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Encyclopedia > Portuguese Communist Party
Portuguese Communist Party

Politics of Portugal This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. ...

Communist Youth
FEPU - APU - CDU
European United Left
The Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Electoral Front United People (in Portuguese: Frente Eleitoral Povo Unido), was an electoral front of the Portuguese Communist Party and the Portuguese Democratic Movement / Electoral Democratic Commissions in the 1976 municipal elections. ... United People Alliance symbol United People Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Povo Unido or APU), was an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and the Portuguese Democratic Movement or MDP. The coalition was formed for the first time in 1979 in order to run to the... CDU logo The Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV). ... The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ...

History of the Party
Electoral results The History of the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português, pron. ... This is a table of the electoral results of the Portuguese Communist Party. ...

Avante!
O Militante
Avante! Festival
Portuguese Communists Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... O Militante (The Militant) is a magazine of theorectical discussion, published by the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Every year, in the first weekend of September (since 1976) takes part a gigantic festival, the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!) named after the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... This is a list of persons that are or were supporters or members of the Portuguese Communist Party. ...

Portugal
Elections in Portugal
Elections in Portugal gives information on election and election results in Portugal. ...

Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Communist Movement
Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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Partido Comunista Português
Leader Jerónimo de Sousa
Founded 1921
Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal
Political ideology Communism, Marxism-Leninism
International affiliation European United Left–Nordic Green Left
Website www.pcp.pt

The Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português, pron. IPA: [pɐɾ'tidu kumu'niʃtɐ puɾtu'geʃ] or PCP), is a major left-wing political party in Portugal. It is a Marxist-Leninist party and its organization is based upon democratic centralism. The Party also considers itself to be patriotic and internationalist.[1] Portuguese Communist Party official symbol. ... Jerónimo de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia) is a Portuguese politician and current secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), elected in 2004. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Patriotism is a feeling of love and devotion to ones own homeland (patria, the land of ones fathers). ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...


The Party was founded in 1921 as the Portuguese section of the Communist International (Comintern). Made illegal after a coup in the late 1920s, the PCP played a major role in the opposition to the following dictatorial regime led, for many years, by António de Oliveira Salazar. During the five decades long dictature, the party was constantly suppressed by the political police, the PIDE, which forced its members to live in clandestine status, under the threat of being arrested, tortured or murdered. After the bloodless Carnation Revolution, in 1974, which overthrew the 48-year regime, the 36 members of its Central Committee had, in the aggregate, experienced more than 300 years in jail.[2] The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Doutor António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal (Prime Minister) and the de facto dictator of the Portuguese Republic from 1932 to 1968. ... The Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado or PIDE (literally, International and State Defense Police), was the main tool of repression used by the Portuguese Fascist regime, the Estado Novo. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, left-leaning, military-led revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military...


After the end of the dictatorship, with the Carnation Revolution in 1974, the party became a major political force within the new democratic regime, mainly among the working class. Despite being less influential since the fall of the Socialist bloc in eastern Europe, it still enjoys popularity in vast sectors of Portuguese society, particularly in the rural areas of the Alentejo and Ribatejo, and also in the heavily industrialized areas around Lisbon and Setúbal, where it holds the leadership of several municipalities.[3] The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, left-leaning, military-led revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... NUTS II Alentejo region. ... Ancient province of Ribatejo The Tagus river crossing Ribatejo. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Maria das Dores Meira  - Party CDU Area 171. ...


The Party publishes the weekly Avante!, founded in 1931. Its youth organization is the Portuguese Communist Youth, a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... The Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... WFDY symbol The World Federation of Democratic Youth is a youth organization, recognized by the United Nations as an international youth non-governmental organization. ...

Contents

History of the Portuguese Communist Party

The History of the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português, pron. ...

Origins and foundation of the Party

Front page of O Comunista's edition of 13 July 1923
Front page of O Comunista's edition of 13 July 1923

At the end of World War I, in 1918, Portugal fell into a serious economic crisis, in part due to the Portuguese military intervention in the war. The Portuguese working classes responded to the deterioration in their living standards with a vast wave of strikes. Supported by an emerging Labour movement, the workers achieved some of their objectives, such as the historic victory of an eight-hour working day.[4] Download high resolution version (427x652, 73 KB)Frontpage of O Comunista edition July 15 of 1923. ... Download high resolution version (427x652, 73 KB)Frontpage of O Comunista edition July 15 of 1923. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Monumento aos mortos da Primeira Guerra Mundial in Coimbra, Portugal Despite its old alliance with Britain, Portugal did not form a part of the system of alliances which became enemies in World War I and thus kept its neutrality during the first years of war. ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 The Eight-hour day movement, also known as the Short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. ...


In September of 1919, the working class movement founded the first Portuguese Labour Union Confederation, the General Confederation of Labour, however, the feeling of political powerlessness, due to the lack of a coherent political strategy among the Portuguese working class, plus the growing popularity of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917, led to the foundation of the Portuguese Maximalist Federation (FMP) in 1919. The goal of FMP was to promote socialist and revolutionary ideas and to organize and develop the worker movement.[4] The General Confederation of Labour (Portuguese: Confederação Geral do Trabalho, or CGT) was a former Portuguese labour union confederation. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Portuguese Maximalist Federation (Portuguese: Federação Maximalista Portuguesa or FMP) was a revolutionary movement founded in 1918 in Portugal. ...


After some time members of the FMP started to feel the need for a "revolutionary vanguard" among Portuguese workers. After several meetings at various Labor Union offices, and with the aid of the Comintern, this desire culminated in the foundation of the Portuguese Communist Party as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International (Comintern), in March 6 of 1921. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ...


Unlike virtually all other European Communist Parties, the PCP was not formed after a split of a Social Democratic or Socialist Party, but from the ranks of Anarcho-Syndicalism and revolutionary syndicalism. Both of these groups, at the time, were the most active factions of the Portuguese labor movement.[4] The Party opened its first headquarters in the Arco do Marquês do Alegrete Street in Lisbon. Seven months after its creation, the first issue of O Comunista (The Communist), the first newspaper of the Party, was published.[4] Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


The first congress of the Party took place in Lisbon in November 1923, with Carlos Rates leading the Party. The congress was attended by about a hundred members of the Party and asserted its solidarity with Socialism in the Soviet Union and the need for a strong struggle for similar policies in Portugal; it also stated that a Fascist uprising in Portugal was a serious threat to the Party and to the country.[5] José Carlos Rates was one of the first General Secretaries of the Portuguese Communist Party, a few years after the Partys foundation in 1921. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Outlawing of the Party and the long clandestine struggle

Bento Gonçalves (1902–42) General Secretary elected in 1929
Postcard demanding freedom for Álvaro Cunhal and all the political prisoners
Postcard demanding freedom for Álvaro Cunhal and all the political prisoners

