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Encyclopedia > Portuguese Empire
An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). Red - actual possessions; Pink - explorations, areas of influence and trade and claims of sovereignty; Blue - main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence. The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown.

The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Jave La Grandes east coast: from Nicholas Vallards atlas, 1547. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... This article is about the year. ...


Portuguese explorers began exploring the coast of Africa in 1419, leveraging the latest developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, in order that they might find a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, by an accidental landfall on the South American coast for some, by the crown's secret design for others, Pedro Álvares Cabral would find and lead to the establishment of the colony of Brazil. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and trading posts as they went. By 1571, a string of outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki: the empire had become truly global, and in the process brought great wealth to Portugal. Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Caravela Latina / Latin Caravel Caravela Redonda / Square-rigged Caravel A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable, two or three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Statue of Dias in Cape Town, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, sometimes Bartolomeu Dias de Novais (pron. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Pedro Álvares Cabral (c. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Between 1580 and 1640 Portugal became the junior partner to Spain in the Iberian Union of the two countries' crowns. Though the empires continued to be administered separately, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain and envious of Iberian successes overseas: Holland (which was engaged in a war of independence against Spain), England and France. With a smaller population, Portugal was unable to effectively defend its overstretched network of trading posts and factories, and so the empire began its long and gradual decline. The loss of Brazil in 1822, by then Portugal's largest and most profitable colony, at a time when independence movements were sweeping the Americas, was a blow from which Portugal and its empire would never recover. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ...


High relief on the façade of National Overseas
Bank (Banco Nacional Ultramarino) in
Lisbon, Portugal, with coats of arms symbolizing
the colonies of the Portuguese Empire.
History of Portugal
series
Topics
 Timeline of Portuguese history 

The Scramble for Africa which began in the late 19th century left Portugal with a handful of colonies on the continent. After World War II, Portugal's right-wing dictator, António Salazar, desperately tried to keep the Portuguese Empire intact at a time when other European countries were beginning to withdraw from their colonies. In 1961 the handful of Portuguese troops garrisoned in Goa were unable to prevent Indian troops marching into the colony, but Salazar began a long and bloody war to quell anticolonialist forces in the African colonies. The unpopular war lasted until the overthrow of the Portuguese regime in 1974, known as the Carnation Revolution. The new government immediately changed policy and recognised the independence of all its colonies, including East Timor, save for Macau, which was eventually returned to China in 1999, marking the end of the Portuguese overseas empire. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 243 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Greek figure Alto-relievo or high-relief, are figures carved out of a tablet that project at least one half of cross-section from the tablets surface. ... A piece of artwork for the National Overseas Bank (Banco Nacional Ultramarino) in Lisbon, with coats-of-arms symbolizing the colonies of the Portuguese Empire. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... The County of Coimbra (Portuguese: Condado de Coimbra) was a political entity instituted as a military unit of defense in the borders of the Kingdom of Galicia in the Iberian Peninsula, and in what is today central Portugal. ... History of Portugal Series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383-1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Anthem: O Hino da Carta (from 1834) The Kingdom of Portugal in 1561 Capital Lisbon¹ Language(s) Portuguese Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy King  - 1139-1185 Afonso I  - 1908-1910 Manuel II History  - Established 26 July, 1139  - Peninsular War 1808-1814  - Brazilian suzerainty 1815  - Brazilian independence October 12, 1822  - Revolution... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... The 1383–1385 crisis is a period of civil war and anarchy in Portuguese history that began with the death of King Fernando I of Portugal, who left no male heirs, and ended with the accession to the throne of King João I in 1385, in the wake of... For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ... // Main article: Portuguese Empire An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... The history of Portugal from the beginning of Maria Is reign in 1777 to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834 spans a complex historic period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installment of a... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... The Portuguese Third Republic is a period in the history of Portugal corresponding to the current democratic regime installed after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, that put an end to the quasi-fascist Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcello Caetano. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... ĢÕãÒòùäÊŞ Ä‚ ßõî ŔûñÑèđ òΝ ýëŗ pæŇţž This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Ajuda Library, created in the 15th century as Royal Library. Mother of the Portuguese and Brazilian National Libraries. ... // In the early days of the Catholic Church, several local liturgies developed, such as the Gallican in France, the Sarum in England, the antique Roman in Rome, the Ambrosian rite in Milan. ... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... António de Oliveira Salazar, pron. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Portugal Angola (1961-74): MPLA, UNITA, FNLA Guinea-Bissau (1963-74): PAIGC Mozambique (1964-74): FRELIMO Strength 169,000 70,000 in Angola 42,000 in Guinea-Bissau 57,000 in Mozambique 20,000 6,500 in Angola 7,000 in Guinea-Bissau 6,500 in Mozambique Casualties 8... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC... This article is about the year. ...


