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Encyclopedia > Pornography
"Porn" redirects here. For the eye disease, see progressive outer retinal necrosis
Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum

Pornography, sometimes shortened to porn or porno, is, in its broadest state, the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal and/or sexual relief. It is similar to erotica, which is the use of sexually-arousing imagery used mainly for artistic purpose. Over the past few decades, an immense industry for the production and consumption of pornography has grown, due to emergence of the VCR, the DVD, and the Internet, as well as the emergence of more tolerant social attitudes. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), also known as Varicella zoster virus retinitis (VZVR)[1], is an aggressive, necrotizing inflammation of the eyes retina caused by herpes varicella zoster virus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x640, 49 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Doggy style Pornography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x640, 49 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Doggy style Pornography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Erotica (from the Greek language Eros - love) — refers to works of art, including literature, photography, film, sculpture and painting, that deal substantively with erotically stimulating or arousing descriptions. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic or historical merit, whereas "pornography" often connotes the prurient depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value. The line between "erotica" and the term "pornography" (which is frequently considered a pejorative term) is often highly subjective. In practice, pornography can be defined merely as erotica that certain people perceive as "obscene." The definition of what one considers obscene can differ between persons, cultures and eras. This leaves legal actions by those who oppose pornography open to wide interpretation. It also provides lucrative employment for armies of lawyers, on several "sides." It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ...


Pornography may use any of a variety of media — printed literature, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word derives from the Greek pornographia, which derives from the Greek words porne ("prostitute"), grapho ("to write or record"), and the suffix ia (meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"), thus meaning "a place to record prostitutes".


Technology

Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Indeed some claim that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion) to video, satellite TV, DVD, and the Internet.[citation needed] Calls to regulate or prohibit these technologies have often cited pornography as a concern.[citation needed] Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


Cultural historians have suggested that every art medium and publishing medium first was used for pornography: handwriting, painting, sculpture, the printing press, printed sheet music, motion pictures, videotapes, DVDs and the Internet.[citation needed] This may not be true throughout history, but it does seem to be true for recent history. The videotape and DVD media might have flourished without porn, but they have certainly flourished very well with it: the porn industry produces more titles per year than Hollywood; it even compares to Bollywood. Curiously, porn plays in few theaters, and in many countries it is difficult to rent porn videos, because movie rental stores such as Blockbuster and other large video-rental firms avoid porn;[citation needed] most distribution is by sale. Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ... Blockbuster Inc. ...


Photo manipulation and computer-generated images

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ...


The creation of highly realistic computer-generated images creates new ethical dilemmas. If illusionistic images of torture or rape become widely distributed, law enforcement faces additional difficulties prosecuting authentic images of criminal acts, due to the possibility that they are synthetic. The existence of faked pornographic photos of celebrities shows the possibility of using fake images to blackmail or humiliate any individual who has been photographed or filmed, although as such cases become more common, this effect will likely diminish. Finally, the generation of entirely synthetic images, which do not record actual events, challenges some of the conventional criticism of pornography. It also challenges the traditional notion of evidence, where at present, in the United States it is possible to prosecute producers of child pornography without violating the First Amendment, because the film is evidence that an adult has had sex with a child. However, it may be possible to film things that were imagined but never done: the film would not be evidence of a crime. Perhaps it wouldn't be a crime to make such a film. Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game.[1] Alice, a fictional character based on a real character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Playboy is an American mens magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner and his associates, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... BloodRayne, is a horror-themed third-person action video game. ...


The immensely popular Playstation 2 game God of War includes a scene early on where Kratos , under the player's control, is in a room inside a ship after arriving at Athens, with two naked women on the bed. The player has the option to take the women to bed (though the screen cuts away and shows only the sounds), and the sex is made into a minigame which rewards the player upon victory. This is an example of virtual porn in a very mainstream medium, though it lacks the crucial pornography element of voyeurism, as the sex itself is not shown (though digital nudity is). The PlayStation 2 , abbreviated PS2) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. ... This article is for the PlayStation 2 game. ... God of War and God of War II. For the character in Greek Mythology, see Cratos. ... Voyeurism is a practice in which an individual derives sexual pleasure from observing other people. ...


