase evoked by Muslims to indicate hope for an aforementioned event to occur in the future. ... District or region Santarém Municipality Ourém Area 71. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The metical (plural: meticais) is the currency of Mozambique. ...


Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. For instance, catana "cutlass" from Japanese katana; corja "rabble" from Malay kórchchu; and chá "tea" from Chinese chá. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


From South America came batata "potato", from Taino; ananás and abacaxi, from Tupi-Guarani naná and Tupi ibá cati, respectively (two species of pineapple), and tucano "toucan" from Guarani tucan. See List of Brazil state name etymologies, for some more examples. For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Tupi language group consists of 6 languages in the Tupi-Guarani sublanguage family: Tupi Antigo, Nhengatu, Tupinkin, Potiguara, Omagua, and Cocoma. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toucan (disambiguation). ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... Most of Brazilian state names are based on native indigenous (often Tupi-Guarani) placenames, while others were given by Portuguese and other European colonists. ...


From the 16th to the 19th century, the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade, with the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese got several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories. While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. From Kimbundu, for example, came kifumatecafuné "head caress", kusulacaçula "youngest child", marimbondo "tropical wasp", and kubungulabungular "to dance like a wizard". The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The indigenous people of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Kimbundu is one of the most widely spoken pre-colonial languages in Central Africa. ...


Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages. For example, melena "hair lock", fiambre "wet-cured ham" (in contrast with presunto "dry-cured ham" from Latin prae-exsuctus "dehydrated"); colchete/crochê "bracket"/"crochet", paletó "jacket", batom "lipstick", and filé/filete "steak"/"slice" respectively, from French crochet, paletot, bâton, filet; macarrão "pasta"", piloto "pilot", carroça "carriage", and barraca "barrack", from Italian maccherone, pilota, carrozza, baracca; and bife "steak", futebol, revólver, estoque, folclore, from English beef, football, revolver, stock, folklore.


Writing system

Written varieties
Portugal/Africa/Asia Brazil translation
anónimo anônimo anonymous
facto fato fact
ideia idéia idea
direcção direção direction
óptimo ótimo great
frequente freqüente frequent
voo vôo flight

Portuguese is written with the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. Brazilian Portuguese also uses the diaeresis mark. Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes. The official Portuguese alphabet consists of the letters of the Latin alphabet minus K, W, and Y: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Z Although not found in vernacular terms, the letters K, W... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Brazilian Portuguese (Português Brasileiro in Portuguese) is the group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants, mainly in the United States, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ...


Brazilian vs. European spelling

There are some minor differences between the orthographies of Brazil and other Portuguese language countries. One of the most pervasive is the use of acute accents in the European/African/Asian orthography in many words such as sinónimo, where the Brazilian orthography has a circumflex accent, sinônimo. Another important difference is that Brazilian spelling often lacks c or p before c, ç, or t, where the European orthography has them; for example, cf. Brazilian fato with European facto, "fact", or Brazilian objeto with European objecto, "object". Some of these spelling differences reflect differences in the pronunciation of the words, but others are merely graphic. This article is about the spelling reforms of the Portuguese language. ...


Phonology

Main article: Portuguese phonology

There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels and 19 consonants, though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes (Brazilian Portuguese has only 7 oral vowel phonemes). There are also five nasal vowels, which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels, ten oral diphthongs, and five nasal diphthongs.[17] Below is a sketch of the phonology of Portuguese. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Vowels

Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon

To the seven vowels of Vulgar Latin, European Portuguese has added two near central vowels, one of which tends to be elided in rapid speech, like the e caduc of French (represented either as /ɯ̽/, or /ɨ/, or /ə/). The high vowels /e o/ and the low vowels /ɛ ɔ/ are four distinct phonemes, and they alternate in various forms of apophony. Like Catalan, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables: isolated vowels tend to be raised, and in some cases centralized, when unstressed. Nasal diphthongs occur mostly at the end of words. Image File history File links Portuguese_vowel_chart. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In music, see elision (music). ... Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together. ... In linguistics, apophony (also ablaut, gradation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional). ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Portuguese
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular
Plosives p b k g
Nasals m n ɲ
Fricatives f v s z ʃ ʒ ʁ
Laterals l ʎ
Flaps ɾ

The consonant inventory of Portuguese is fairly conservative. The medieval affricates /ts/, /dz/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/ merged with the fricatives /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, respectively, but not with each other, and there were no other significant changes to the consonant phonemes since then. However, some remarkable dialectal variants and allophones have appeared, among which: In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ...