The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) is the cultural successor of the Empire. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. ...

Contents

The beginning of the Empire (1415-1494)

The Portuguese Reconquista culminated in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, setting the Portuguese borders which have lasted nearly unchanged to this day. Throughout the 15th century, the Crowns of Aragon and Portugal expanded territorially overseas. The Aragonese Empire, which had accomplished its Reconquista in 1266, focused on the Mediterranean Sea while the Portuguese Empire turned to the Atlantic Ocean and North Africa. The Kingdom of Castile did not complete the conquest of the last Moorish stronghold at Granada until 1492. Events University, the first College at Oxford founded Births Emperor Kameyama of Japan Pope John XXII Frederick I, Margrave of Baden Deaths July 6 - Alexander II of Scotland (b. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... Afonso III of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Muslim Conquest of Iberia Timeline of Muslim Occupation Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


There were several reasons for Portugal to explore the unknown waters to its south and west. As a Catholic kingdom, Portuguese monarchs saw it as their duty to spread Christianty and destroy Islam in the process. The legend of the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John located somewhere in the Orient provided hope that, if it could only be reached, Islam could be encircled by Christian forces. At the same time, reaching the Orient would allow Portugal to tap into the source of the lucrative spice trade, bypassing the long overland route that the Venetians had a stranglehold on at its entry point to Europe. Portugal's long coastline and geographical location on the edge of Western Europe, hemmed in by the Spanish kingdoms to its east, and maritime experience, meant that the most promising route to achieving its goals was to find a sea route to the Orient. Preste enthroned on a map of East Africa in an atlas prepared for Queen Mary, 1558. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Portugal began in 1415 by crossing the Straits of Gibraltar and capturing Ceuta from the Moors, who unsuccessfully attempted to re-take it in 1418. In 1419 two of Prince Henry the Navigator's captains, João Gonçalves Zarco, Tristão Vaz Teixeira and Bartolomeu Perestrelo were driven by a storm to Madeira. In 1427, another Portuguese captain discovered the Azores. The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ... João Gonçalves Zarco João Gonçalves Zarco (c. ... Tristão Vaz Teixeiras Coat of Arms Tristão Vaz Teixeira (c. ... Bartolomeu Perestrelo (about 1395 to 1457) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer that, together with João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, discovered the Madeira Islands (1419-1420). ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi...


In an expedition to Tangier, undertaken in 1436 by King Edward of Portugal (1433-1438), the Portuguese army was defeated and only escaped destruction by surrendering Prince Ferdinand, the king's youngest brother. By sea, Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. In 1434, Cape Bojador was crossed by Gil Eanes. In 1441, the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce. Senegal and Cape Verde were reached in 1445. In 1446, António Fernandes pushed on almost as far as present-day Sierra Leone. A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Cape Bojador is a headland on the northern coast of Moroccos Western Sahara province, just below latitude 27° North. ... Gil Eanes (Eannes), pron. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... António Fernandes, or sometimes Álvaro Fernandes, (15th century) Portuguese explorer of the African coast. ...


Meanwhile, colonization continued in the Azores (from 1439) and Madeira, where sugar and wine were now produced by settlers from Portugal, France, Flanders and Genoa. Above all, gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese. It had become clear that, apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ...


Under Afonso V, the African (1443–1481), the Gulf of Guinea was explored as far as Cape St Catherine, and three expeditions (1458, 1461, 1471) were sent to Morocco. In 1458, Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir, in Arabic) was taken. In 1471, Arzila (Asila) and Tangier were captured. Afonso V of Portugal, Conqueror of African strongholds Afonso V, King of Portugal KG (Portuguese pron. ... Map of the Gulf of Guinea, showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line of volcanoes. ... Alcácer Ceguer (also know as El Qsar es Seghir) was a Moroccan stronghold in the Straits of Gibraltrar, between Tangier and Ceuta. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


In 1474 an explorer named João Vaz Corte-Real received a capitancy in Azores because he discovered Terra Nova dos Bacalhaus (New Land of Codfish) in 1472. Some claim this land is Newfoundland. Whether or not this is actually the case is difficult to ascertain, because of Portuguese secrecy about the discoveries meant that very little evidence remains. The dried cod became a vital economic commodity and a staple of the Portuguese diet. João Vaz Corte-Real Portuguese explorer (Canada) 15th century João Vaz Corte-Real (pron. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Cod can be preserved by salting, drying, or both. ... Portuguese cuisine is characterised by rich, filling and full-flavoured dishes and is a prime example of Mediterranean diet. ...


