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Encyclopedia > Portuguese Creole

Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ...

Contents


Origins

Portugal in the period of discoveries and colonization created a linguistic contact with native languages and people of the discovered lands and pidgins were formed. Until the 18th century, these Portuguese pidgins were used as a lingua franca in Asia and Africa. For additional context, see History of Portugal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ...


Later, the Portuguese pidgins were expanded grammatically and lexically, as they became creole languages. Today, these languages are known as "Portuguese creoles". The Portuguese creoles or Portuguese-based creoles are the ones that have almost all lexical content bases on Portuguese, while grammatically they are very different.


According to the monogenetic theory of pidgins advanced by Hugo Schuchardt, many creoles have structural similarities because most of the pidgins and creoles of European base in the world derived from a version of the lingua franca relexified by the Portuguese. This "broken Portuguese" would be used by European sailors whenever they met new peoples. Items like the preposition na (meaning "in" and/or "on"; from identical Portuguese word for "in the", feminine singular; contraction of "em a") would be marks of this common origin. The monogenetic theory does not explain how the syntactic structure of many creoles could arise from a language that does not possess such a structure. Relexification is a term from linguistics used in pidgin and creole studies for the mechanism by which one language changes its lexicon to that of another language. ... The grammars of creole languages often, though not universally, share a number of structural features, even in cases of languages which developed independently. ...


Origin of the name

The Portuguese word for "creole" is crioulo, it derives from criar (to raise) and olo (house - a typical African house in the Portuguese African colonies). Since most of the African creole speakers had a Portuguese father and an African mother, they were raised (criados) by their African mother, not as slaves, in the "olos", thus "crioulos", and were servants in the house of their fathers. Thus the creole was left free to develop into a stable language. While the Africans were often deported to the Americas, the mixed raced were not. The African slaves were prohibited from speaking their own languages, which their masters did not understand. Instead, they were also instructed to speak a Portuguese pidgin.


In Portugal and the African Portuguese language countries, the word "crioulo" is often a synonym of "Cape Verdean", where the large majority of the population is mixed raced. The word "crioulo" for the language is only used for the Guinean Portuguese creoles. In these countries the word "crioulo" does not have the same connotation it has in Brazil.


Africa

Africa's Portuguese creoles: Cape Verdean creoles (1), Kriol of Guinea-Bissau and Senegal (2) and creoles of São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea (3).
Africa's Portuguese creoles: Cape Verdean creoles (1), Kriol of Guinea-Bissau and Senegal (2) and creoles of São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea (3).

The oldest Portuguese-based creole are the so-called Crioulos of Upper Guinea, born around the Portuguese settlemens along the northwest coast of Africa. Originally spoken on a wider area, they are presently reduced to the following branches: Portuguese Creoles in Africa. ... Portuguese Creoles in Africa. ...

Another group is spoken in the Gulf of Guinea, in São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea: Kriol (crioulo in Portuguese) is a language spoken by 60% of the population of Guinea-Bissau, where it is the lingua franca, and also in Senegal. ... Flag of Casamance Casamance is the area of Senegal south of The Gambia including the Casamance River. ... The Capeverdean Crioulo is a dialect continuum spoken on the islands of Cape Verde, whose extremes lie at the islands of Santiago and that of Santo Antão. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...

Many other Portuguese creoles probably existed in Africa, especially in the Congo region and former Portuguese feitorias in the Golf of Guinea. Angolar, also Ngola (called Lungua Ngolá) is minority language of São Tomé and Príncipe, spoken in the southernmost towns of São Tomé island and sparsely along the coast. ... São Tomé (population 53,300 in 2003) is the capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nations largest town. ... The Annobonese language, called by its speakers Fá dAmbô or Fla dAmbu, is spoken by 9,000 in the Ano Bom and Fernando Póo Islands off the coast of Equatorial Guinea, mostly by people of mixed African, Spanish, and Portuguese descent. ... Annobón (or Annabon; from Ano bom Portuguese for Good Year) is an island south of São Tomé Island (São Tomé and Príncipe), in the Gulf of Guinea, 1° 24 S. and 5° 35 E., belonging to Equatorial Guinea. ... Forro is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The Principense language, called lunguyê (Language of the Island) by its speakers, is is spoken by a couple of thousand speakers in São Tomé and Príncipe, mostly elderly women, almost all of them on the island of Príncipe. ... Príncipe is the smaller of the two major islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Portuguese pidgins still exist in Angola and Mozambique, uncreolized. A Portuguese pidgin, known as Pequeno Português (literally "little Portuguese") is still used as lingua franca between distinct Angolan tribes.


Americas

Portuguese has contributed to many creole languages of the Americas, although its similarity with Spanish makes it difficult to separate the influence of the two languages. Most surviving creoles contain also influences from Dutch, English, French, and various African languages. They are:

Portuguese-based creoles existed in Brazil, for example in the settlements founded by escaped African slaves (Quilombos); but none has survived. There is a Portuguese dialect in Helvécia, South of Bahia that presents signs of an earlier decreolization. Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... Flag of Bonaire Bonaire is an island in the Netherlands Antilles, and as such, is a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands Curaçao [pronounced koo-rah-sow] (population 150,000) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea, one of the Windward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, a self-governing part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Saramaccan (autonym: Saamáka) is a creole spoken by about 24,000 people near the Saramaccan and upper Suriname Rivers in Suriname, and 2,000 in French Guiana. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cafundo. ... A quilombo (from a Kimbundu word) is a hinterland settlement originally created by runaway slaves in Brazil and sometimes included a minority of marginalised Portuguese, indigenous Native Americans and other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ...