After the military coup of May 28, 1926, the Party was outlawed, and had to operate in secrecy. By coincidence, the coup was carried out on the eve of the second congress, forcing the suspension of the tasks. In 1927 the Party's Main Office was closed. The party was first reorganized in 1929 under Bento Gonçalves. Adapting the Party to its new illegal status, the reorganization created a net of clandestine cells to avoid a wave of detentions.[6] Image File history File links Bento Gonçalves, the ideological founder of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Image File history File links Bento Gonçalves, the ideological founder of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Postcard, claiming freedom to Álvaro Cunhal and to all portuguese political prisoners. ... Postcard, claiming freedom to Álvaro Cunhal and to all portuguese political prisoners. ... Cunhal in his youth Álvaro Cunhal in 1998 Álvaros Funeral in Lisbon Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal, (10 November 1913 - 13 June 2005), Portuguese politician, was secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) from 1961 to 1992. ... Manuel Gomes da Costa The 28th May 1926 coup détat, sometimes called 28th May Revolution or, during the period of Estado Novo, National Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução Nacional), was a military action that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship... Bento Gonçalves (1902 - 1942) Bento António Gonçalves (1902-1942) was one of the first Secretary Generals of the Portuguese Communist Party, he was born in Montalegre, near Bragança, in the North of Portugal. ...


Meanwhile, in 1938, the Portuguese Communist Party had been expelled from the Communist International. The reason for the expulsion was a sense of distrust inside the Comintern, caused by a sudden breakdown in the Party's activity after a period of strong communist tumult in the country, accusations of alleged embezzlement of money carried out by some important members of the Party and, mainly, the weak internal structure of the Party, dominated by internal wars. The action against the PCP, signed by Georgi Dimitrov, was in part taken due to some persecution against Comintern member parties or persons (like the Communist Party of Poland or Béla Kun) led by Stalin. These series of events would, in part, lead to the end of the Comintern in 1943. The PCP would only re-establish its relations with the Communist movement and the Soviet Union in 1947, after some sporadic contacts made, at first, through the Communist parties of Spain and France and later through Mikhail Suslov.[7] The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Georgi Dimitrov Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov (Георги Михайлов Димитров, also known as Георгий Михайлович Димитров- Georgiy Mikhailovich Dimitrov) (June 18, 1882, Kovachevtsi, Pernik Province - July 2, 1949, Moscow) was a Bulgarian Communist leader. ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Mikhail Suslov. ...


After the 1933 rise of Salazar's dictatorial Estado Novo regime, suppression of the party grew. Many members were arrested, tortured, and executed. Many were sent to the Tarrafal concentration camp in Cape Verde Islands. This included Bento Gonçalves, who would die there. The vast wave of arrests led to a major reorganization in 1940–41, named the "Reorganization of '40". The first congress after such changes was held in 1943 and stated that the Party should unite with all those who also wanted an end to the dictatorship. Another important conclusion was the need to increase the Party's influence inside the Portuguese army. At the time, the Party was able, for the first time, to assure a strong clandestine organization, with a net of clandestine cadres, which would significantly aid the resistance against Salazar's regime.[8] Doutor António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal (Prime Minister) and the de facto dictator of the Portuguese Republic from 1932 to 1968. ... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... There are parishes that have the name Tarrafal in Cape Verde: Tarrafal was also a Portuguese concentration camp before the war. ... Look up cadre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1945, with the defeat of the major fascist regimes in World War II, Salazar was forced to fake some democratic changes in order to keep up a good image in the eyes of the West, so, in October of that year, the democratic resistance was authorized to form a platform, which was named Movement of Democratic Unity (Portuguese: Movimento de Unidade Democrática, or MUD). Initially, the MUD was controlled by the moderate opposition, but soon became strongly influenced by the PCP, which controlled its youth wing.[9] In the leadership of the youth wing were several communists, among them Octávio Pato, Salgado Zenha, Mário Soares, Júlio Pomar and Mário Sacramento.[10] This influence led to the MUD being outlawed by the government in 1948, after several waves of suppression. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Movement of Democratic Unity (Portuguese: Movimento de Unidade Democrática or MUD) was a quasi-legal platform of Portuguese democratic organizations that opposed the dictatorial regime of António Oliveira Salazar and was founded in October of 1945. ... Octávio Pato, (1925 - 1999) was an influent Portuguese politician, member of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Francisco Salgado Zenha Francisco Salgado Zenha (1923 - 1993) was a Portuguese left-wing politician and lawyer, as a student, he was elected president of the Academic Association of Coimbra, being dismissed some months after because he refused to participate in an demonstration of support to the Fascist regime. ... Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (pron. ... Julio Pomar, GOL, GCM (born in Lisbon, 1926) is a Portuguese painter. ... Mário Sacramento in a sticker of the Portuguese Communist Party Mário Emílio de Morais Sacramento or just Mário Sacramento (July 7, 1930 - March 27, 1969) was a Portuguese doctor and essayist that became famous for his Anti-fascist activities against the dictatorial regime led by Oliveira...


The fourth congress, held in July 1946, pointed to massive popular struggle as the only way to overthrow the regime, and stated the policies that would help the Party lead that same popular movement. This, along with the consolidation of the clandestine work, was the main conclusion of the congress. A brief report of the conclusions of this congress were published by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. At this time, Álvaro Cunhal travelled to Yugoslavia with the aid of Bento de Jesus Caraça in order to improve the relations with the Socialist Bloc. Later, in 1948, he travelled to the Soviet Union in order to speak with Mikhail Suslov, after what the bonds between the PCP and the International Communist Movement were re-established.[7] Soon after returning from the Soviet Union, Cunhal was arrested by Salazar's political police, the PIDE. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Bento de Jesus Caraça (April 18, 1901 - June 25, 1948) was an influent Portuguese mathematician, economist and statistician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado or PIDE (literally, International and State Defense Police), was the main tool of repression used by the Portuguese Fascist regime, the Estado Novo. ...


The fifth congress, held in September 1957, was the first and the only to be held outside Portugal. In Kiev, Soviet Union, the Party approved its first program and statutes. The congress took, for the first time, an official position on Colonialism, stating that every people had the right of self-determination, and made clear its support of the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies, such as MPLA in Angola, FRELIMO in Mozambique and PAIGC in Guinea-Bissau. Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... The Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO, pronounced fray-LEE-moo; Portuguese: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) is a political party that has ruled Mozambique since independence in 1975. ... The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Portuguese: Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde), or PAIGC, was an organisation founed in Portuguese Guinea (today Guinea-Bissau) by the Marxist Amílcar Cabral in 1956, with the aim of achieving independence for Cape...