Afonso V of Portugal claimed the Castilan-Leonese throne when he married Joan, but Isabella proclaimed herself queen of Castile. The Treaty of Alcáçovas, signed in 1479, gave exclusive navigation to Portugal of the sea below the Canary Islands and the Portuguese then recognized Isabella as queen of Castile. Afonso V of Portugal, Conqueror of African strongholds Afonso V, King of Portugal KG (Portuguese pron. ... Portrait of Joan the Beltraneja. ... Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla, Spain) and Portugal on September 4, 1479 that put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, a civil war begun in 1474 over the succession... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Under John II (1481–1495), the fortress of São Jorge da Mina, the modern Elmina, in Ghana, was founded for the protection of the Guinea trading and became Portugal's West African headquarters until 1637. Diogo Cão discovered Congo in 1482 and reached Cape Cross in 1486. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope. The passage to the Indian Ocean was open. John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... The Portuguese Gold Coast was a Portuguese colony on the West Afrian Gold Coast (present Ghana, on the Gulf of Guinea). ... Elmina is a town on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, lying west of Cape Coast. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The pillar bearing the arms of Portugal erected by Cão at Cape St. ... Cape Cross (Afrikaans: Kaap Kruis; German: Das Kreuzkap) is a cape in the South Atlantic on the coast of Namibia, on the C34 highway some 70 kilometres north of Hentiesbaai, 1,000 miles from the southern tip of Africa. ... Statue of Dias in Cape Town, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, sometimes Bartolomeu Dias de Novais (pron. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ...


The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Main article: Treaty of Tordesillas
Dividing of the world between Portugal and Spain. Blue: Treaty of Alcáçovas 1479; Violet: Papal line 1493 and Treaty of Tordesillas 1494; Green: Treaty of Zaragoza 1529.

The possibility of a sea route around Africa to India and the rest of Asia would open enormous opportunities to trade for Portugal, so it aggressively pursued the establishment of both trade outposts and fortified bases. Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 410 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 769 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/png) English: This map has been improved in the German Kartenwerkstatt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 410 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 769 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/png) English: This map has been improved in the German Kartenwerkstatt. ... The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla, Spain) and Portugal on September 4, 1479 that put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, a civil war begun in 1474 over the succession... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Knowing that Indian Ocean connected the Atlantic Ocean (Bartolomeu Dias' voyage of 1488), King John II of Portugal refused support to Christopher Columbus's offer to reach India by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus next turned successfully to Queen Isabella of Castile, and his unintended discovery of the West Indies led to the establishment of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. Statue of Dias in Cape Town, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, sometimes Bartolomeu Dias de Novais (pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...


The Portuguese Empire was guaranteed by the papal bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 6 June 1494. These two actions (and related bulls and treaties) divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Portuguese and the Spanish. The dividing line in the Western Hemisphere was established along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km; 970 miles) west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa) (and the antipodal line extended around the globe to divide the Eastern Hemisphere). As a result, all of Africa and almost all of Asia would belong to Portugal, while almost all of the New World would belong to Spain. Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A true duopoly is a specific type of oligopoly where only two producers exist in one market. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Antipodal points on the surface of a sphere are diametrically opposite; on the other side of a globe. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


The Pope's initial proposal of the line was moved a little west by John II, and it was accepted. However, the new line granted Brazil and (thought at that time) Newfoundland to Portugal both in 1500. As the distance proposed by John II is not "round" (370 leagues), some see the evidence that Portugal knew the existence of those lands before the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). John II died one year later, in 1495. Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ...


The height of the Empire (1494-1580)

Cantino planisphere of 1503, showing the line of Tordesillas. It is the first map to show Terra Nova and Brazil, two recently claimed Portuguese possessions.