Ancient Portuguese creoles originating from Africa are still preserved in the ritual songs of the Afro-Brazilian animist religions (Candomblé). Ilê Axé Iya Nassô Oká - Terreiro da Casa Branca Candomblé is an Afro-American religion practiced chiefly in Brazil but also in adjacent countries. ...


It has been conjectured that vernacular of Brazil (not the official and standard Brazilian Portuguese) resulted from decreolization of a creole based on Portuguese and native languages; but this is not a widely accepted view. Venacular Brazilian Portuguese is continuous with European Portuguese, and in fact quite conservative in some aspects. Brazilian Portuguese is a collective name for the varieties of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 180 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants and temporary workers in other countries, mainly in Canada, United States, Portugal, Paraguay and Japan. ...


There are two French-based Caribbean creole languages spoken in Brazil, in the state of Amapá, Lanc-Patuá and Karipuna Creole, which were transplanted to the region in the 20th century. They are poorly known, but the Portuguese influence on them is small (chiefly in the vocabulary). Flag of Amapá See other Brazilian States Capital Macapá Largest City Macapá Area 142 816 km² Population   - Total   - Density 477 032 3. ... Lanc-Patuá is a creole language spoken in the state of Amapá in Brazil, primarily around the capital, Macapá. It is a French-based creole, spoken by immigrants from French Guiana and the Caribbean, and their descendants. ...


India and Sri Lanka

The numerous Portuguese outposts in India and Sri Lanka gave rise to many Portuguese-based creole languages, of which only a few have survived to the present. The largest group were the Norteiro languages, spoken by the Norteiro people, the Christian Indo-Portuguese in the North Konkan. Those communities were centered around Baçaim, modern Vasai, which was then called the “Northern Court of Portuguese India” (in opposition to the "Southern Court" at Goa). The creole languages spoken in Baçaim, Salsete, Thana, Chevai, Mahim, Tecelaria, Dadar, Parel, Cavel, Bandora (modern Bandra), Gorai, Morol, Andheri, Versova, Malvan, Manori, Mazagão, and Chaul are now extinct. The only surviving Norteiro creoles are Norteiro is the Portuguese language term for people belonging to former Portuguese Exclave in the western littoral of South Asia, which included islands such as the islands of Bom Bahia (modern Bombay), the Island of Salsette, Dharavi Island, New Bombay, Chaul-Revdanda, Baçaim, Damaõ, and Dio (i. ... Vasai Road is the name of a railway station on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Bandra is a suburb of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), popularly nick-named Queen Of The Suburbs. It is home to a railway station on the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Western line. ...

  • Diu Indo-Portuguese (almost extinct): in Diu.
  • Daman Indo-Portuguese (Língua da Casa): in Daman.
  • Kristi: in Korlai, Maharashtra.

These surviving Norteiro creoles have suffered drastic changes in the last decades. Standard Portuguese re-influenced the creole of Daman in the mid-20th century. The Diu Indo-Portuguese language or Diu Portuguese Creole (in Portuguese língua dos velhos, Elders Language) was spoken in Diu, India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... The Daman Indo-Portuguese language or Daman Portuguese creole, called by its speakers Língua da Casa (Portuguese for Home language) is spoken in Daman. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Kristi is the language of some 1,000 Cristians in an isolated area around the village of Korlai in Raigad District of Maharashtra state, India. ... Maharashtra (Devanagari: महाराष्ट्र, literally: Great Nation)( (help· info)) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


The Creoles of the Coast of Coromandel, such as of Meliapor, Madras, Tuticorin, Cuddalore, Karikal, Pondicheri, Tranquebar, Manapar, and Negapatam, were already extinct by the 19th century. Their speakers (mostly the people of mixed Portuguese-Indian ancestry, known locally as Topasses) shifted to English after the British takeover. Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Thoothukudi (தூத்துக்குடி in Tamil), also known as Tuticorin is a city and district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Cuddalore is a large industrial city in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... Tranquebar, 1600. ... Nagapattinam (also formerly known as Negapatam) is a small city of about a 100,000 population located in Coastal Tamil Nadu state in India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Most of the creoles of the coast of Malabar, namey those of Cananor, Tellicherry, Mahé, Cochin (modern Kerala), and Quilom) had become extinct by the 19th century. In Cananor and Tellicherry, some elderly people still spoke some creole in the 1980s. The only creole that is still spoken (by a few Christian families only) is Thalassery, also known as Tellicherry, is a small town on the Malabar coast of Kerala, South India. ... Mahé, also known as Mayyazhi, is a former French colony in India. ... Kerala (IPA: ; Malayalam: കേരളം — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...