In January 1960, a group of ten PCP members managed to escape from the high-security prison in Peniche.[11] The escape returned to freedom many top figures of the Party, among them, Álvaro Cunhal, who would be elected in the following year the first Secretary-general in nineteen years. Among the escapees was also Jaime Serra, who would help to organize a secret commando group, the Armed Revolutionary Action (Portuguese: Acção Revolucionária Armada or ARA). The ARA was the armed branch of the PCP that would be responsible in the 1970s for some military action against the dictatorial regime. Peniche is a city in Portugal, with approximately 10,000 inhabitants. ... Cunhal in his youth Álvaro Cunhal in 1998 Álvaros Funeral in Lisbon Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal, (10 November 1913 - 13 June 2005), Portuguese politician, was secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) from 1961 to 1992. ... Jaime José Serra Puche (b. ...


In 1961 the Colonial War in Africa began, first in Angola, and in the next year in Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau. The war lasted thirteen years and devastated Portuguese society, forcing many thousands of Portuguese citizens to leave the country, both to seek a better future in countries like France, Germany or Switzerland and to escape conscription. The Party, which had been involved in the formation of the nationalist guerrilla movements, along with the Soviet Union, immediately stated its opposition to the war, and its support for the anti-colonial movements. The war, prompting growing unrest inside Portuguese society, helped lead to the decline of the Salazar regime.[12] Combatants Portugal Angola (1961-74): MPLA, UNITA, FNLA Guinea-Bissau (1963-74): PAIGC FRELIMO (1964-74): Strength 169,000 70,000 in Angola 42,000 in Guinea-Bissau 57,000 in Mozambique 20,000 6,500 in Angola 7,000 in Guinea-Bissau 6,500 in Mozambique Casualties 8,290...


In 1962 the "Academic Crisis" occurred. The regime, fearing the growing popularity of democratic ideas among the students, made several student associations and organizations illegal, including the important National Secretariat of Portuguese Students. Most members of this organization were intellectual communist militants that were persecuted and forbidden to continue their university studies.[13] The students, with strong aid from the PCP, responded with demonstrations that culminated on March 24 with a huge student demonstration in Lisbon. The demonstration was brutally suppressed by the police, leading to hundreds of student injuries.[14] Immediately thereafter, the students began a strike against the regime. A Portuguese student being beaten by the police during the Academic Crisis of 1962 In 1962, the Portuguese fascist regime, fearing the growing popularity of democratic ideas among the students, carried out the boycott and enclosure of several student associations and organizations, including the important National Secretariat of Portuguese Students. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


In the sixth congress, in 1965, Álvaro Cunhal, elected General-secretary in 1961, released the report The Path to Victory—The Tasks of the Party in the National and Democratic Revolution which became a document of major influence among the democratic movement. Widely distributed among the clandestine members, it contained eight political goals, such as "the end of the monopolies in the economy", "the need for agrarian reform and redistribution of the land", and "the democratization of access to culture and education" — policies that the Party considered essential to make Portugal a fully democratic country. Nine years later, on April 25, 1974, the Carnation Revolution occurred, putting an end to forty-eight years of resistance and marking the beginning of a new cycle in the Party's life. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, left-leaning, military-led revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military...


Carnation Revolution of 1974 and the first years of democracy

The portrait of Salazar being removed from the headquarters of the political police
The portrait of Salazar being removed from the headquarters of the political police
Sticker celebrating the independence of Mozambique in June 25 of 1975
Sticker celebrating the independence of Mozambique in June 25 of 1975
APU Poster celebrating the 10th anniversary of the revolution featuring the revolution's symbol, the carnation
APU Poster celebrating the 10th anniversary of the revolution featuring the revolution's symbol, the carnation

Immediately after the revolution, basic democratic rights were re-established in Portugal. On April 27, political prisoners were freed. On April 30, Álvaro Cunhal returned to Lisbon, where he was received by thousands of people. May Day was commemorated for the first time in 48 years, and an estimated half million people gathered in the FNAT Stadium (now May 1st Stadium) in Lisbon to hear the speeches of the Party's leader Álvaro Cunhal and the socialist Mário Soares.[15] On May 17, the Party's newspaper, Avante!, produced the first legal issue in its history. Image File history File links Salazar_retirado_da_sede_da_PIDE.jpg Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Salazar_retirado_da_sede_da_PIDE.jpg Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Doutor António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal (Prime Minister) and the de facto dictator of the Portuguese Republic from 1932 to 1968. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (433x602, 62 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (433x602, 62 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Poster celebrating the 10th anniversary of the portuguese revolution of 1974, featuring the revolutions symbol, a carnation. ... Poster celebrating the 10th anniversary of the portuguese revolution of 1974, featuring the revolutions symbol, a carnation. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Cunhal in his youth Álvaro Cunhal in 1998 Álvaros Funeral in Lisbon Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal, (10 November 1913 - 13 June 2005), Portuguese politician, was secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) from 1961 to 1992. ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (pron. ... Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ...


The following months were marked by radical changes in the country, always closely followed and supported by PCP. A stormy process to give independence to the colonies started with the full support of the Party and, within one year, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe became independent countries.


Six months after the Revolution, on 20 October 1974, the Party's seventh congress took place. More than a thousand delegates and hundreds of Portuguese and foreign guests attended. The congress set forth important statements that discussed the ongoing revolution in the country. The 36 members of the elected Central Committee had in the aggregate experienced more than 300 years in jail.[16] On January 12, 1975 the Portuguese Communist Party became the first legally recognized party. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


The revolutionary process continued. On 11 March 1975, the left-wing military forces defeated a coup attempt by rightists in the military.[17] This resulted in a turn in the revolutionary process to the political left, with the main sectors of the economy, such as the banks, transportation, steel mills, mines and communications companies, being nationalized. This was done under the lead of Vasco Gonçalves, a member of the military wing who supported the Party and who had become prime-minister after the first provisional government resigned. The Party then asserted its complete support for this changes and for the Agrarian Reform process that implemented collectivization of the agricultural sector and the land in a region named the "Zone of Intervention of the Agrarian Reform" or "ZIRA", which included the land south of the Tagus River.[17] The Party took the lead of that process and drove it according to the Party's program, organizing large thousands of peasants into cooperatives. That, combined with the Party's strong clandestine organization and support of the peasants' movement during the preceding years in that region, made the south of Portugal the major stronghold of the PCP. The Party gained more than half of the votes in Beja, Évora and Setúbal in the subsequent elections. March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... General Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves (pron. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often-controversial type of government-initiated or government-backed real estate property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. ... View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ... Beja is a district of Portugal. ... Capital Évora Region Alentejo Historical province Alto Alentejo Area 7. ... The District of Setúbal (pron. ...


