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Encyclopedia > Portacath
Port-a-Cath device.

A Port-a-Cath® is a type of device for intravenous access in patients who require frequent or continuous administration of intravenous substances. The major users of Port-a-Caths are oncology patients but recently, they have been adapted for treating hemodialysis patients as well. The Port-a-Cath® is produced by Smiths Medical MD, Inc. However, the term is used generically for similar devices by other manufacturers (usually as portacath). Other synonymous brand names include Bardport, Passport, Infuse-a-Port, Medi-Port, and Lifesite (for hemodialysis patients). The term totally implantable venous access system (TIVAS) is also used. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 649 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A portacath, taken by my friend after it was removed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 649 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A portacath, taken by my friend after it was removed. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Oncology is the branch of medicine that studies tumors (cancer) and seeks to understand their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Principles

The name "portacath" is derived from "Portal and Catheter". It consists of a reservoir compartment (the portal) that has a silicone bubble for needle insertion (the septum), with an attached plastic tube (the catheter). The device is surgically inserted under the skin in the upper chest or in the arm and appears as a bump under the skin. It requires no special maintenance and is completely internal so swimming and bathing are not a problem. The catheter runs from the portal and is surgically inserted into a vein (usually the jugular vein, subclavian vein, or superior vena cava.) The surgery itself is considered minor, and is typically performed under both local anaesthesia and conscious sedation. Patients can be sent home with Demerol or other narcotic medication to get them through the first few days of pain. Often they may also be told to take an anti-inflammatory medication. Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... Superior vena cava - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The septum is made of a special self-sealing silicone rubber; it can be punctured up to one thousand times before it needs to be replaced. To administer treatment or to withdraw blood, a health professional will first locate the portal and sterilize the area. Then he or she will access the port by puncturing the overlying skin with a Huber point needle. (Due to its design, there is a very low infection risk, as the breach of skin integrity is never larger than the caliber of the needle. This gives it an advantage over indwelling lines such as the Hickman line.) Negative pressure is created to withdraw blood into the vacuumized needle, to check for blood return and see if the port is functioning normally. Next, the portacath will be flushed with a saline solution. Then, treatment will begin. Also, after each use, a heparin lock is made by injecting a small amount of heparin (an anticoagulant) into the catheter. This prevents development of clots in the system. Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A Hickman line in a leukemia patient. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Blood clot diagram. ...


Uses

Port-a-Caths have many uses:

  • To deliver total parenteral nutrition in those unable to take (adequate) food orally for a long period of time.
  • To deliver chemotherapy to cancer patients who must undergo treatment frequently. Chemotherapy is often toxic, and can damage skin and muscle tissue, and therefore should not be delivered through these tissues. Portacaths provide a solution, delivering drugs quickly and efficiently through the entire body via the circulatory system.
  • To deliver coagulation factors in patients with severe hemophilia.
  • To withdraw (and/or return) blood to the body in patients who require frequent blood tests, and in hemodialysis patients.
  • To deliver antibiotics to patients requiring them for a long time or frequently, such as those with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis.
  • Delivering medications to patients with immune disorders.
  • For treating alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency with replacement therapy

Alternatives to portacaths include the Hickman line and the PICC line. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms solid clots. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or Alpha-1) is a genetic disorder caused by defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin, deficient activity in the blood and lungs, and deposition of excessive amounts of abnormal A1AT protein in liver cells. ... A Hickman line in a leukemia patient. ... Correct position of PICC line on chest x-ray A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC or PIC line) is a form of intravenous access that can be used for a prolonged period of time, e. ...


Variability

There are many different types of portacaths. The particular type selected is based on the patient's specific medical conditions.


Portals:

  • can be made of plastic, stainless steel, or titanium
  • can be single chamber or dual chamber
  • vary in height (although the base is about the size of a quarter)

Catheters: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...

  • can be made of polyurethane (grocery bags) or silicone (breast implants)
  • can vary in length (cm)
  • can vary in diameter (mm)

Portacaths can be put in the upper chest or arm. The exact positioning itself is variable as it can be inserted to avoid visibility when wearing low cut shirts, and to avoid excess contact due to a backpack or bra strap. A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ...


Risks

  1. Infection - a severe bacterial infection can compromise the device, require its surgical removal, and seriously jeopardize the health of the already weak patient.
  2. Thrombosis - formation of a blood clot in the catheter may block the device irrevocably. To prevent clotting the portacath is flushed with saline and heparin.
  3. Mechanical failure - is extremely unlikely. It is possible in a rare event that part of the system could break and become lodged in the circulatory system. In such case it is unlikely to cause any serious harm.
  4. Age - If the device is put into a child, the child's growth means that the catheter becomes relatively shorter and will move away from the inferior part of the superior vena cava - it might be necessary to remove or replace it.

An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Saline may refer to: Salinity Saline (medicine) Saline, Michigan Saline, Scotland - a village in the burgh of Fife, Scotland. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Superior vena cava - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Production

The major manufacturers of portacaths are Smiths Medical, Bard Access Systems, and Rita Medical Systems. In the United States, insertion of a TIVAS costs about $5,000 (material and staff costs). Medical insurance will usually cover part or all of the cost.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Movies (138 words)
"Portacath " is a generic term that describes any implantable venous access device.
Administration of an intravenous medication or collection of a blood sample is both simplified and made much less uncomfortable for you when a portacath is available.
Once placed we recommend that a portacath not be removed until the likelihood of a recurrence of your cancer is minimal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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