Mainstream movies containing CGI and other realistic special effects show that if a director can imagine something in sufficient detail, combined with sufficient resources, it can be put on a screen. Pasolini created some gruesome images in Salo, without using computers, but some of them are not really seen by the viewer. De Sade described even more gruesome images in 120 Days of Sodom, the book on which Salo is based: perhaps a truly fiendish director with a roomful of up-to-date computers—costing less than $1 million total—could realize de Sade's worst visions without actually torturing a person to death in front of a camera. The recent Lord of the Rings films by director Peter Jackson show what is technically possible in filmmaking; this level of technology has yet to be applied to pornography. Clearly, more can be done than already has been done.[citation needed] Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... Groundbreaking special effects were used in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 - November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, film director, and writer, who, in his films about the socially outcast and rebellious, frequently used amateur actors. ... Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma (Salò or the 120 Days of Sodom) is a 1975 film by Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini, based on the book The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Van Loo (~1761) Donatien Alphonse François, de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade (pronounced saad; June 2, 1740 - December 2, 1814), was a French aristocrat best known as a writer of philosophy-laden pornography, as well as a some strictly... The 120 Days of Sodom or the School of Freedoms (Les 120 journées de Sodome ou lécole du libertinage) is a book written by the French writer Marquis de Sade in 1784. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961) is a New Zealand filmmaker best known as the director of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, which he, along with Fran Walsh, his long time partner, and Philippa Boyens, adapted from the novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


History

For more details on this topic, see History of erotic depictions.
A French caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography".

Pornography is as old as civilization but the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the Victorian era. Previous to that time, though some sex acts were regulated or stipulated in laws, looking at objects or images depicting them was not. In some cases, certain books, engravings or image collections were outlawed, but the trend to compose laws that restricted viewing of sexually explicit things in general was a Victorian construct. When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality, and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples, Italy and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, the world's first law criminalizing pornography was enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1857 in the Obscene Publications Act.[2] The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery are common throughout history, and remain so.[3] Roman oil lamp depicting coitus more ferarum Erotic depictions include paintings, sculpture, photographs, dramatic arts, music and writings that show scenes of a sexual nature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1815x2232, 306 KB) No author, no source, no indication as to when the graphic was made. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1815x2232, 306 KB) No author, no source, no indication as to when the graphic was made. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A common caricature of Charles Darwin focuses on his beard, eyebrows, and baldness, while often giving him the features of an ape or monkey. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... The term Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet (Gabinetto Segreto) principally refers to the collection of erotic or sexually explicit finds from Pompeii, held in separate galleries in the Naples National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy, the former Museo Borbonico. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... Since 1857, a series of obscenity laws known as the Obscene Publications Acts have governed what can be published. ... The Hicklin test is a legal concept, from the 1868 English case - Regina v. ...


Legal status

See List of pornography laws by region for detailed list

The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of Child pornography is illegal in almost all countries, and most countries have restrictions on pornography involving violence or animals. Pornography laws differ widely from region to region. ... Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ... Rape pornography is a genre of pornography involving the depiction of rape. ... Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ...


Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to adult bookstores, mail-order, via television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered irrelevant by widely available Internet pornography. A sex shop is a shop that sells products such as sex toys, pornography, erotic lingerie, erotic books, and safer sex products such as condoms and dental dams. ... Disseminating pornography to a minor is the act of showing pornography of any kind to a minor. ... Internet pornography is pornography that is distributed via the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. ...


In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... A Prohibitory Order is a legal instrument issued by the United States Postal Service, against a mailer, on request of a recipient. ... The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent establishment of the executive branch of the United States government (see 39 U.S.C. Â§ 201) responsible for providing postal service in the U.S. Within the United States, it is colloquially referred to simply as the post office. ...


There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works. An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... A snuff film is a film, sometimes pornographic, that allegedly depicts actual murder, produced for entertainment purposes. ...


The Internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines. This material often ends up on the Internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child pornography, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material.


Some people, including pornography producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie, have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography.[4] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie KBE (Hindi: Urdu: سلمان رشدی; born 19 June 1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist. ...


The UK Government is planning to outlaw possession of what it terms "extreme pornography" after a campaign following the highly publicised murder of Jane Longhurst. Extreme Pornography is a term introduced by the UK Government to refer to pornography depicting acts of serious violence, necrophilia or bestiality. ... Jane Longhurst was a special needs teacher from Brighton who was murdered on 14 March 2003; she was 31. ...