One year after the revolution, the first democratic elections took place to elect the parliament that would write a new Constitution to replace the Constitution of 1933. The Party achieved 12.52% of the voting and elected 30 MPs. In the end, as the Party wanted, the Constitution included several references to "Socialism" and a "Classless Society" and was approved with the opposition of only one party, the right-wing Democratic Social Center (Portuguese: Centro Democrático Social or CDS). The Democratic Social Center / Peoples Party (Portuguese: Centro Democrático Social / Partido Popular or CDS/PP) is a Portuguese political party. ...


In 1976, after the approval of the Constitution, the second democratic election was carried out and the Party raised its share of the vote to 14.56% and 40 MPs. In that same year the first Avante! Festival took place, and the eighth congress was held in Lisbon from 11–14 November. The congress mainly stated the need to continue the quest for Socialism in Portugal and the need to defend the achievements of the Revolution against what the Party considered to be a political step backward, led by a coalition of the Socialist Party and the right-wing Centro Democrático Social, who opposed the Agrarian Reform process. Every year, in the first weekend of September (since 1976) takes part a gigantic festival, the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!) named after the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... The Democratic Social Center / Peoples Party (Portuguese: Centro Democrático Social / Partido Popular or CDS/PP) is a Portuguese political party. ...


In 1979, the Party carried out its ninth congress, which analyzed the state of the post-revolutionary Portugal, right-wing politics and the Party's struggles to nationalize the economy. In December 1979, new elections took place. The Party formed the United People Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Povo Unido or APU), in coalition with the Portuguese Democratic Movement (Portuguese: Movimento Democrático Português or MDP/CDE), and increased its vote to 18.96% and 47 MPs. The election was won by a centre/right-wing coalition, led by Francisco Sá Carneiro, which immediately initiated policies that the Party considered to be contrary to working-class interests. Despite a setback in a subsequent election in 1980, in which the PCP dropped to 41 seats, the Party achieved several victories in local elections, winning the leadership of dozens of municipalities, in the FEPU coalition. After the sudden death of Sá Carneiro in an aircrash in 1980, the Party achieved 44 MPs and 18.20% of the vote as part of the APU in the 1983 elections. Also in 1983 the Party held the tenth congress that again criticized what it saw as the dangers of right-wing politics. United People Alliance symbol United People Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Povo Unido or APU), was an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and the Portuguese Democratic Movement or MDP. The coalition was formed for the first time in 1979 in order to run to the... The Portuguese Democratic Movement / Democratic Electoral Commissions (Portuguese: Movimento Democrático Português / Comissões Democráticas Eleitorais or MDP/CDE or just MDP) was one of the most important organizations of the democratic opposition to the Portuguese Fascist Regime. ... Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL (pron. ... Electoral Front United People (in Portuguese: Frente Eleitoral Povo Unido), was an electoral front of the Portuguese Communist Party and the Portuguese Democratic Movement / Electoral Democratic Commissions in the 1976 municipal elections. ...


In 1986, the surprising rise of Mário Soares, who reached the second round in the presidential election, defeating the Party's candidate, Salgado Zenha, made the Party call an extra Congress. The eleventh congress was called with only two weeks' notice, in order to decide whether or not to support Soares against Freitas do Amaral. Soares was supported, and he won by a slight margin. Had he not been supported by the PCP he would have probably lost. In 1987, after the resignation of the government, another election took place. The Party, now in the Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) with the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" or PEV) and the Democratic Intervention (Portuguese: Intervenção Democrática or ID), saw an electoral decline to 12.18% and 31 MPs. Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (pron. ... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) - 1st round Registered Voters: 7,617,257 Turnout: 75. ... Francisco Salgado Zenha Francisco Salgado Zenha (1923 - 1993) was a Portuguese left-wing politician and lawyer, as a student, he was elected president of the Academic Association of Coimbra, being dismissed some months after because he refused to participate in an demonstration of support to the Fascist regime. ... Diogo Pinto de Freitas do Amaral (b. ... CDU logo The Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV). ... The Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV) is a Portuguese green party, member of the European Greens and a founding member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... The Democratic Intervention (Portuguese: Intervenção Democrática or ID) is a Portuguese left-wing political association founded in order to promote and defend Socialist ideas in Portugal. ...


The end of the Socialist Bloc and new challenges

PCP sticker of 1998: 150 years after the Manifesto, Here We Are!
PCP sticker of 1998: 150 years after the Manifesto, Here We Are!
PCP sticker: Karl Marx claiming that all the left should vote for the CDU
PCP sticker: Karl Marx claiming that all the left should vote for the CDU

In 1988 another congress took place, the twelfth, in which more than 2,000 delegates participated, and which put forth a new program, titled, "Portugal, an Advanced Democracy for the 21st Century." Portuguese Communist Party sticker claiming: 150 years after the Communist Manifesto, here we are! This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Portuguese Communist Party sticker claiming: 150 years after the Communist Manifesto, here we are! This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ... Download high resolution version (462x640, 34 KB)CDU sticker, coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party and the Portuguese Green Party. ... Download high resolution version (462x640, 34 KB)CDU sticker, coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party and the Portuguese Green Party. ... CDU logo The Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV). ...


At the end of the 1980s, the Socialist Bloc of Eastern Europe started to disintegrate and the Party faced one of the biggest crises in its history. With many members leaving, the Party called an extra thirteenth congress for May 1990, in which a huge ideological battle occurred. The majority of the more than 2,000 delegates decided to continue the Party's "revolutionary way to Socialism"—i.e., to retain its Leninist ideology. By so doing, it clashed with what many other communist parties around the world were doing. The congress asserted that socialism in the Soviet Union had failed, but a unique historical experience, several social changes and several achievements by the labour movement had been influenced by the Socialist Bloc. Álvaro Cunhal was re-elected General Secretary, but Carlos Carvalhas was elected Assistant General Secretary. During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... Carlos Alberto do Vale Gomes Carvalhas (born in São Pedro do Sul, November 9, 1941) is a Portuguese politician and the Secretary-General of the Portuguese Communist Party since 1992. ...


In the legislative election of 1991 the Party won 8.84% of the national vote and 17 MPs, continuing its electoral decline. The Portuguese legislative election of 1991 took place on October 6. ...


The fourteenth congress took place in 1992 and Carlos Carvalhas was elected the new General Secretary, replacing Álvaro Cunhal. The Congress analyzed the whole new international situation created by the disappearance of the Soviet Union and the defeat of Socialism in Eastern Europe. The Party also traced the guidelines intended to put Cavaco Silva and the right-wing government on its way out, a fact that would happen shortly after. In 1995 the right-wing Social Democratic Party was replaced in the government by the Socialist Party after the October legislative election, in which the Party received 8.61% of the votes. Carlos Alberto do Vale Gomes Carvalhas (born in São Pedro do Sul, November 9, 1941) is a Portuguese politician and the Secretary-General of the Portuguese Communist Party since 1992. ... Aníbal António Cavaco Silva (pron. ... The Social Democratic Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Democrata, pron. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. ...