  • Vaipim Indo-Portuguese: in the Vaipim Island, near Kerala.

Christians, even in Calcutta, used Portuguese until 1811. A Portuguese Creole was still spoken in the early 20th century. Portuguese creoles were spoken in Bengal, such as at Balasore, Pipli, Chandernagore, Chittagong, Midnapore and Hugli. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Joyce Rollins is a lesbian. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Balasore was an early trading port for British, French and Dutch ships in the early age of Enlightenment. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chaṭṭagrām) is the major sea-port and second largest city of Bangladesh. ... Midnapore (also written as Medinipur) is a town in West Bengal, India. ... Hooghly can refer to: the Hooghly River the town of Hooghly, now part of Hugli-Chinsura Hooghly District, a district containing the above town This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Finally, a significant Portuguese-based creole flourished among the so-called Burgher and Kaffir communities of Sri Lanka: The Burghers are an Eurasian ethnic group, historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendents of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries (mostly Portuguese, Dutch and British) with local Sinhalese and Tamil ancestry. ... The Kaffirs (English) or cafrinhas (Portuguese) are an ethnic group in Sri Lanka who are partially descended from 16th century Portuguese traders and the African slaves who were brought by them, as well as local Tamil and Sinhalese people. ...

In the past, Portuguese creoles were also spoken in Myanmar and Bangladesh. Sri Lanka Indo-Portuguese or Sri Lanka Portuguese Creole is a language spoken in Sri Lanka. ... The town of Batticaloa is the provincial capital of the eastern province of Sri Lanka. ... Bay of Trincomalee (View from Temple) Trincomalee North East city of Sri Lanka. ...


Malaysia and Indonesia

Southeast Asia Portuguese creoles: Papiá Kristang of Malaysia (1) and Macaista Chapado of Macao, SAR (2).
Southeast Asia Portuguese creoles: Papiá Kristang of Malaysia (1) and Macaista Chapado of Macao, SAR (2).

The earliest Portuguese creole in the region probably arose in the 16th century in Malacca, Malaysia, as well as in the Moluccas. After the takeover of those places by the Dutch in the 17th century, many creole-speaking slaves were taken to other places in Indonesia and South Africa, leading to several creoles that survived until recent times: Southeast Asia Portuguese Creoles File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese Creole Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Southeast Asia Portuguese Creoles File links The following pages link to this file: Portuguese Creole Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...

The Malacca creole also had an influence on the creole of Macao (see below). Papiá Kristang (Christian language) is a creole language. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian): Prosper and Great Founded 22 June 1527 Governor Sutiyoso Area 661. ... Papiá was a language spoken in Tugu, village north of Jakarta, by descendants of 17th century Portuguese travelers. ... Portugis is a language that was spoken by the Christians of mixed Portuguese and Malay ancestry in the islands of Ambon and Ternate in the Moluccas (Indonesia), from the 16th century to the middle of the 20th century. ... Ambon may refer to two geographical places. ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... The Bidau Portuguese language (Português de Bidau) was spoken in the Bidau area of Dili, East Timor, until the 1960s. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ...


The Portuguese were present in the island of Flores, Indonesia since the 16th century, mainly in Larantuka and Sikka; but the local creole language, if any, has not survived. Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Sikka is a regency in East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, on the island Flores. ...


Other Portuguese-based creoles were once spoken in Thailand.


China

The Portuguese were present in Macao, China since the mid-16th century. A Portuguese creole developed there, first by interaction with the local Cantonese people, and later modified by influx of refugees from the Dutch takeover of Portuguese colonies in Indonesia. ...

The Macanese language (Patuá to its speakers, Macaista Chapado in portuguese) was originally spoken in Macau, mainly by people of partial Portuguese ancestry (Macaneses). ... Motto: none Anthem: March of the Volunteers (Hong Kong uses the national anthem of the PRC) Capital Central (de facto, location of Government headquarters) Largest city Mongkok (disputed — see talk page) Official language(s) Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin are spoken) and English Government Chief Executive Special Administrative Region Donald Tsang...

See also

// A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portuguese ( (help· info)) is an Iberian Romance language that originated in Portugal, which is now the official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Macao, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and East Timor. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ...

Notes

  1.   Forro was a declaration of freedom of a specific slave used in Portugal and its colonies. These were the most wished documents for the enslaved population.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Portuguese Creole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1443 words)
Africa's Portuguese creoles: Cape Verdean creoles (1), Kriol of Guinea-Bissau and Senegal (2) and creoles of São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea (3).
Southeast Asia Portuguese creoles: Papiá Kristang of Malaysia (1) and Macaista Chapado of Macao, SAR (2).
The earliest Portuguese creole in the region probably arose in the 16th century in Malacca, Malaysia, as well as in the Moluccas.
Creole language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1264 words)
A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent.
Another factor that may have contributed to the longtime neglect of creole languages is that they do not fit the "tree model" for the evolution of languages, which was adopted by linguists in the 19th century (possibly influenced by Darwinism) and is still the foundation of the comparative method.
By definition, a creole is the result of a nontrivial mixture of two or more languages, usually with radical morphological changes and a syntax which is not obviously borrowed from either of the parent tongues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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