  • In many regions of Brazil, /t/ and /d/ have the affricate allophones [tʃ] and [dʒ], respectively, before /i/. (Quebec French has a similar phenomenon, with alveolar affricates instead of postalveolars.)
  • At the end of a syllable, the phoneme /l/ has the velarized allophone [ɫ] in European Portuguese, like in the Received Pronunciation of English. Brazilian Portuguese has the allophone [w] instead (L-vocalization).
  • In many parts of Brazil and Angola, /ɲ/ is pronounced as a nasal glide [j̃] that nasalizes the preceding vowel, so that for instance /'niɲu/ is pronounced ['nĩj̃u].
  • In most of Brazil, the alveolar sibilants /s/ and /z/ occur in complementary distribution at the end of syllables, depending on whether the consonant that follows is voiceless or voiced, as in English. But in most of Portugal and parts of Brazil sibilants at the end of syllables are postalveolar, /ʃ/ before voiceless consonants, and /ʒ/ before voiced consonants. (In Judeo-Spanish, /s/ is often replaced with /ʃ/ at the end of syllables, too.)

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, l-vocalization is a process by which an sound (a lateral consonant) is replaced by a vowel or semivowel sound. ... Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ...

Stress

Primary stress may fall on any of the three final syllables of a word, but mostly on the last two. There is a partial correlation between the position of the stress and the final vowel; for example, the final syllable is usually stressed when it contains a nasal phoneme, a diphthong, or a close vowel. The orthography of Portuguese takes advantage of this correlation to minimize the number of diacritics. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ...


Because of the phonetic changes that often affect unstressed vowels, pure lexical stress is less common in Portuguese than in related languages, but there is still a significant number of examples of it:

dúvida /ˈduvidɐ/ "doubt" (noun) vs. duvida /duˈvidɐ/ "he doubts"
falaram /faˈlaɾɐ̃ũ/ "they spoke" vs. falarão /falaˈɾɐ̃ũ/ "they will speak" (Brazilian pronunciation)
ouve /'ovi/ "he hears" vs. ouvi /o'vi/ "I heard" (Brazilian pronunciation)
túnel /'tunɛl/ "tunnel" vs. tonel /tu'nɛl/ "wine cask" (European pronunciation)

Prosody

Tone is not lexically significant in Portuguese, but phrase- and sentence-level tone are important. There are of six dynamic tone patterns that affect entire phrases, which indicate the mood and intention of the speaker such as implication, emphasis, reservation, etc. As in most Romance languages, interrogation is expressed mainly by sharply raising the tone at the end of the sentence. It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Grammar

Main article: Portuguese grammar

A particularly interesting aspect of the grammar of Portuguese are its verbs. Morphologically, it has preserved more verbal inflections from classical Latin than any other major Romance language. See Romance copula, for a detailed comparison. Portuguese grammar, the morphology and syntax of the Portuguese language, is similar to the grammar of most other Romance languages—especially Galician and the other languages of Iberian Peninsula. ... The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European...


There are also some innovative tenses or distinctions not found in other Romance languages:

  • The present perfect has an iterative sense unique among the Romance languages. It denotes an action or a series of actions which began in the past and are expected to keep repeating in the future. For instance, the sentence Tenho tentado falar com ela would be translated to "I have been trying to talk to her", not "I have tried to talk to her". On the other hand, the correct translation of the question "Have you heard the latest news?" is not *Tem ouvido a última notícia?, but Ouviu a última notícia?, since no repetition is implied.[18]
  • The future subjunctive tense, which was developed by medieval West Iberian Romance, but has now fallen into disuse in Castilian, is still used in vernacular Portuguese. It appears in dependent clauses that denote a condition which must be fulfilled in the future, so that the independent clause will occur. Other languages normally employ the present tense under the same circumstances:
Se for eleito presidente, mudarei a lei. [future subjunctive]
If I am elected president, I will change the law.
Quando fores mais velho, vais entender. [future subjunctive]
When you are older, you will understand.
  • The personal infinitive: it is possible for an infinitive verb to agree with its subject in person and number, often showing who is supposed to perform a certain act; cf. É melhor voltares "It is better [for you] to go back.", É melhor voltarmos "It is better [for us] to go back." Perhaps for this reason, infinitive clauses replace subjunctive clauses more often in Portuguese than in other Romance languages.

The present perfect tense denotes a present condition resulting from a previous action. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ...