In December 1996 the fifteenth congress was held, this time in Porto, with more than 1,600 delegates participating. The congress criticized the right-wing policies of the Socialist government of António Guterres and also debated the future of the Party following the debacle of the Socialist Bloc. In the subsequent local elections the Party continued to decline, but in the legislative election of 1999 the Party increased its voting percentage for the first time in many years. The sixteenth congress was held in December of 2000 and Carlos Carvalhas was re-elected General Secretary. In the legislative election of 2002 the Party achieved its lowest voting result ever, with only 7.0% of the votes. Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres (pron. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on October 10. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. ...


The most recent Congress, the seventeenth, in November 2004 elected Jerónimo de Sousa, a former metallurgical worker, as the new General Secretary. Jerónimo de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia) is a Portuguese politician and current secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), elected in 2004. ...


In the legislative election of February 2005 the Party increased its share of the vote and is now represented in the parliament by 12 MPs of 230, after receiving about 430,000 votes (7.60%). The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. ...


After the last local election, in 2005, in which the Party regained the presidency of 7 municipalities, the Portuguese Communist Party holds the leadership of 32 (of 308) municipalities, most of them in Alentejo and Setúbal, and helds the leadership of hundreds of civil parishes and local assemblies. The local administration by PCP is usually marked by concern about issues such as preventing privatization of the water supply, funding culture and education, providing access to sports and promoting health, facilitating participatory democracy and preventing corruption.[1] The presence of the Greens in the coalition also keeps an eye on environmental issues such as recycling and water treatment. NUTS II Alentejo region. ... The District of Setúbal (pron. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require a spell check. ...


The Party's work now follows the program of "Advanced Democracy for the 21st Century". Issues like the decriminalization of abortion, workers rights, the increasing fees for the Health Service and Education, the erosion of the social safety net, low salaries and pensions, imperialism and war, and solidarity with other countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Palestine, Cuba and the Basque Country are constant concerns in the Party's agenda.[1] Since 21 April 2005, Portugal has awaited a referendum on abortion decriminalization. The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Party has two members (Ilda Figueiredo and Pedro Guerreiro) elected to the European Parliament after achieving 9.2% of the vote in the European Election of 2004. They sit in the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group. Ilda Figueiredo is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Portuguese Communist Party; part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. ... Pedro Miguel Neves Guerreiro is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Portuguese Communist Party; part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. ... The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ...


Party's electoral results

CDU sticker: "Mark your calendar and tell your friends: on 13 June, vote CDU for the European Parliament"
CDU sticker: "Mark your calendar and tell your friends: on 13 June, vote CDU for the European Parliament"
CDU results in the parliamentary election of 2005. (Azores and Madeira are not shown)
CDU results in the parliamentary election of 2005. (Azores and Madeira are not shown)
CDU results in the local election of 2005. (Azores and Madeira are not shown)
CDU results in the local election of 2005. (Azores and Madeira are not shown)

This is a table of the electoral results of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... CDU sticker reporting to the European Election of 2005. ... CDU sticker reporting to the European Election of 2005. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Results in the last 10 elections

Results in the last 10 elections
(year links to election page)
Year Coalition Type of Election Votes % Mandates
1994
CDU
European Parliament
339,283
11.2%
3
1995
CDU
Portuguese Parliament
504,007
8.6%
15
1997
CDU
Local
643,956
12.0%
236
1999
CDU
European Parliament
357,575
10.3%
2
1999
CDU
Portuguese Parliament
483,716
9.0%
17
2001
CDU
Local
557,481
10.6%
202
2002
CDU
Portuguese Parliament
378,640
7.0%
12
2004
CDU
European Parliament
309,406
9.1%
2
2005
CDU
Portuguese Parliament
432,009
7.6%
14
2005
CDU
Local
590,496
11.0%
203

(source: Portuguese Electoral Commission) The elections to the European Parliament of 1994 were held in Portugal on June 12. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. ... The European Parliament election of 1999 was held in Portugal on June 13. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on October 10. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Portugal on June 13, 2004. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. ... The Portuguese local election of 2005 took place on October 9. ...


Note:

  • In 2004, after the enlargement of the European Union, the number of MEPs elected by Portugal decreased from the original 25 to 24.
  • The Local election results report the voting for the Municipal Chambers only and don't include occasional coalitions in some municipalities, e.g. in Lisbon, between 1989 and 2001. Voting for the Municipal Assemblies and Parish Assemblies is usually higher (11.7% and 12.0%, respectively, in 2005).
  • The number of mandates denotes the number of councillors in Local elections, MPs in Parliamentary elections and MEPs in European Parliament elections.
  • The CDU is composed of the PCP, the PEV and the ID

The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... A Câmara Municipal (literally, municipal chamber; can also refer to the building: town or city hall) is the executive body of a concelho (municipality) in Portugal. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... An Assembleia Municipal (municipal assembly) governs a concelho (municipality) in Portugal. ... A freguesia is a secondary local administrative unit in Portugal and the former Portuguese overseas province of Macao. ... CDU logo The Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV). ... The Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV) is a Portuguese green party, member of the European Greens and a founding member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... The Democratic Intervention (Portuguese: Intervenção Democrática or ID) is a Portuguese left-wing political association founded in order to promote and defend Socialist ideas in Portugal. ...

Results in presidential elections

Results in Presidential Elections
(year links to election page)
Year Candidate supported Votes % Elected?
1976
Octávio Rodrigues Pato
365,344
7.6%
No
1980
Carlos Alfredo de Brito
withdrew
-
No
1986
Francisco Salgado Zenha
1,185,867
20.6%
No
1991
Carlos Alberto Carvalhas
635,867
12.9%
No
1996
Jerónimo Carvalho de Sousa
withdrew
-
No
2001
António Simões de Abreu
221,886
5.1%
No
2006
Jerónimo Carvalho de Sousa
466,428
8.6%
No

(source: Portuguese Electoral Commission) Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) Registed voters: 6,467,480 Turnout: 75. ... Octávio Floriano Rodrigues Pato, (1925 - 1999) was an influent Portuguese politician, member of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) Registered Voters: 6,920,869 Turnout: 84. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) - 1st round Registered Voters: 7,617,257 Turnout: 75. ... Francisco Salgado Zenha Francisco Salgado Zenha (1923 - 1993) was a Portuguese left-wing politician and lawyer, as a student at the University of Coimbra, he was elected president of the Academic Association of Coimbra, being dismissed some months after because he refused to participate in an demonstration of support to... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) Registered Voters: 8,202,812 Turnout: 62. ... Carlos Alberto do Vale Gomes Carvalhas (born in São Pedro do Sul, November 9, 1941) is a Portuguese politician and former Secretary-General of the Portuguese Communist Party (1992-2004), succeding the historical leader Álvaro Cunhal. ... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) Registered Voters: 8,693,636 Turnout: 66. ... Jerónimo de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia) is a Portuguese politician and secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) since 2004. ... Most voted candidate per district (Azores and Madeira not shown) Registered Voters: 8,950,905 Turnout: 49. ... António Simões de Abreu is a Portuguese politician, member of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... General Summary The Portuguese presidential election of 2006 was held on January 22. ... Jerónimo de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia) is a Portuguese politician and secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) since 2004. ...


