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Encyclopedia > Portuguese India
Estado da Índia
Portuguese State of India
Ultramarine Province

1510 – 1961
Flag Coat of arms
Portuguese India evolution
Capital Cochin (1510-1530); Nova Goa
Language(s) Portuguese
Political structure Ultramarine Province
King
President
 - 1511-1521 Manuel I
 - 1958-1961 Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás
Viceroy
 - 1505-1509 Francisco de Almeida (first)
 - 1827-1835 Manuel de Portugal e Castro (last)
Governor-general
 - 1509-1515 Afonso de Albuquerque (first)
 - 1958-1962 Manuel António Vassalo e Silva (last)
Historical era Imperialism
 - Fall of Sultanate of Bijapur 15 August, 1510
 - Fall of Portuguese India 14 January, 1961
Currency Portuguese Indian rúpia (INPR); Portuguese Indian Escudo (INPES)

Portuguese India (Portuguese: Índia Portuguesa or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India. At the time of British India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India included a number of enclaves on India's western coast, including Goa proper, as well as the coastal enclaves of Daman (Port: Damão) and Diu, and the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which lie inland from Daman. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa. Portrait of a king of Adil Shahi dynasty The Adil Shahi, Adilshahi or Bijapur Sultanate were a dynasty of Indian sultans, who ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1490 to 1686. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Motto Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)  (Devanagari) Truth Alone Triumphs[1] Anthem Jana Gana Mana National Song[2] Vande Mataram Capital New Delhi Largest city Mumbai Official languages Union:3 Hindi and English States and others:4 Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... Panaji or Panjim is the capital and largest city of Goa state in south-western India. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, the Patriot, or... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás, GCC, GOA, GOSE (pron. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Afonso de Albuquerque Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pron. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Portrait of a king of Adil Shahi dynasty The Adil Shahi, Adilshahi or Bijapur Sultanate were a dynasty of Indian sultans, who ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1490 to 1686. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The rúpia was the currency of Portuguese India until 1958. ... The escudo was the currency of Portuguese India between 1958 and 1961. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... Daman may mean: Daman and Diu, a formerly-Portuguese territory of India Daman, a philosopher of ancient Greece This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ...

Contents

Early history

Portuguese and other European settlements in India.

The first Portuguese encounter with India was on May 20, 1498 when Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut (present-day Kozhikode). Over the objections of Arab merchants, da Gama secured an ambiguous letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's local ruler, but had to sail off without warning after the Zamorin insisted on his leaving behind all his goods as collateral. Gama kept his goods, but left behind a few Portuguese with orders to start a trading post. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x700, 232 KB) Summary Map of India with Sri Lanka, illustrating locations of European settlements in the subcontinent between 1501 and 1739 CE. Adaptation from: [1] with reference varification from: [2] (URL accessed: 23-Mar-2006) Licensing File links The following... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x700, 232 KB) Summary Map of India with Sri Lanka, illustrating locations of European settlements in the subcontinent between 1501 and 1739 CE. Adaptation from: [1] with reference varification from: [2] (URL accessed: 23-Mar-2006) Licensing File links The following... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Zamorin is the anglicised version of Samoothirippadu or Samoothiri or Swamy Thirumulpad, a title of the rulers of the erstwhile Hindu state of Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut)(Nediyirippu Swarupam), located in the present day state of Kerala, India, between the 14th and 18th century AD. Manavikraman Raja, the Samoothiri...


In 1510, Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the Bijapur sultans on behalf of a local sovereign, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The Southern Province, also known simply as Goa, was the headquarters of Portuguese India, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia. Afonso de Albuquerque Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pron. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Velha Goa was founded in the 15th century as a port for the Vijayanagar and Bahamni kings. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ...


The Portuguese acquired several territories from the Sultans of Gujarat: Daman (occupied 1531, formally ceded 1539); Salsette, Bombay, and Baçaim (occupied 1534); and Diu (ceded 1535). These possessions became the Northern Province of Portuguese India, which extended almost 100 km along the coast from Daman to Chaul, and in places 30–50 km inland. The province was ruled from the fortress-town of Baçaim. Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas in 1739, and Portugal acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779. This article is for the Indian state. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... The island as seen from the sky Salsette is an island in Maharashtra state on Indias west coast. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Vasai-Virar is a city in Maharashtra state in western India. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Chaul is a former city of Portuguese India, now in ruins. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Goa Inquisition

Main article: Goa Inquisition

The Portuguese set up a long program to convert the native population (mainly Hindus) by torture. It was much larger and endured for a longer period than the Spanish Inquisition. Thousands of citizens suffered horrors and execution and led to large portions of Goa being depopulated [1][2]. Eventually, the Inquisition in Goa was banished in 1812 by royal decree, as a consequence of Napoleon's Iberian Peninsular campaign. St. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ...


