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Encyclopedia > Portmanteau

A portmanteau (IPA: /pɔərtˈmæntoʊ/) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. A folk usage of portmanteau refers to a word formed by combining both sounds and meanings from two or more words (e.g., spork from spoon and fork, animatronics from animated and electronics, ginormous from gigantic and enormous, or blaxploitation from black and exploitation or guestimate from guess and estimate). Typically, portmanteaux are nonce words or neologisms - in recent years, the practice of creating them has become known as "smushing" or "smooshing", and can often be seen playing an active minor role in some online media discussion. Portmanteaux are commonly used in science fiction for a wide variety of technical words, such as cyborg from cybernetic and organism. In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... A titanium spork A spork is a hybrid form of cutlery taking the form of a spoon-like shallow scoop with the addition of the tines of a fork (usually three or four). ... For other uses, see Spoon (disambiguation). ... Assorted forks. ... Audio-Animatronics or just animatronics is a form of robotics created by Disneys Imagineers for several shows and attractions at Disney theme parks, and subsequently expanded on and used by other companies. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Shaft (1971) Blaxploitation is a film genre that emerged in the United States in the early 1970s when many exploitation films were made that targeted the urban African American audience; the word itself is a portmanteau of the words “black” and “exploitation. ... This article is about the color. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... The word guess can refer to the following: Guess?, the name-brand clothing line that uses a question mark as its emblem. ... Estimation is approximate or uncertain calculation of a result, often based on approximate, uncertain, incomplete, or noisy inputs. ... A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... The community surrounding modern fan fiction has generated a considerable amount of slang and jargon over the past several decades. ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology and usage

This usage of the word was coined by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871). In the book, Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice words from Jabberwocky, saying, “Well, slithy means lithe and slimy ... You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word.” Carroll often used such words to humorous effect in his work. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), generally categorized as literary nonsense. ... Humpty Dumpty sits on a wall, prior to his fall. ... For other uses, see Jabberwocky (disambiguation). ...


Portemanteau, from Middle French porte (carry) and manteau (a coat or cover), formerly referred to a large travelling bag or suitcase with two compartments, hence the linguistic idea of fusing two words and their meanings into one. Portemanteau is rarely used to refer to a suitcase in English any more, since that type of a suitcase has fallen into disuse. (Note - amongst older Australians the diminutive term "port" is still often used to describe a carry-item containing personal belongings.) In French, the word has the different meaning of coat hanger, and sometimes coat rack, and is spelled porte-manteau. The French word for Portmanteau is mot-valise, which translates literally as suitcase-word. Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Portmanteau word was the original phrase used to describe such words (as listed in dictionaries published as late as the early 2000s), but this is now usually abbreviated to simply portmanteau. The term blend is commonly used in modern linguistic usage for words such as motel, smog, voluntell, and brunch. The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... Holiday Inn Great Sign Exterior of a Howard Johnsons motor lodge. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Brunch is a late morning meal between the typical time for breakfast and lunch, as a replacement for both meals, usually eaten when one rises too late to eat breakfast, or as a specially-planned meal. ...


General summary

A portmanteau morpheme is a morpheme which fuses two or more grammatical categories (see fusional language). The classical example of such a morpheme in English is the verbal suffix -s. This particular suffix carries (i.e., ports) at least four distinct inflectional meanings and imparts each of these onto the verb's meaning: In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... A fusional language (also called inflecting language) is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ...

Spanish verb suffixes are also fusional with very many portmanteaux in the Spanish inflectional system. In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...


A portmanteau word is a word which fuses two function words. This use overlaps a bit with the folk term contraction, but linguists tend to avoid using the latter. Example: In French, à + les becomes aux (IPA: [o]), a single indivisible word which contains both meanings. In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Outside the formal study of linguistics, the term portmanteau is used in a different, yet still not clearly defined sense, to refer to a blending of the parts of two or more words (generally the first part of one word and the ending of a second word) to combine their meanings into a single neologism. One of the more famous portmanteaux in postmodern Continental philosophy is différance. Coined by Jacques Derrida, différance is a word combining the terms to differ and to defer (in the Saussurean sense) to describe the fractured and eternally-signifying character of language (see deconstruction). A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Différance is a French neologism, homophonous with the word différence, used in the context of deconstruction. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ...


See also

Look up portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... A syllabic abbreviation is an abbreviation formed from (usually) initial syllables of several words, such as Interpol = International + police. ... A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme. ... In linguistics, clipping is the word formation process in which a portion of a longer word is used to produce a clipped word. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Portmanteau. ... In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... What follows is a list of border towns in the United States named to indicate the border they are near. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ...

External links

  • Portmanteau as a figure of speech.
  • List of Acronyms and Portmanteaux
  • Wordie.org page

  Results from FactBites:
 
Portmanteau - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (916 words)
A portmanteau (plural: portmanteaus or portmanteaux) is a term in linguistics that refers to a word or morpheme that fuses two or more grammatical functions.
"Portmanteau word" was the original phrase used to describe such words (as listed in dictionaries published as late as the early 1990s), but this has since been abbreviated to simply "portmanteau" as the term (and the type of words it describes) gained popularity.
The term portmanteau is used in a different, yet still not clearly defined sense, to refer to a blending of the parts of two or more words (generally the first part of one word and the ending of a second word) to combine their meanings into a single neologism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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