Notes:

  • In 1980, Carlos Brito withdrew in favor of Ramalho Eanes.
  • In 1986, the Party's first candidate was Ângelo Veloso, that later withdrew in favor of Salgado Zenha.
  • In 1986, in the second round, the Party supported Mário Soares.
  • In 1996, Jerónimo de Sousa withdrew in favor of Jorge Sampaio.

António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes (born in Alcains, Castelo Branco, 1935) was a Portuguese general and political figure. ... Ângelo Matos Mendes Veloso (1931-1990) was a Portuguese politician. ... Francisco Salgado Zenha Francisco Salgado Zenha (1923 - 1993) was a Portuguese left-wing politician and lawyer, as a student, he was elected president of the Academic Association of Coimbra, being dismissed some months after because he refused to participate in an demonstration of support to the Fascist regime. ... Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (pron. ... Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio (pron. ...

Political principles and internal organization

Political principles

The Party's statutes define it as the political party of the proletariat and of all Portuguese workers and also as the vanguard of all working people. That vanguard role results from its class nature and its close liaison with the masses, mobilizing them and winning their support. The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... A vanguard party is a political party or grassroot organization at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution. ...


The PCP organizes in its ranks the industrial and office workers, small and medium farmers, intellectuals and technical workers, small and medium shopkeepers and industrialists, who fight for democracy and for Socialism, the Party considers itself the legitimate pursuer of the Portuguese people's best traditions of struggle and of their progressive and revolutionary achievements throughout their history. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... The History of Portugal is that of an ancient European nation, whose present origins go back to the Early Middle Ages, that ascended to a great world power in the Age of Discoveries with its vast Empire. ...


The Portuguese Communist Party takes Marxism-Leninism as its theoretical basis, which is a materialist and dialectic conception of the world and a scientific tool of social analysis. These principles guide the Party's action and enable it to systematically answer new challenges and realities. The Party also orients its members and its activity in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, of cooperation between the Communist parties and revolutionary and progressive forces, and of solidarity with the workers of other countries.[1] Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... It has been suggested that Marxist philosophy of nature be merged into this article or section. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ...


Internal organization

The main principle that guides the Party's internal structure, being a Leninist party, is Democratic centralism, which implies that all party organs are elected from bottom to top and may be dismissed by those who elected them, if needed; the members who have tasks in any structure of the Party are responsible to both lower and upper levels, being obliged to report the activities to both and to give consideration to their opinions and criticisms; lower-level structures must respect the decisions of the upper structures; every member is free to give his opinion during the discussion and the structures must take in account the contribution of every member; every member must obey the decisions achieved by consensus or by a majority; every member must work along with his own structure; the Party does not recognize the possible existence of organized factions inside it.[1] Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ...


The structure and internal organization of the Portuguese Communist Party are defined by its statutes. The most recent statutes were approved in the seventeenth congress, held in 2004. The upper organs of the Portuguese Communist Party at a national scale are the Congress, the Central Committee (CC), and the Central Commission of Control. Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ...


The supreme organ of the Party is its Congress, which is summoned by the outgoing CC and held every four years. The Congress is composed of delegates elected by the respective lower organs proportionally to each organ's membership size. The congress approves its theses after a wide discussion period inside the organizations and may also change the Party's program and statutes. All the decisions of the Congress are made by the delegates voting. With the exception of the voting for the CC, which a recent Portuguese law requires to be secret, all voting, including the approval of the theses, are conducted by a show of hands. The theses, after approval, guide all the Party's political actions and stances until the next Congress. This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ...


The main organ between the congresses is the Central Committee, which is elected in the congresses under a proposal of the retiring CC. This proposal may only be made after a long period of hearing the lower structures in order to include in it the names they propose. The CC may not change the orientation present in the congress' theses. The main task of the CC is to define the guidelines of the Party's political work and decide the immediate tasks of the Party, assuring that the lower structures comply with those decisions. The CC elects, from its members, its Political Bureau, its Secretariat and also the Central Commission of Control. This last must assure the compliance between the Party's activities and the statutes, and control the Party's finances. The CC may, or may not, elect the Party's General Secretary from its members. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ...


The intermediate organs of the Party are, by rule, the organs that coordinate an organization of district, municipality and parish levels, but organizations at a neighborhood or professional class level also exist. The main organ of an intermediate part of the party's structure is the Assembly. The Assembly works as a small Congress for the organization members. The Assembly elects the regional or municipal committees, which are responsible for applying the theses of the Assembly to the organization's work. A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ...


The base level organ of the Party is the cell. The cell is defined as being the link between the Party and the working class and the masses. A cell is composed of a minimum of three Party members and exists at a work place or neighborhood level. The cell may elect its own secretariat, which has the responsibility of discussing and putting into practice the Party's guidelines. The cell must ensure the recruitment of new members, promote the reading of the Avante! and the other publications, ensure that the members pay their quota and keep the upper structures aware of the cell's political work.[1] The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ...


The media of the Party

Avante!, the weekly newspaper of the Party
Avante!, the weekly newspaper of the Party
O Militante's edition of September of 2005 frontpage
O Militante's edition of September of 2005 frontpage
Emigração
Emigração
Portugal e a UE
Portugal e a UE
Comunic's logo
Comunic's logo

The Portuguese Communist Party publishes the weekly Avante! (Forward!), widely distributed throughout the country, and also the magazine of theoretical discussion O Militante (The Militant), published each two months. The Party's press also includes the bulletin Emigração (Emigration), targeted at the large Portuguese diaspora, and the magazine Portugal e a UE (Portugal and the EU), directed by the Party's members elected in the European Parliament, which presents information related to the European politics and to the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group. Both Avante! and O Militante are sold in the Party's offices to the members. Buying Avante! is considered one of the members' duties. Avante! is also sold among other newspapers in many news stands around the country. Avantes header. ... Avantes header. ... Image File history File links O_militante52005. ... Image File history File links O_militante52005. ... Image File history File links Emigracao_pcp. ... Image File history File links Emigracao_pcp. ... Image File history File links Pt_ue_pcp. ... Image File history File links Pt_ue_pcp. ... Logo of the online radio of the Portuguese Communist Party, Comunic. ... Logo of the online radio of the Portuguese Communist Party, Comunic. ... Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... O Militante (The Militant) is a magazine of theorectical discussion, published by the Portuguese Communist Party. ... The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ...