Anti-pornography movement

Main article: Anti-pornography movement

Opposition to pornography comes generally, though not exclusively, from several sources: law, religion and feminism. Some critics from the latter two camps have expressed belief in the existence of "pornography addiction." A sign outside an Adult store. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with the impact of cultural, political, and economic practices and inequalities on discrimination against women. ... Pornography addiction (a form of a sexual addiction) is defined as a condition resulting from the overuse or abuse of pornography. ...


Legal objections

Distribution of "obscene" materials is a Federal crime in the United States, and also under most laws of the 50 states. There is no right to distribute obscene materials. The determination of what is obscene is up to a jury in a trial, which must apply the Miller test; however, due to the prominence of pornography in most communities most pornographic materials are not considered obscene by the Miller Test. The Miller test is the United States Supreme Courts test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited. ...


In explaining its decision to reject claims that obscenity should be treated as speech protected by the First Amendment, in Miller v. California, the US Supreme Court found that Holding Obscene materials are defined as those that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, find, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest; that depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and that, taken as a whole, lack serious...

The dissenting Justices sound the alarm of repression. But, in our view, to equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a "misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and free press . . . ." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S., at 645 .

and in Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton that

In particular, we hold that there are legitimate state interests at stake in stemming the tide of commercialized obscenity, even assuming it is feasible to enforce effective safeguards against exposure to juveniles and to passersby. 7 [413 U.S. 49, 58] Rights and interests "other than those of the advocates are involved." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S. 622, 642 (1951). These include the interest of the public in the quality of life and the total community environment, the tone of commerce in the great city centers, and, possibly, the public safety itself... As Mr. Chief Justice Warren stated, there is a "right of the Nation and of the States to maintain a decent society . . .," [413 U.S. 49, 60] Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 199 (1964) (dissenting opinion)... The sum of experience, including that of the past two decades, affords an ample basis for legislatures to conclude that a sensitive, key relationship of human existence, central to family life, community welfare, and the development of human personality, can be debased and distorted by crass commercial exploitation of sex.

Attorney General for Ronald Reagan, Edwin Meese, also courted controversy when he appointed the "Meese Commission" to investigate pornography in the United States; their report, released in July 1986, was highly critical of pornography and itself became a target of widespread criticism. That year, Meese Commission officials contacted convenience store chains and succeeded in demanding that widespread men's magazines such as Playboy and Penthouse be removed from shelves,[5]a ban which spread nationally[6] until being quashed with a First Amendment admonishment against prior restraint by the D.C. Federal Court in Meese v. Playboy (639 F.Supp. 581). Edwin Meese III Edwin Ed Meese III (born December 2, 1931 in Oakland, California) served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985-1988). ... Categories: Stub | Pornography ... Playboy is an American mens magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner and his associates, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... Penthouse, a mens magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combines urban lifestyle articles and soft-core pornographic pictorials that, in the 1990s, evolved into hardcore. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


In the United States in 2005, Attorney General Gonzales made obscenity and pornography a top prosecutorial priority of the Department of Justice.[7] DOJ headquarters in Washington, D.C. Justice Department redirects here. ...


Religious objections

Some religious groups often discourage their members from viewing or reading pornography, and support legislation restricting its publication. These positions derive from broader religious views about sexuality. In some religious traditions, for example, sexual intercourse is limited to the express function of procreation. Thus, sexual pleasure or sex-oriented entertainment, as well as lack of modesty, are considered immoral. Other religions do not find sexual pleasure immoral, but see sex as a sacred, godly, highly-pleasurable activity that is only to be enjoyed with one's spouse. These traditions do not condemn sexual pleasure in and of itself, but they impose limitations on the circumstances under which sexual pleasure may be properly experienced. Pornography in this view is seen as the secularization of something sacred, and a violation of spouses' intimate relationship. For example, paragraph 2354 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...

"Pornography... offends against chastity because it perverts the conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each another. It does grave injury to the dignity of its participants... since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. It is a grave offence."