With the Treaty of Tordesillas signed, Portugal assured exclusive navigation around Africa and in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India and established the first Portuguese outposts there. Soon Portugal become the center of the commerce with the East. Image File history File links Cantino_Planisphere. ... Image File history File links Cantino_Planisphere. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ...


In East Africa, small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava, Sofala and Mombasa were destroyed, or became either subjects or allies of Portugal. Pêro da Covilhã had reached Ethiopia, travelling secretly, as early as 1490; a diplomatic mission reached the ruler of that nation October 19, 1520. Explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, on April 22, 1500, landed in what is today Porto Seguro, Brazil and temporary trading posts were established to collect brazilwood, used as a dye. In the Arabian Sea, Socotra was occupied in 1506, and in the same year Lourenço d'Almeida visited Ceylon. In the Indian Ocean, one of Pedro Álvares Cabral's ships discovered Madagascar, which was partly explored by Tristão da Cunha in 1507, the same year Mauritius was discovered. In 1509, the Portuguese won the sea Battle of Diu against the combined forces of Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II, Sultan of Gujarat, Mamlûk Sultan of Cairo, Samoothiri Raja of Kozhikode, Venetian Republic, and Ragusan Republic (Dubrovnik). A second Battle of Diu in 1538 finally ended Ottoman ambitions in India and confirmed Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Kilwa is one of the 6 districts of the Lindi Region of Tanzania. ... Brava is a volcanic island in the Cape Verde group. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Mozambique ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... Pedro or Pero da Covilhã (c. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pedro Álvares Cabral (c. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also Agbodrafo for the city in Togo formerly known as Porto Seguro. ... Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; ) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of the Horm Africa some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... Lourenço de Almeida (died 1508), son of Francisco de Almeida, acting under him, distinguished himself in the Indian seas, and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal. ... Tristão da Cunha or Tristan da Cunha (~1460 - ~1540) was nominated first viceroy of Portuguese India in 1504, but did not take up this post owing to temporary blindness; in 1506 he became commander of a fleet which operated on the east coast of Africa and in the Indies... The naval Battle of Diu was a critical sea battle that took place on 2-3 February 1509 near the port town of Diu, India , between Portugal and a joint fleet of Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat, with... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... The Republic of Dubrovnik, also known as the Republic of Ragusa, was a maritime city-state that was based in the city of Dubrovnik from the 14th century until 1808. ...

Macau Trade Routes

Portugal established trading ports at far-flung locations like Goa, Ormuz, Malacca, Kochi, the Maluku Islands, Macau, and Nagasaki. Guarding its trade from both European and Asian competitors, Portugal dominated not only the trade between Asia and Europe, but also much of the trade between different regions of Asia, such as India, Indonesia, China, and Japan. Jesuit missionaries, such as the basque Francis Xavier, followed the Portuguese to spread Roman Catholic Christianity to Asia with mixed success. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing the position of Macau in global trade routes, 1580-1640. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing the position of Macau in global trade routes, 1580-1640. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Ormus (also Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, Ohrmazd) was a kingdom in the 16th to 17th centuries around the Persian Gulf, in particular the Strait of Hormuz. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Kochi may refer to: Kochi, India, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


While Portuguese ships explored Asia and South America, King Manuel I of Portugal gave permission to explore the North Atlantic to João Fernandes "The Lavrador" and to the Corte-Real brothers. Lavrador rediscovered Greenland and explored Labrador (named after him) and Miguel and Gaspar Corte-Real explored Newfoundland and nearby lands. Settlement may have been attempted, but no trace remains of any Portuguese colony. The interest in North America faded as the African and Asiatic possessions were more wealthy. In the latter half of the 16th century the only Portuguese to continue to visit Newfoundland and Labrador were fishermen. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... João Fernandes (pron. ... Corte-Real was the name of three Portuguese explorers: João Vaz Corte-Real, who possibly reached Newfoundland in the 1470s. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Miguel Corte-Real (c. ... Gaspar Corte-Real. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