Avante! was illegally printed and distributed from February 1931 until May 1974.[18] Many times, the newspaper distribution suffered breakdowns due to the suppression by the political police of Party members who helped to distribute the newspaper, or due to the destruction of the clandestine printing offices. Successfully evading official censorship, Avante! was one of the very few Portuguese newspapers that freely reported on events like World War II, the Colonial War in Africa or massive workers' strikes and waves of student protest against the dictatorship. Avante! continues to be printed after more than three decades of democracy and has now a full online edition. The Avante! Festival was named after the newspaper. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974) was the result of Portuguese military reaction to the nationalist movements and armed rebelions that emerged in Portugals African colonies. ... Every year, in the first weekend of September (since 1976) takes part a gigantic festival, the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!) named after the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ...


During the campaign for the Portuguese legislative election of 2005, the Party created a radio broadcast in its website and also a digital forum, being the first Portuguese party to use the internet actively in an electoral campaign. After the last Congress, the statutes were changed and the Party now considers its website as another official media and it is regularly updated. The campaign radio broadcast evolved into an online radio named Comunic was created. It broadcasts thematic interviews with Party's members, music and propaganda. The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. ...


Usually the Party's largest political campaigns and struggles are supported by massive leaflet distributions and advertising posters in hot spots like train stations, factories, universities, main streets and avenues or markets. The free television spots that the Portuguese law grants to the parties, either in the campaign time or out of it, are used by PCP to promote initiatives and political campaigns.


The Party also owns a publishing company, Edições Avante! (Avante! Editions) that publishes and sells several books related to the Party's history or to Marxism. Classics of Marxism-Leninism, such as The Communist Manifesto, Capital, On the Jewish Question, or What is to be Done?, several books of Portuguese authors on the history of the Party and the resistance, official documents like the program or the statutes, books from foreign authors, like Ten Days that Shook the World and several other works are present in the Avante! Edition's catalog.[19] The Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: ), usually referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848[], and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is a very lengthy treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... On the Jewish Question (German: Zur Judenfrage) is an essay by Karl Marx written in autumn 1843 and first published in February 1844 in Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. ... What Is to Be Done? (Russian: ) was a political pamphlet, written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902. ... Ten Days that Shook the World (1919) is a book by American journalist and socialist John Reed, about the October Revolution in Russia 1917 which Reed experienced first-hand. ...

  • Avante! - online edition
  • O Militante - online edition
  • Portugal e a UE - online edition
  • Emigração - online edition
  • Avante! Editions web site
  • Comunic - online radio show

The youth organization

The youth organization of PCP is the Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa) and was founded in November 10, 1979, after the unification of the Communist Students League and the Young Communist League. The Portuguese Communist Youth is a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, a youth non-governmental organization that congregates several left-wing youth organizations from all the continents. The WFDY holds an international event, named World Festival of Youth and Students, in which the Portuguese Communist Youth uses to participate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x685, 28 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... The Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Communist Students League (in (Portuguese: União dos Estudantes Comunistas) was the student wing of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... UJC sticker Young Communist League (in Portuguese: União dos Jovens Comunistas) was the youth wing of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... WFDY symbol The World Federation of Democratic Youth is a youth organization, recognized by the United Nations as an international youth non-governmental organization. ... World Festival of Youth and Students is an international event, organized by the World Federation of Democratic Youth jointly with the International Union of Students since 1947. ...


The youth wing follows a structure similar to the Party's, also based on the Leninist principle of Democratic centralism, and both organization smantain a cooperative relationship. JCP is, however, an independent organization. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ...


Mainly composed by students and some working class young people, the Portuguese Communist Youth has, as its main political concerns, such issues as the promotion of a free and public education for all ages, employment, peace and housing. It also promotes international solidarity brigades for countries like Cuba, Palestine or Venezuela, alone or with other European Communist youth organizations like KNE or SDAJ. It has its main organizational strength among high-school and university students, with a strong presence among the Students' unions. The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Categories: Youth wings of Greek political parties | Politics stubs ... Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend (Socialist German Workers Youth), a political youth organization in Germany. ...


Avante! Festival

Main article: Avante! Festival
Avante Party 2005 Poster
Picture of the main stage of Avante Festival in 2001
Picture of the main stage of Avante Festival in 2001

Every year, in the first weekend of September, the party holds a festival called the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!). After taking place in different locations around Lisbon, like the Lisbon International Fair, Ajuda or Loures, it is now held in Amora, a town near Seixal, on land bought by the Party after a massive fundraising campaign in the early 1990s. The Party considered this campaign to be the only way to avoid the boycott organised by the owners of the previous festival grounds, a boycott that ultimately resulted in the Festival not being held in 1987 Every year, in the first weekend of September (since 1976) takes part a gigantic festival, the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!) named after the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Avante! Festival 2005 poster. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixel Image in higher resolution (3000 × 2015 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Portuguese Communist Party... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixel Image in higher resolution (3000 × 2015 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Portuguese Communist Party... Every year, in the first weekend of September (since 1976) takes part a gigantic festival, the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!) named after the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Ajuda is a Portuguese parish (freguesia) in the municipality (concelho) of Lisbon with 3. ... Coat of Arms Loures is a municipality (concelho) to the north of Lisbon. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Alfredo Costa  - Party CDU Area 95. ...


The festival attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors. The events themselves consist of a three-day festival of music, with hundreds of Portuguese and international bands and artists across five different stages, ethnography, gastronomy, debates, a books and music fair, theatre (Avanteatro) and sporting events. Several foreign communist parties also participate.[20]