In addition to expressing concerns about violating sexual morality, some religions take an anti-pornography stance claiming that viewing pornography is addictive, leading to self-destructive behavior. Proponents of this view compare pornography addiction to alcoholism, both in asserting the seriousness of the problem and in developing treatment methods. Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... This article is about virtue. ... WordNet gives four main senses for the English noun object: a physical entity; something that is within the grasp of the senses; an aim, target or objective — see Object (task); a grammatical Object — either a direct object or an indirect object the focus of cognitions or feelings. ... An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Pornography addiction (a form of a sexual addiction) is defined as a condition resulting from the overuse or abuse of pornography. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Feminist objections

Feminist critics of pornography, such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, generally consider it demeaning to women. They believe that most pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment, and contributes to the male-centered objectification of women. Some feminists distinguish between pornography and erotica, which they say does not have the same negative effects of pornography. However, many Third-wave feminists and postmodern feminists disagree with this critique of porn, claiming that appearing in or using pornography can be explained as each individual woman's choice, and is not guided by socialization in a capitalist patriarchy. Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Maledom, or male dominance, generally refers to heterosexual BDSM activities where the dominant partner is male, and the submissive partner is female. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to involuntarily behave in a certain way (whether through action or inaction) by use of threats, intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Objectification refers to the way in which one person treats another person as an object and not as a human being. ... Erotica (from the Greek language Eros - love) — refers to works of art, including literature, photography, film, sculpture and painting, that deal substantively with erotically stimulating or arousing descriptions. ... The current version of this article or section advances a limited or personal interpretation of the subject matter. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Effect on sex crimes

A lower per capita crime rate and historically high availability of pornography in many developed European countries (e.g. Netherlands, Sweden) has led a growing majority to conclude that there is an inverse relationship between the two, such that an increased availability of pornography in a society equates to a decrease in sexual crime.[8] Some researchers speculate that wide availability of pornography may reduce crimes by giving potential offenders a socially accepted way of regulating their own sexuality. Moreover, there is some evidence that states within the U.S. that have lower rates of internet access have a greater incidence of rape.[9]


Japan, which is noted for its large output of rape fantasy pornography, has the lowest reported sex crime rate in the industrialized world. However, some argue that reported sex crime rates are low in Japan because the culture (a culture that greatly emphasizes a woman's "honor") is such that victims of sex crime are less likely to report it (e.g. chikan[10]). Rape pornography is a genre of pornography involving the depiction of rape. ... A sign outside of a bicycle parking lot in Chiba, Japan, warns Beware of Perverts. ...


Effect on sexual aggression

In the 70's and 80's, feminists such as Dr. Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin criticized pornography as essentially dehumanizing women and as likely to encourage violence against them. It has been suggested that there was an alliance, tacit or explicit, between anti-porn feminists and fundamentalist Christians to help censor the use of or production of pornography.[11] Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... A sign outside an Adult store. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ...


Some researchers have found that "high pornography use is not necessarily indicative of high risk for sexual aggression," but go on to say, "if a person has relatively aggressive sexual inclinations resulting from various personal and/or cultural factors, some pornography exposure may activate and reinforce associated coercive tendencies and behaviors".[12]


Pornography production and violence against women

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

According to Dr. Diana Russell, "When addressing the question of whether or not pornography causes rape, as well as other forms of sexual assault and violence, many people fail to acknowledge that the actual making of pornography sometimes involves, or even requires, violence and sexual assault."[13] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Diana E. H. Russell is a radical feminist writer and activist. ...


In 1979, Andrea Dworkin published Pornography: Men Possessing Women, which analyzes (and extensively cites examples drawn from) contemporary and historical pornography as an industry of woman-hating dehumanization. Dworkin argues that it is implicated in violence against women, both in its production (through the abuse of the women used to star in it), and in the social consequences of its consumption (by encouraging men to eroticize the domination, humiliation, and abuse of women). Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ...


Other studies, such as the US government commission noted below, have asserted that this is not the case[citation needed].


U.S. Government Commissions

The then available evidence as to the influence of pornography was assessed by two major Commissions established in 1970 and 1986, Download high resolution version (480x719, 24 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (480x719, 24 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ...


In 1970, the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that "there was insufficient evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials played a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior."