In 1503, an expedition under the command of Gonçalo Coelho found the French making incursions on the land that is today Brazil. John III, in 1530, organized the colonization of Brazil around 15 capitanias hereditárias ("hereditary captainships"), that were given to anyone who wanted to administer and explore them. That same year, there was a new expedition from Martim Afonso de Sousa with orders to patrol the whole Brazilian coast, banish the French, and create the first colonial towns: São Vicente on the coast, and São Paulo on the border of the altiplane. From the 15 original captainships, only two, Pernambuco and São Vicente, prospered. With permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native American and later African slaves. Deeming the capitanias system ineffective, Tomé de Sousa, the first Governor-General was sent to Brazil in 1549. He built the capital of Brazil, Salvador at the Bay of All Saints. The first Jesuits arrived the same year. Gonçalo Coelho (15th century/16th century), Portuguese explorer of the South Atlantic and of the South American coast (expedition to Brazil and further south in 1502). ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Martim Afonso de Sousa (1500-1571) was a Portuguese explorer. ... A small city at the beaches of Southern São Paulo, Brazil, it was the first Portuguese permanent settlement in America and the first capital of the Captaincy of São Vicente, now the state of São Paulo. ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Thomé de Souza (1515-1573) or Thomé De Souza was the first governor-general of Brazil, when it was a Portuguese colony. ... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, or in literal translation: Holy Savior of All Saints Bay) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the northeastern... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Baía de Todos os Santos is the main and biggest bay of the state of Bahia, Brazil. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


Some historians argue that it was Portuguese sailors that were the first Europeans to discover Australia,[1][2] exploring from their bases in East Asia. This view is based on reinterpretations of maps from the period, but remains contentious (see Theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia). Jave La Grandes east coast: from Nicholas Vallards atlas, 1547. ...


From 1565 through 1567 Mem de Sá, a Portuguese colonial official and the third Governor General of Brazil, successfully destroyed a ten year-old French colony called France Antarctique, at Guanabara Bay. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then founded the city of Rio de Janeiro in March 1567. Mem de Sá was a Governor-General of Brazil from 1557-1572. ... A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Satellite image of Guanabara Bay In Portuguese, Baía da Guanabara is an oceanic bay located in southeastern Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro. ... Estácio de Sá (1520-1567) was a Portuguese soldier and officer who came to Brazil on orders of the Portuguese crown to wage war on the French invaders commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510-1571), who had established themselves in 1555 at the Guanabara Bay in Rio de... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


In 1578, the Portuguese crusaders crossed into Morocco and were routed by Ahmed Mohammed of Fez, at the Alcazarquivir (Now : Ksar-el-Kebir) also known as "the battle of the Three Kings". King Sebastian of Portugal was almost certainly killed in battle or subsequently executed. The Crown was handed over to his sister, the wife of Spain's King Philip who, in turn, seized the opportunity to extend his control over Portugal. This episode marked the end of Portugal's global ambitions. The Battle of Alcacer Quibir took place on August 4, 1578 by Alcazarquivir in Morrocco between the Portuguese army and the troops of the Moorish Sultan. ... Sebastian I, King of Portugal the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I, pron. ...


The Habsburg kings (1580-1640)

A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of Iberian Union (1581-1640).
Red/Pink - Spanish Empire
Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire

From 1580 to 1640, the throne of Portugal was held by the Habsburg kings of Spain resulting in the most extensive colonial empire until then (see Iberian Union). In 1583 Philip I of Portugal, II of Spain, sent his combined Iberian fleet to clear the French traders from the Azores, decisively hanging his prisoners-of-war from the yardarms and contributing to the "Black Legend". The Azores were the last part of Portugal to resist Philip's reign over Portugal. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ...


Portuguese colonization was not successful in Iran. Gamru Port and a few other places (like Hormuz Island) where occupied by Portuguese in 1615, but later in 1622 Abbas I of Persia battled the Portuguese with the aid of British Navy and British East India Company. The city was renamed then to Bandar Abbas (Bandar means port). Bandar Abbas or Bandar-e Abbas (in Persian: بندر عباس) is a port city and capital of Hormozgan province on the southern coast of Iran (Persia), on the Persian Gulf. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran | Coastal cities ...

The Portuguese Castle, Hrmoz Island, Iran.

In the Americas, the Portuguese expansion continued beyond the west side by the meridian set by the Treaty of Tordesillas. Portugal was able to mount a military expedition, which defeated and expelled the French colonists of France Équinoxiale in 1615, less than four years after their arrival in the land. On April 30, 1625, a fleet under the command of Fradique de Toledo recovered the city of Salvador da Bahia to the Dutch. The fleet was composed of 22 Portuguese ships, 34 Spanish ships and 12,500 men (three quarters were Spanish and the rest were Portuguese). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image:PortugueseCastle. ... Hormoz Island Hara Forests at Hormoz Island Hormoz Island Another beautiful and attractive Island of Persian Gulf The Portuguese Castle, Hrmoz Island, Iran is Hormoz which is 18 km east of Qeshm island. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic illa ad arcam reversa est, portuguese E Assim a Pomba Voltou à Arca Location of Salvador Coordinates: , Region State Founded 29 March 1549 Government  - Mayor João Henrique Area  - City 313 km²  (120. ...