Famous artists,[21] Portuguese and non-Portuguese, have performed at the Festival, including Chico Buarque, Baden Powell, Ivan Lins, Zeca Afonso, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Holly Near, Johnny Clegg, Charlie Haden, Judy Collins, Richie Havens, Tom Paxton, The Soviet Circus Company, the Kuban Cossacks Choir, Dexys Midnight Runners, The Band, Hevia, Brigada Victor Jara, Adriano Correia de Oliveira, Carlos Paredes, Jorge Palma, Manoel de Oliveira and many others. Chico Buarque (full name: Francisco Buarque de Hollanda; born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian singer, composer, dramatist and writer. ... For the founder of the world scouting movement, see Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell Baden Powell de Aquino (August 6, 1937 - September 26, 2000) widely known simply as Baden Powell, was a Brazilian bossa nova guitarist. ... Ivan Guimarães Lins (b. ... José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as Zeca Afonso José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, better-known as Zeca Afonso or only Zeca (August 2, 1929 - February 23, 1987) was born in Aveiro, Portugal, son of José Nepomuceno Afonso, a judge, and Maria das Dores. ... 7 Buffy Sainte-Marie Buffy Sainte-Marie (born February 20, 1941) is a Canadian First Nations musician, composer, visual artist, educator and social activist. ... Holly Near (born June 6th, 1949 in Ukiah, CA) is an American singer/songwriter, teacher and activist. ... Johnny Clegg on the Rain Man soundtrack Jonathan (Johnny) Clegg, born June 7, 1953 in Rochdale (near Manchester), Lancashire, (UK), is a popular musician from South Africa, who has recorded and performed with his bands Juluka and Savuka. ... Charlie Haden, Pescara Italy 1990 Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a jazz double bassist, probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman. ... Judy Collins Judith Marjorie Collins (born May 1, 1939 in Seattle, Washington) is an American folk and standards singer. ... Richie Havens (born January 21, 1941 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American folk singer and guitarist. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... Too-Rye-Ay (1982) Dexys Midnight Runners – the name consistently spelled without an apostrophe [1] – were a British New Wave and Northern Soul band, who achieved their major success in the early to mid 1980s. ... The Band was an influential Canadian-American rock group of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Hevia, or José Ángel Hevia Velasco, is a Spanish bagpiper – specifically, a Asturian gaita piper, from Villaviciosa, Asturias. ... The Brigada Victor Jara (Portuguese for Victor Jara Brigade) is a Portuguese band that usually plays Portuguese folk music and is one of the most influent folk bands of the Portuguese musical panorama. ... Adriano Correia de Oliveira, or only Adriano (April 9, 1942 - May 16, 1982) was born in Avintes (near Oporto), Portugal. ... Cover from Guitarra Portuguesa. ... Jorge Palma in 1982 Jorge Manuel d’Abreu Palma, known as Jorge Palma (born on June 4, 1950 in Lisbon, Portugal), is a Portuguese rocknroll singer and songwriter. ... Manoel Cândido Pinto de Oliveira is a Portuguese film director born in Oporto on December 12, 1908. ...


The preparation of the party begins right after the end of the previous festival. Hundreds of the Party's members and friends, mostly young people, volunteer for the hard work of building a small town in a few months.

  • Avante! Festival main website
  • Complete list of the artists present in the 27 editions of the Festival

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Portuguese Communist Party (2005). Program and Statutes of the Portuguese Communist Party. Edições Avante!. ISBN 972-550-307-4
  2. ^ Cunhal, Álvaro (1997). O caminho para o derrubamento do fascismo. Edições Avante!. ISBN 972-550-262-0
  3. ^ Câmaras Municipais de Presidência CDU, Portuguese Communist Party, URL accessed 20 June 2006
  4. ^ a b c d Como nasceu o Partido Comunista Português, Portuguese Communist Party, URL accessed 20 June 2006
  5. ^ Vasconcelos, José Carlos de (dir.). (1982) Revista História (History Magazine) - Number 47
  6. ^ Rosas, Fernando (dir.) (1996). Revista História (History Magazine) - Number 17 (New Series)
  7. ^ a b Rosas, Fernando (dir.) (1997). Revista História (History Magazine) - Number 28 (New Series)
  8. ^ Cunhal, Álvaro (1994). Acção Revolucionária, Capitulação e Aventura. Edições Avante!. ISBN 972-550-232-9
  9. ^ The relation between the PCP and the MUD explained.
  10. ^ Rosas, Fernando (dir.) (1995). Revista História (History Magazine) - Number 8 (New Series)
  11. ^ Cunhal, Álvaro (1997). O caminho para o derrubamento do fascismo. Edições Avante!. ISBN 972-550-262-0
  12. ^ Portuguese colonial war.
  13. ^ 40th anniversary of the Academic Crisis of 1962.
  14. ^ The Academic Crisis of 1962.
  15. ^ Timeline of the year of 1974 in Portugal by the CEPP of the Technical University of Lisbon.
  16. ^ Conference: The Communist Party from 1940 until 1975 - 9 April 1992.
  17. ^ a b Timeline of the year of 1975 in Portugal by the CEPP of the Technical University of Lisbon.
  18. ^ As décadas do Avante!, Portuguese Communist Party, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  19. ^ Edições Avante!, Portuguese Communist Party, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  20. ^ Avante! Festival official website.
  21. ^ List of artists present in the 28 editions of the Avante! Festival.

June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

  • Portuguese Communist Party official web site - History Issues section.
  • Vasconcelos, José Carlos de (dir.). (1982) Revista História (History Magazine) - Number 47

See also

The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. ... Political parties in Portugal lists political parties in Portugal. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, left-leaning, military-led revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military... CDU logo The Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV). ... Avante! (Forward!) is the official newspaper of the Portuguese Communist Party. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...

External links

In Portuguese:

  • Portuguese Communist Party official web site
  • Portuguese Communist Youth official web site
  • Avante Festival! official website
  • Avante! newspaper online edition
  • Comunic website, the online radio of the Party
  • PCP's short biography by the Carnation Revolution archive center

In English:

  • Portuguese Communist Party web site
  • Portuguese Communist Party program
  • Portuguese Communist Youth official web site


Portuguese political parties
BE PCP PCTP PEV POUS PH MD PS PDA PSD CDS-PP MPT PND PNR PPM


Political parties in Portugal lists political parties in Portugal. ... Leftwing Bloc (Portuguese: Bloco de Esquerda) is a Portuguese left-wing political party founded in 1999. ... PCTP-MRPP symbol The Communist Party of the Portuguese Workers - Reorganizative Movement of the Party of the Proletariat (in the original, Portuguese, PCTP/MRPP - Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses/Movimento Reorganizativo do Partido do Proletariado) was founded in 1970, its first secretary-general being Arnaldo Matos. ... The Ecologist Party The Greens (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista Os Verdes or PEV) is a Portuguese green party, member of the European Greens and a founding member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... Workers Party of Socialist Unity (Portuguese: Partido Operário de Unidade Socialista or POUS) is small trotskiyst party in Portugal, founded in 1976 after a small split from the Portuguese Socialist Party and is part of a small section of the former 4th International, the International Secretariat of the Fourth... The Humanist Party (Portuguese: Partido Humanista, pron. ... The Movement for the Sick (Portuguese: Movimento pelo Doente, pron. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... The Democratic Party of the Atlantic (Partido Democrático do Atlântico, pron. ... The Social Democratic Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Democrata, pron. ... The Democratic and Social Center / Peoples Party (Portuguese: Partido do Centro Democrático e Social / Partido Popular, pron. ... The Earth Party (Portuguese: Partido da Terra, before called Movimento o Partido da Terra, pron. ... The New Democracy (Nova Democracia) is a political party in Portugal, without parliamentary representation. ... The National Renewal Party (Partido Nacional Renovador, pron. ... The Peoples Monarchist Party (Partido Popular Monárquico) is a political party in Portugal, without parliamentary representation. ...


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