Examples

Excerpt from the Portuguese national epic The Lusiads, by author Luís de Camões (I, 33)
Original IPA (EP pronunciation) IPA (BP pronunciation) Translation (by Landeg White)
Sustentava contra ele Vénus bela, suʃtẽˈtavɐ ˈkõtɾɐ ˈelɨ ˈvɛnuʒ ˈbɛlɐ sustẽˈtavɐ ˈkõtɾɐ ˈeli ˈvẽnus ˈbɛlɐ Against him spoke the lovely Venus
Afeiçoada à gente Lusitana, ɐfɐi̯su̯ˈada ˈʒẽtɨ luziˈtɐnɐ afeisoˈadɐ: ˈʒẽtʃi luziˈtɐ̃nɐ Favoring the people of Portugal,
Por quantas qualidades via nela puɾ ˈku̯ɐ̃tɐʃ ku̯ɐliˈdadɨʒ ˈviɐ ˈnɛlɐ por ˈkwɐ̃tɐs kwaliˈdadʒis ˈviɐ ˈnɛlɐ For her love of Roman virtue
Da antiga tão amada sua Romana; dãˈtigɐ tɐ̃ũ ̯ ɐˈmadɐ ˈsuɐ ʁuˈmɐnɐ da ˈãtʃigɐ tɐ̃w̃ aˈmadɐ ˈsuɐ xõˈmɐ̃nɐ She saw resurrected in them;
Nos fortes corações, na grande estrela, nuʃ ˈfɔɾtɨʃ kuɾɐˈsõĩʒ nɐ ˈgɾɐ̃dɨʃˈtɾelɐ nus ˈfɔrtʃis koɾaˈsõj̃s, na gɾɐ̃dʒi esˈtɾelɐ In their stout hearts, in the star
Que mostraram na terra Tingitana, kɨ muʃˈtɾaɾɐ̃ũ ̯ nɐ ˈtɛʁɐ tĩʒiˈtɐnɐ ki mosˈtɾaɾɐ̃w̃ na ˈtɛxɐ tʃĩʒiˈtɐ̃nɐ Which shone bright above Ceuta,
E na língua, na qual quando imagina, i nɐ ˈlĩgu̯ɐ nɐ ku̯aɫ ˈku̯ɐ̃du̯ imɐˈʒinɐ i na ˈlĩgwɐ, na kwaw ˈkwɐ̃du imaˈʒĩnɐ In the language which an inventive mind
Com pouca corrupção crê que é a Latina. kõ ˈpokɐ kuʁupˈsɐ̃ũ ̯ kɾe ki̯ɛ ɐ lɐˈtinɐ kõ ˈpowkɐ koxupˈsɐ̃w̃ kɾe ki ɛ a laˈtʃĩnɐ Could mistake for Latin, passably declined.[19]

A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is considered one of the finest and most important works in Portuguese literature. ... Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... European Portuguese (also named Continental Portuguese or Lusitanian Portuguese) is a group of Portuguese dialects spoken in Portugal. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Brazilian Portuguese (Português Brasileiro in Portuguese) is the group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants, mainly in the United States, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ...

See also

Portugal Portal
Brazil Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... See List of Brazilian writers Categories: Literature stubs | Literature by country | Brazilian literature ... English as she is spoke is the common name of a 19th-century book credited to José da Fonseca and Pedro Carolino, which was intended as a Portuguese-English conversational guide or phrase book, but is regarded as a classic source of unintentional humour. ... Instituto Camões (also in English Camoens Institute or Camões Institute) is an institution created for the promotion of the Portuguese language and culture in the world, the Camões Institute has administrative and patrimonial autonomy, that, under the supervision of the Minister of the Foreign affairses, assures the... // Adalgisa Nery Adelaide Peters Lessa Adélia Prado Afonso Schimidt Alberto de Oliveira Alphonsus de Guimaraens Alvarenga Peixoto Álvares de Azevedo Amadeu Amaral Ana Cristina César Ana Rüsche Armando Freitas Filho Artur de Azevedo Ascenso Ferreira Augusto dos Anjos Augusto Frederico Schimidt Augusto Massi Augusto Meyer Basílio... The following is a list of famous or notable Portuguese language poets: Portugal Luiz Vaz de Camões Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935) Mário de Sá-Carneiro José Carlos Ary dos Santos (1937-1984) José Régio (1901-1969) José Saramago (1922- ) Brazil Carlos Drummond de Andrade Vinicius de Moraes... A Lusophone is someone who speaks the Portuguese language natively or by adoption. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Luso-American. ... This is a survey of Portuguese literature. ... Portugal is a land of poets. ... Portuñol (also Portunhol), a portmanteau of the words Português (Portuguese) and Español (Spanish), is a mixed language based on Spanish and Portuguese. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b English and Portuguese Numbers in the World, University of Helsinki and The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World
  2. ^ "Obiang convierte al portugués en tercer idioma oficial para entrar en la Comunidad lusófona de Naciones", Terra. 13-07-2007
  3. ^ a b CPLP Official website
  4. ^ Where America's Other Languages Are Spoken
  5. ^ Widely spoken but 'minor'? Portuguese seeks respect
  6. ^ Hispanic Reading Room of the U.S. Library of Congress website, Twentieth-Century Arrivals from Portugal Settle in Newark, New Jersey
  7. ^ Brazucas (Brazilians living in New York)
  8. ^ Hispanic Reading Room of the U.S. Library of Congress website, Whaling, Fishing, and Industrial Employment in Southeastern New England
  9. ^ Multicultural Canada
  10. ^ World InfoZone: Bermuda
  11. ^ Portuguese Language in Goa
  12. ^ The Portuguese Experience: The Case of Goa, Daman and Diu
  13. ^ EUROPA website Languages in the EU
  14. ^ Mercosur
  15. ^ Ethnologue
  16. ^ Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC)
  17. ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association pg. 126-130; the reference applies to the entire section
  18. ^ Squartini, Mario (1998) Verbal Periphrases in Romance -- Aspect, Actionality, and Grammaticalization ISBN 3-11-016160-5
  19. ^ White, Landeg. (1997). The Lusiads -- English translation. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280151-1

Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción...

References

General

  • A Língua Portuguesa in Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Literature

  • Poesia e Prosa Medievais, by Maria Ema Tarracha Ferreira, Ulisseia 1998, 3rd ed., ISBN 978-972-568-124-4.
  • Bases Temáticas - Língua Portuguesa in Instituto Camões
  • Portuguese Literature in The Catholic Encyclopedia

Phonology, orthography and grammar

  • International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Mateus, Maria Helena & d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000) The Phonology of Portuguese ISBN 0-19-823581-X (Excerpt available at Google Books)
  • Bergström, Magnus & Reis, Neves Prontuário Ortográfico Editorial Notícias, 2004.
  • Dialects of Portuguese at the Instituto Camões
  • Audio samples of the dialects of Portugal
  • Audio samples of the dialects from outside Europe

The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ...

Reference dictionaries

Antônio Houaiss (1915 – 1999) was a Brazilian writer and translator, who served as the Minister of Culture. ... The Dicionário Houaiss da Língua Portuguesa, by Antônio Houaiss (1915 – 1999), son of Lebanese immigrants in Brazil and former Brazilian Minister of Culture], was created with the support of almost two hundred lexicographers from several countries and it is the most complete Portuguese dictionary to date (around... Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira (1910-1989) was the author of the dictionary Dicionário Aurélio. ... The Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa is a comprehensive dictionary of the Portuguese language, published in Brazil, first compiled by Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira. ...

Linguistic studies

  • Lindley Cintra, Luís F. Nova Proposta de Classificação dos Dialectos Galego-Portugueses (PDF) Boletim de Filologia, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos, 1971.

External links

Portuguese language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Portuguese language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Portuguese
Portuguese language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
  • [1] Equatorial Guinea becomes since 07/13/2007, the 9th Portuguese-speaking country
  • The Portuguese Language - an Ocean of Cultures
  • Ethnologue report for Portuguese
  • IILP International Portuguese Language Institute
  • IILP - Ortographic Agreement of 1990 (PDF)
  • União de Escritores Angolanos Angolan authors
  • Academia Brasileira de Letras Brazilian authors
  • Sociedade Portuguesa de Autores Portuguese authors
  • Instituto Camões Portuguese language studies
  • Estação da Luz da Nossa Língua Portuguese language studies in Brazil
  • Instituto Português do Oriente - Portuguese language studies in Southeast Asia
  • Observatório da Língua Portuguesa Observatory of Portuguese language
  • Biblioteca Virtual do Estudante de Língua Portuguesa Virtual library for Portuguese language students
  • Escola Virtual Virtual School. Portuguese language classes as taught in Portugal.
  • AULP - Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa Portuguese Language Universities Association.
  • Biblioteca Nacional National Library of Portugal
  • Biblioteca Nacional National Library of Brazil
  • Ciberdúvidas da Língua Portuguesa Popular transnational website for doubts in the Portuguese language for native speakers
  • Conjugador de verbos Portuguese language verb conjugator
  • Je Parle Portugais Eu Falo Português (I speak Portuguese) - The Portuguese language disclosure project in France
  • 5°Colóquio Anual da Lusofonia 2006 Lusophone meeting in Bragança
  • The Alliance of Portuguese Clubs and Associations of Ontario (A Aliança dos Clubes e Associações Portuguesas do Ontário)
  • Music Express has a large amount of free-to-download music, mainly in Portuguese.
  • Proverbs in Portuguese
  • Portuguese in East Timor an interview with Dr. Geoffrey Hull
  • Canada: Portuguese Benevolent Society from Vancouver to the world
  • Canada's Portuguese Film & Video Festival participation from around the world
  • Canada's Monthly celebrating the Portuguese world a monthly publication distributed across all of the Canadian territory
  • 4 words of Portuguese every day
  • Brazilian Portuguese & European Portuguese with Japanese translation