However, in 1627 the Castilian economy collapsed. The Dutch, who during the Twelve Years' Truce had made their navy a priority, devastated Spanish maritime trade after the resumption of war, on which Spain was wholly dependent after the economic collapse. Even with a number of victories, Spanish resources were now fully stretched across Europe and also at sea protecting their vital shipping against the greatly improved Dutch fleet. Spain's enemies, such as the Netherlands and England, coveted its overseas wealth, and in many cases found it easier to attack poorly-defended Portuguese outposts than Spanish ones. The Spanish were simply no longer able to cope with naval threats. Thus the Dutch-Portuguese War began. A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Combatants ° Kingdom of Portugal (under Spanish Crown) ° Kingdom of Spain ° Kingdom of Cochin ° Maranhao Tupis ° Republic of the Seven United Provinces ° Kingdom of England ° Sultanate of Johore ° Kandyan Kingdom ° Kingdom of Kongo ° Kingdom of Ndongo-Matamba ° Rio Grande Tupis ° Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe ° Potiguar Tribe Commanders * Viceroy Pedro da Silva * High...


Between 1638 and 1640, the Netherlands came to control part of Brazil's Northeast region, with their capital in Recife. The Portuguese won a significant victory in the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. By 1654, the Netherlands had surrendered and returned control of all Brazilian land to the Portuguese. Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km²  (84. ... Battle of Guararapes Conflict Date February 18, 1649 Place Pernambuco, Brazil Result Portuguese victory The Second Battle of Guararapes was a conflict between Dutch and Portuguese forces in 1649 at Pernambuco that ended in a resounding Portuguese victory and was one of the final nails in the coffin of Dutch...


Although Dutch colonies in Brazil were wiped out, during the course of the 17th century the Dutch were able to occupy Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, and the East Indies, and to take over the trade with Japan at Nagasaki. Portugal's Asiatic territories were reduced to bases at Macau, East Timor and Portuguese India. A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... View of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (2003) Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ... Portuguese India (Portuguese: or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugals colonial holdings in India. ...


The wealth of Brazil (1640-1822)

John IV of Braganza (r. 1640–57) being proclaimed King of Portugal.

The loss of colonies was one of the reasons that contributed to the end of the personal union with Spain. In 1640 John IV was proclaimed King of Portugal and the Portuguese Restoration War began. In 1668 Spain recognized the end of the Iberian Union and in exchange Portugal ceded Ceuta to the Spanish crown. John IV of Portugal being proclaimed king. ... John IV of Portugal being proclaimed king. ... John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal pron. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... Portuguese Restoration War (Portuguese: guerras da restauração) is the war between Portugal and Spain after the revolt of December 1640. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ...


In 1661 the Portuguese offered Bombay and Tangier to England as part of a dowry, and over the next hundred years the British gradually became the dominant trader in India, providing the bases from which its empire would grow as the Moghul Empire disintegrated from the middle of the 18th century, gradually excluding the trade of other powers in the later 18th and early 19th centuries. Portugal was able to cling onto Goa and several minor bases through the remainder of the colonial period, but their importance declined as trade was diverted through increasing numbers of English, Dutch and French trading posts. This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


In 1755 Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake, which together with a subsequent tsunami killed more than 100,000 people out of a population of 275,000. This sharply checked Portuguese colonial ambitions in the late 18th century. This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


Although initially overshadowed by Portuguese activities in Asia, Brazil would become the main centre for Portuguese colonial ambitions; firstly wood, sugar, coffee and other cash crops. Until the 17th century most colonial activity was restricted to areas near the coast. The Amazon basin was, under Torsedillas, considered Spanish territory, as confirmed by explorers like Orellana, but left largely unoccupied except for missions around some of its outlying areas. However throughout the 17th and 18th centuries Bandeirantes gradually extended their activities, at first primarily in search of indigenous people to enslave for the demands of the plantations, and later for gems and precious metals as well, in an ever westward expansion. This finally lead to the Treaty of Madrid (1750) that recognised this defacto occupation, and transferred sovereignty of about half of the Amazon basin from Spain to Portugal. In 1693 major gold deposits were found at Minas Gerais, leading to Brazil becoming the largest supplier of gold in the 18th century. Gems and diamonds also became an important part of mining activities. The strongly rising demand of sugar and coffee in Europe also brought further wealth. Voluntary immigration from Europe and the slave trade from Africa increased Brazil's population immensely: today Brazil is the largest Portuguese-speaking country in the world. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is sold for money. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... The Treaty of Madrid was a document signed by Spain and Portugal concerning their empires and status of their slave plantations in what is now Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ...