In general, with regard to adults, the Commission recommended that legislation "should not seek to interfere with the right of adults who wish to do so to read, obtain, or view explicit sexual materials." Regarding the view that these materials should be restricted for adults in order to protect young people from exposure to them, the Commission found that it is "inappropriate to adjust the level of adult communication to that considered suitable for children." The Supreme Court supported this view.[14]


A large portion of the Commission's budget was applied to funding original research on the effects of sexually explicit materials. One experiment is described in which repeated exposure of male college students to pornography "caused decreased interest in it, less response to it and no lasting effect," although it appears that the satiation effect does wear off eventually ("Once more"). William B. Lockhart, Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and chairman of the commission, said that before his work with the commission he had favored control of obscenity for both children and adults, but had changed his mind as a result of scientific studies done by commission researchers. In reference to dissenting commission members Keating and Rev. Morton Hill, Lockhart said, "When these men have been forgotten, the research developed by the commission will provide a factual basis for informed, intelligent policymaking by the legislators of tomorrow."[15]


President Reagan announced his intention to set up a commission to study pornography. The result was the appointment by Attorney General Edwin Meese in the spring of 1985 of a panel comprised of 11 members, the majority of whom had established records as anti-pornography crusaders.[16]


In 1986, the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, reached the opposite conclusion, advising that pornography was in varying degrees harmful. A workshop headed by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop provided essentially the only original research done by the Meese Commission. Given very little time and money to "develop something of substance" to include in the Meese Commission's report, it was decided to conduct a closed, weekend workshop of "recognized authorities" in the field. All but one of the invited participants attended. At the end of the workshop, the participants expressed consensus in five areas: The final report of the Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography (sometimes called The Meese Report for Attorney General Edwin Meese) is the result of a comprehensive investigation into pornography ordered by President Ronald Reagan. ...

  1. "Children and adolescents who participate in the production of pornography experience adverse, enduring effects,"
  2. "Prolonged use of pornography increases beliefs that less common sexual practices are more common,"
  3. "Pornography that portrays sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim increases the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations,"
  4. "Acceptance of coercive sexuality appears to be related to sexual aggression,"
  5. "In laboratory studies measuring short-term effects, exposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior toward women" According to Surgeon General Koop, "Although the evidence may be slim, we nevertheless know enough to conclude that pornography does present a clear and present danger to American public health"[17]

A case study: Japan

See also: Pornography in Japan

Milton Diamond and Ayako Uchiyama write in "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan" (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22. 1999):[18] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milton Diamond (born 6 March 1934 in New York, New York) is a professor of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of Hawaii. ...

Our findings regarding sex crimes, murder and assault are in keeping with what is also known about general crime rates in Japan regarding burglary, theft and such. Japan has the lowest number of reported rape cases and the highest percentage of arrests and convictions in reported cases of any developed nation. Indeed, Japan is known as one of the safest developed countries for women in the world (Clifford, 1980). (...)
Despite the absence of evidence, the myth persists that an abundance of sexually explicit material invariably leads to an abundance of sexual activity and eventually rape (e.g., Liebert, Neale, & Davison, 1973). Indeed, the data we report and review suggest the opposite. Christensen (1990) argues that to prove that available pornography leads to sex crimes one must at least find a positive temporal correlation between the two. The absence of any positive correlation in our findings, and from results elsewhere, between an increase in available pornography and the incidence of rape or other sex crime, is prima facie evidence that no link exists. But objectivity requires that an additional question be asked: "Does pornography use and availability prevent or reduce sex crime?" Both questions lead to hypotheses that have, over prolonged periods, been tested in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and now in Japan. Indeed, it appears from our data from Japan, as it was evident to Kutchinsky (1994), from research in Europe, that a large increase in available sexually explicit materials, over many years, has not been correlated with an increase in rape or other sexual crimes. Instead, in Japan a marked decrease in sexual crimes has occurred.

respectively. Look up prima facie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


South African Parliamentary Commission on Pornography

The South African government is currently reviewing legislation which prohibits both virtual child pornography and real child pornography. Real child pornography involves the use of real children involved in sexual conduct. Virtual Child Pornography is made up of a number of different types of erotic material, but does not involve the use of real children. It includes paintings, cartoons, sketches and written descriptions of children involved in sexual conduct. It also includes depictions of adults, which are represented as being under the age of 18, engaged in sexual conduct. Digitally created images that resemble actual child pornography, but which do not make use of real children are also included. A recent submission to the South Parliament argued that real child pornography ought to be prohibited while virtual child pornography ought not to be prohibited. Videos of the submission are available for viewing. Part 1 and Part 2