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Incubator-notext. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Incubator logo The Wikimedia Incubator is a wiki run by Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Bragança can refer to: Bragança, a city and a district in Portugal In Brazil: Bragança, Pará Bragança Paulista, São Paulo Bragança (royal house) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Dictionaries

  • Porto Editora Portuguese dictionary
  • Diccionarios en internet List of Portuguese, English dictionaries.
  • Dicionários-Online.com A directory of Portuguese dictionaries.
  • Freedict Portuguese dictionaries
  • LookWAYup Portuguese English Dictionary
  • Priberam Portuguese dictionary
  • Web Busca Portuguese/English and English/Portuguese Dictionary and Translator
  • English-Portuguese-Chinese Dictionary (3-Way Lookup)
  • English-Portuguese-Chinese Dictionary (Babylon Version)
  • Cross-Translation of Portuguese to English and French
  • Translate from portuguese to english and vice versa
  • Collection of Portuguese dictionaries

English-language pages for beginners

  • Free Portuguese Lessons with Audio
  • Portuguese Grammar Primer
  • Brazilian Portuguese Podcast - Audio and Video Lessons
  • Brazilian Portuguese Podcast - Audio Lessons
  • Learn Portuguese Online
  • Improve your Brazilian Portuguese Online
  • Programmatic Portuguese - FSI Course Online
  • Introduction to Brazilian Portuguese
  • Brazilian Portuguese Grammar for English speakers
  • The Pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal
  • Pronunciation guide
  • Type any text with Portuguese characters - an online editor

This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Image File history File links South_America. ... A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a State. ... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Aragonese, IPA: (), is a Romance language now spoken by some 10,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ... Leonese (Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Gallurese (gadduresu) is a diasystem of the Sardinian language, spoken in the Gallura (Gaddura), north-eastern part of Sardinia including the town of Tempio Pausania (Tempiu). ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula, especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... Italiano centrale is a group of dialects of Italian spoken in Lazio and areas East of Lazio in Italy. ... The Florentine language was the language spoken in the Italian city of Florence. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tetauni (Tetuani) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Romance language that was spoken in the city of Oran in Algeria. ... Ligurian is a Romance language, consisting of a group of Gallo-Italic dialects currently spoken in Liguria, northern Italy, and parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, and Monaco. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Nicard (Niçois - French, Nissart - Niçard) is a distinct dialect of the Provençal language spoken in and around the city of Nice, or Nissa in Niçard, and the historical region Le Comté de Nice/Lou Coumtat de Nissa which is almost equivalent to the current French d... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou. ... The Romance Pannonian language is an extinct language that was spoken in the romanized Pannonia after the fall of the Western Roman empire, until the X century. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sardo Campidanese is a diasystem of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian and Corsican languages, spoken in some areas of the north-western part of Sardinia, in Italy, such as Sassari and a few other places, such as Porto Torres and Sorso. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Calabrian language is the name given to a number of Dialects spoken in parts of the Calabria region in Italy. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Talian is a dialect of the Venetian language spoken mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a little part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ...


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Encyclopedia4U - Portuguese language - Encyclopedia Article (1048 words)
Portuguese is the second most spoken Romance language in the world (outnumbered only by Spanish - see also Iberian Romance Languages), spoken in Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, East Timor, Cape Verde, Mozambique and the Macau Special Administrative Region of China.
Portuguese is also spoken in Goa in India, but by an increasingly small minority, while in Malacca in Malaysia, there is a Portuguese creole known as Cristao still spoken by some of the Eurasian population, although it is almost extinct.
Portuguese is similar in many ways to Spanish, but there are enough differences, in both writing and speech, so that a speaker of one may require some practice to effectively understand a speaker of the other.
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