Portuguese empire circa 1810.

Unlike Spain, Portugal did not divide its colonial territory in America. The captaincies created there were subordinated to a centralized administration in Salvador which reported directly to the Crown in Lisbon. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1356 × 627 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) From German wikipedia http://de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1356 × 627 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) From German wikipedia http://de. ... Capitanias were the organisational units of the Portuguese state in its colony of Terra de Santa Cruz, or Land of the Holy Cross, which was later divided in the vice-kingdom of Brazil and that of Grão-Pará. Each was delivered to a single Capitão-Mor, who was...


Encouraged by the example of the United States of America, which had won its independence from Britain, an attempt was made in 1789 to achieve the same in Brazil. The Inconfidência Mineira failed, the leaders arrested and, of the participants of the insurrections the one of lowest social position, Tiradentes, was hanged. The Inconfidência Mineira (Minas Conspiracy) of 1789, a Brazilian independence movement, was a result of the confluence of external and internal causes. ... Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes (1746-April 21, 1792), was part of the Brazilian seditious movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira. ...


In 1808, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal, and Dom João, prince regent in place of his mother, Dona Maria I, ordered the transfer of the royal court to Brazil. In 1815 Brazil was elevated to the status of Kingdom, the Portuguese state officially becoming the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves (Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves), and the capital was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. There was also the election of Brazilian representatives to the Cortes Constitucionais Portuguesas (Portuguese Constitutional Courts). Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... Maria I of Portugal (pron. ...


Dom João, fleeing from Napoleon's army, moved the seat of government to Brazil in 1808. Brazil thereupon became a kingdom under Dom João VI, and the only instance of a European country being ruled from one of its colonies. Although the royal family returned to Portugal in 1821, the interlude led to a growing desire for independence amongst Brazilians. In 1822, the son of Dom João VI, then prince-regent Dom Pedro I, proclaimed the independence, September 7, 1822, and was crowned emperor. Unlike the Spanish colonies of South America, Brazil's independence was achieved without bloodshed. John VI, King of Portugal, in Portuguese João (1769-1826), was born in Lisbon on May 13, 1769, and received the title of prince of Brazil in 1788. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Portuguese Africa and the overseas provinces (1822-1961)

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. Portuguese territories eventually included the modern nations of Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

The Pink Map - Portugal's claim of sovereignty over the land between Angola and Mozambique, in which today is currently Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi.

Portugal pressed into the hinterland of Angola and Mozambique, and explorers Hermenegildo Capelo and Roberto Ivens were among the first Europeans to cross Africa west to east. The project to connect the two colonies, the Pink Map, was the Portuguese main objective in the second half of the 19th century. However, the idea was acceptable to the French, who had their own aspirations of the British territory running from Cairo to Cape Town. The British Ultimatum of 1890 was respected by King Carlos I of Portugal and the Pink Map came to an end. The King's reaction to the ultimatum was exploited by republicans. In 1908 King Carlos and Prince Luís Filipe were murdered in Lisbon. Luís Filipe's brother, Manuel, become King Manuel II of Portugal. Two years later Portugal become a republic. Image File history File links Mapa_Cor-de-Rosa. ... Image File history File links Mapa_Cor-de-Rosa. ... Hermenegildo de Brito Capelo (1841-1917), was a famous Portuguese explorer of Africa and a Portuguese Navy official. ... Roberto Ivens and Hermenegildo Capelo at Iacca. ... Mapa Cor-de-Rosa The Mapa cor-de-rosa (Pink Map) was the document representing Portugals claim of sovereignty over the land between Angola and Mozambique, in which today is currently Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... The 1890 British Ultimatum was an Ultimatum by the British government - delivered on January 11, 1890 by a Memorandum - to Portugal, forcing the retreat of the military forces in the land between the colonies of Mozambique and Angola, in current Zimbabwe, using as a pretext an incident between the portuguese... Carlos I, King of Portugal KG pron. ... Luís Filipe of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (in English Louis Philip) was born in Lisbon, on March 21, 1887. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... King Manuel II (r: 1908–1910) Manuel II, King of Portugal KG GCVO (pron. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In World War I German troops threatened Mozambique, and Portugal entered the war to protect its colonies. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