Stereotypes

Pornographic work contains a number of stereotypes. Although pornography targeted at heterosexual males often includes interaction between females, interaction between males is rarely seen, with the exception of double penetration scenes. In hardcore materials, a male generally ejaculates outside his partner's body, in full view: the so-called "cum shot". Penises are almost always shown fully erect. In heterosexual pornography, the choice of position is naturally geared to giving the viewer the fullest view of the woman, making the reverse cowgirl position and the man holding the woman in a "dog-and-lamp-post" (doggy) position among the most popular.[citation needed] Fellatio scenes usually involve the woman looking into the camera or at the man, for similar reasons. Especially in American and Japanese porn, women tend to be vocal and loud during hardcore scenes. Racial stereotypes are often played up in American pornography involving ethnic minorities.[citation needed] Additionally, male pornographic actors are perceived to have incredible holding power. A table threesome An oral threesome Group sex is sexual behaviour involving more than two people at the same time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fellatio Fellatio is oral sex performed upon the human penis. ...


None of these stereotypes are true of "softcore" pornography, as both male and female genitals are usually hidden.


Pornography by and for women

"We came up with the idea for the Feminist Porn Awards because people don't know they have a choice when it comes to porn," said Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her and the event's organizer. "Yes, there's a lot of bad porn out there. But there is also some great porn being made by and for women. We wanted to recognize and celebrate the good porn makers as well as direct people to their work." Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with the impact of cultural, political, and economic practices and inequalities on discrimination against women. ...


Some recent pornography has been produced under the rubric of "by and for women". According to Tristan Taormino, "Feminist porn both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."[19] Tristan Taormino (born 9 May 1971) is an award-winning author, columnist, editor, and self-styled anal sexpert. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa with her Bachelors degree in American Studies from Wesleyan University in 1993. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ...


Production and distribution by region

Main article: Pornography by region

The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy. The production and distribution of pornographic movies are economic activities of some importance. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ...


Economics

Main article: Porn industry

United States: In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of all the hard-core porn in the United States was no more than $10 million[20] Although the revenues of the adult industry are difficult to determine, by 2003, Americans were estimated to spend as much as $8 to $10 billion on pornography.[21] The majority of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley[citation needed], which acts as a center for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of porn. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... San Fernando Valley from southwestern edge. ...


The porn industry has been considered to be capable of deciding format wars in media; including being a factor in VHS v. Betamax (the videotape format war)[22][23] and a major factor in the Blu-ray vs. HD-DVD format war.[24][25][26] A format war describes competition between competing, and typically mutually incompatible, data medium formats, usually very costly to the format-owning parties involved. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS is a recording and playing standard for analog video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by Victor Company of Japan, Limited (JVC) and launched... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... The videotape format war was a period of an intense format war of rival incompatible models of video cassette recorders in the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu_ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu_ray Disc Founders (BDF). ... HD DVD, or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video. ...


In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online 'adult content' industry, which estimated at $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. A $10 billion aggregate figure had been estimated, and repeated in many news stories, but this was unsourced and not accurate.[27] Forrester logo. ...


Non-Commercial Pornography

As well as the porn industry, there is a large amount of non-commercial pornography. This should be distinguished from commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring 'amateurs'. Examples are the website asstr.org, which is focussed on prose. Various Usenet groups are focussed on non-commercial pornographic photographs. Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...


Sub-genres

Main article: List of pornographic sub-genres

In general, softcore refers to pornography that does not depict penetration, and hardcore refers to pornography that depicts penetration. The following are common sub-genres of pornography. ... Softcore is a form of pornography that is less explicit than hardcore pornography in depicting or describing sexual behaviour. ... Jenna Jameson with Savanna Samson in a classic hardcore porn movie, The New Devil In Miss Jones (2005) Hardcore pornography is a form of pornography that features explicit sexual acts. ...


Some popular genres of pornography:

Amateur pornography is a category of pornography that features models or actors performing without pay, or for whom this material is their first or only paid modeling work. ... Sexual fetishism is the personal or cultural attribution of attractive sexual qualities to inanimate objects. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Typical lesbian pornography, features lesbian, bisexual, and/or heterosexual (so-called gay-for-pay) actresses, and is typically aimed at male consumers, which is why it is usually grouped with straight porn. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ethnic pornography is pornographic material that focuses on the ethnicities of its subjects as a fetish. ... This article deals primarily or exclusively with the definition of Asian in English-speaking countries, mainly referring to immigrants or descendants of immigrants living therein. ... Black cat, thought by some to cause bad luck (see superstition) Black is the shade of objects that do not reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum. ... // The term Latino is a linguistic identity that refers to an individual that has significant ancestry from a nation-state where a Latin derived language is spoken or is the offical language of the government. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity of performers in pornography be merged into this article or section. ... Voyeurism is a practice in which an individual derives sexual pleasure from observing other people. ...