After India's independence

After India's independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's request to relinquish control of its Indian possessions. The decision given by the International Court of Justice at The Hague, regarding access to Dadra and Nagar Haveli, after it was invaded by Indian citizens, was an impasse[3]. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From 1954, peaceful Satyagrahis attempts from outside Goa at forcing the Portuguese to leave Goa were brutally suppressed.[4] Many revolts were quelled by the use of force and leaders eliminated or jailed. As a result, India closed its consulate (which had operated in Panjim since 1947) and imposed an economic embargo against the territories of Portuguese Goa. The Indian Government adopted a "wait and watch" attitude from 1955 to 1961 with numerous representations to the Portuguese Salazar regime and attempts to highlight the issue before the international community.[5] Eventually, in December 1961, India militarily invaded Goa, Daman and Diu, where they were faced with insufficient Portuguese resistance.[6][7] Portuguese armed forces had been instructed to either defeat the invaders or die, and though a cease-fire was decreed, an official truce was never signed. [8] Only meager resistance was offered due to the Portuguese army's poor firepower and size (only 3,300 men), against a fully-armed Indian force of over 30,000 with full Air and Naval support.[9] [10]. The territories were annexed to India on 19 December 1961. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Salazar regime in Portugal refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until 1974. Following the Carnation Revolution that year, the new government in Lisbon restored diplomatic relations with India, and recognized Indian sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu. However, due to the military takeover, and since the wishes of the people of Portuguese India were never taken into consideration (as required by UN Resolution 1514 (XV) of 1960 on "the right to self-determination" [11] -- see also UN Resolutions 1541 and 1542 [12]), the people continue to have the right to Portuguese citizenship. However, since 2006, this has been restricted to those born during Portuguese rule. António de Oliveira Salazar, pron. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Postage stamps and postal history

Early postal history of the colony is obscure, but regular mail is known to have been exchanged with Lisbon from 1825 on. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854. Portuguese India (Port. ... For a time after the Anschluss in 1938, letters from Austria to Germany were required to add German stamps, resulting in a mixed franking. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of information carried by a computer network. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The first postage stamps were issued 1 October 1871 for local use. The design simply consisted of a denomination in the center, with an oval band containing the inscriptions "SERVIÇO POSTAL" and "INDIA POST". In 1877, Portugal included India in its standard "crown" issue and from 1886 on, the pattern of regular stamp issues followed that of the other colonies closely, the main exception being a series of surcharges in 1912 produced by perforating existing stamps vertically through the middle and overprinting a new value on each side. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The last regular issue was on 25 June 1960, for the 500th anniversary of the death of Prince Henry the Navigator. Stamps of India were first used 29 December 1961, although the old stamps were accepted until 5 January 1962. Portugal continued to issue stamps for the lost colony but none were offered for sale in the colony's post offices, and are thus not considered valid stamps. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ The Portuguese Inquisition in Goa (1560-1812)
  2. ^ Kanchan Gupta, "Recall the Goa Inquisition to stop the Church from crying foul"
  3. ^ International Court of Justice Case Summaries, Case Concerning Right of Passage Over Indian Territory (Merits), Judgment of 12 April 1960
  4. ^ Rear Admiral Satyindra Singh AVSM (Ret.), Blueprint to Bluewater, The Indian Navy, 1951-65
  5. ^ Lambert Mascarenhas, "Goa's Freedom Movement," excerpted from Henry Scholberg, Archana Ashok Kakodkar and Carmo Azevedo, Bibliography of Goa and the Portuguese in India New Delhi, Promilla (1982)
  6. ^ Government Polytechnic of Goa, "Liberation of Goa"
  7. ^ ' "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites,'
  8. ^ Fernando Zamith, "Invasão de Goa foi 'ilegal, ilegítima e contra os direitos humanos'", Diario de Noticias
  9. ^ Jagan Pillarisetti, "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites
  10. ^ Liberation of Goa, Maps of India
  11. ^ United Nations, General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) of 1960 (Declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples)
  12. ^ United Nations, General Assembly, Resolutions 1541 (XV) and 1542 (XV)

See also

Operation Vijay was the name of operation by Indian armed forces that led to the liberation of Goa, Daman and Diu and Anjidiv Islands from the Portuguese colonial holding in 1961. ... The Portuguese Indian Rupia was the currency of Portuguese India until 1959. ... The escudo was the currency of Portuguese India between 1958 and 1961. ...

External links

  • The GoaMog Information Resource Portal
  • Goacom
  • Summary of the judgment of the International Court of Justice in the Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal vs. India) case
  • Dutch Portuguese Colonial HistoryDutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil. Language Heritage, lists of remains, maps.

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