António de Oliveira Salazar, who had seized power in 1933, considered Portuguese colonies as overseas provinces of Portugal. In the wake of World War II, the decolonization movements began to gain momentum. Unlike the other European colonial powers, Salazar attempted to resist this tide and maintain the integrity of the empire. As a result, Portugal was the last nation to retain its major colonies. The Cold War also created instabilities among Portuguese overseas populations, as the United States and Soviet Union tried to increase their spheres of influence. In 1954 India invaded Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and in 1961 Portuguese India come to an end when Goa, Daman and Diu were also invaded [1] [2]. António de Oliveira Salazar, pron. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ...


Decline and fall (1961-1999)

Portuguese colonies in the 20th century, dates represent loss of territory.

The cost and unpopularity of the Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974), in which Portugal attempted to subdue the emerging nationalist movements in its African colonies, eventually led to collapse of the Salazar regime in 1974. Known as the "Carnation Revolution", one of the first acts of the democratic government which then came into power was to end the wars and negotiate Portuguese withdrawal from its African colonies. In both Mozambique and Angola a civil war promptly broke out, with incoming communist governments formed by the former rebels (and backed by the Soviet Union, Cuba, and other communist countries) fighting against insurgent groups supported by nations like Zaire, South Africa, and the United States. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Combatants Portugal Angola (1961-74): MPLA, UNITA, FNLA Guinea-Bissau (1963-74): PAIGC Mozambique (1964-74): FRELIMO Strength 169,000 70,000 in Angola 42,000 in Guinea-Bissau 57,000 in Mozambique 20,000 6,500 in Angola 7,000 in Guinea-Bissau 6,500 in Mozambique Casualties 8... António de Oliveira Salazar, pron. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC...


East Timor also declared independence at this time, but was almost immediately invaded by neighbouring Indonesia, which occupied it until 1999. A United Nations-sponsored referendum that year resulted in East Timoreans choosing independence for the small country, which was achieved in 2002. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The handover of Macau to China in 1999 under the terms of an agreement negotiated twelve years earlier marked the end of the Portuguese overseas empire.


The seven former colonies of Portugal that are now independent nations, together with Portugal, are members of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... // Main article: Portuguese Empire An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Languages Portuguese Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Galicians and other Spaniards, Italians, French The Portuguese people (Portuguese: ; literally the Portuguese) are the ethnic group or nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. ...

References

General

  • Russell-Wood, A.J.P. The Portuguese Empire 1415-1825
  • Allen K 1954 The Portuguese Empire and its defeat vol1 pp224-234

Notes

  1. ^ Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, The Secret Discovery of Australia (1977)
  2. ^ Peter Trickett, Beyond Capricorn (2007)

Sources, references & external links

  • Portuguese Empire Timeline
  • Japanese Screen Painting of the Portuguese in the Indies (Enlarge)
  • Dutch Portuguese Colonial HistoryDutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil. Language Heritage, lists of remains, maps.
  • The Portuguese and the East (in Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese and Thai) with English introduction.
  • Sizes of the largest Empires in History:"To Rule the Earth"
  • The First Global Village by Martin Page

  Results from FactBites:
 
Portuguese Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3328 words)
The CPLP is the cultural sucessor of the Empire.
The Portuguese Empire was guaranteed by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 6 June 1494, which divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1770 km; 1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa).
Adhered as a province of the new Empire of Brazil in 1822.
Portuguese Empire - MSN Encarta (2006 words)
Portuguese Empire, group of territories in South America, Africa, India, South East Asia, and elsewhere historically subject to the sovereignty of Portugal.
Portuguese imperialism, which began in 1415 with the seizure of Ceuta from the Moors, is divisible into three main phases: the focus on Africa and the Orient; the focus on Brazil; and the focus on Africa—even though these phases overlap.
This period coincided with the decline of the eastern empire, as the Portuguese ran short of skilled manpower to crew their vessels and the rising sea powers of the Dutch Empire and British Empire challenged their position.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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