Media

  • Silent "stag" film ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • Silent, black and white video clip featuring a topless blonde woman (6.5MB, Ogg/Theora format).
  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Blonde stag film. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

See also

Pornography Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

Forms

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carnography is writing, films, images, or other material that contains gratuitous amounts of bloodshed, violence and/or weaponry. ... An example of a cartoon character in an suggestive pose. ... By todays standards Fragonards The Swing is rather tame, but in the 18th century this painting of a young lady being in a position where a man can look up her skirts was considered highly erotic. ... Erotica (from the Greek language Eros - love) — refers to works of art, including literature, photography, film, sculpture and painting, that deal substantively with erotically stimulating or arousing descriptions. ... Women’s erotica can be defined as any sexually explicit or pornographic material that caters specifically to women. ... Glamour photography is the photographing of a model (usually female), in a way that is intended to be erotic, yet not pornographic. ... Internet pornography is pornography that is distributed via the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. ... Often sexual and provocative, many consider non-nude photography an alternative to pornography, but some critics claim it is actually a form of pornography Non-nude photography (as it is called by its supporters) or non-nude pornography (as it is sometimes called by critics or outside observers) is an... Pornographic films are motion pictures that explicitly depict sexual intercourse and other sexual acts, typically for the purpose of sexual arousal in the viewer. ...

Lists

This is a list of notable authors of erotic literature. ... Gay pornographic magazines, sometimes known as adult magazines or gay sex magazines, are magazines that contain content of a sexual nature, typically regarded as pornography, that relates to men having sex with men. ... This is a list of magazines primarily marketed to heterosexual men. ... This is a list of pornographic actors. ... This list contains publishing organisations (past and present) that specialise in pornographic books. ... This is a list of movie studios that produce pornographic (or adult) films. ... This is a list of pornographic magazines—magazines that contain content of a sexual nature and are typically considered to be pornography. ... This is a list of notable personalities in the pornography industry. ... Pornography laws differ widely from region to region. ... The following are common sub-genres of pornography. ...

People and groups

A sign outside an Adult store. ... // A pornographic actor/actress or a porn star (also spelled as pornstar) is somebody who appears in pornographic films or photographs, live sex shows or peep shows. ... Sex-positive feminism, also known as pro-sex feminism, is a movement that was formed in the 1980s. ... A sex worker in Germany A sex worker is a person who earns money by providing sexual services. ...

Other

See also Lust (onomastics) for other uses Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Pornography addiction (a form of a sexual addiction) is defined as a condition resulting from the overuse or abuse of pornography. ... The production and distribution of pornographic movies are economic activities of some importance. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet (Gabinetto Segreto) principally refers to the collection of erotic or sexually explicit finds from Pompeii, held in separate galleries in the Naples National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy, the former Museo Borbonico. ... Sex in advertising is the use of sexual attraction as a tool of persuasion to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale, generally using attractive models. ...

References

  1. ^ Playboy undressed video game women - Aug. 25, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  2. ^ Marilyn Chambers, John Leslie, Seymore Butts. Pornography: The Secret History of Civilization [DVD]. Koch Vision. ISBN 1-4172-2885-7
  3. ^ Beck, Marianna (May 2003). The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections. Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  4. ^ “Porn is vital to freedom, says [Salman Rushdie”]
  5. ^ Politics and Pornography. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  6. ^ The Rev. Donald E. Wildmon. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  7. ^ Attorney General Gonzales' priority: porn, not terrorists [Politech. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  8. ^ Pornography, rape and the internet. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  9. ^ D'Amato, Anthony (June 23, 2006). Porn Up, Rape Down. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  10. ^ The His and Hers Subway. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  11. ^ The Anti-Pornography Movement - Ashland Free Press. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  12. ^ Malamuth, NM; Addison T, Koss M (2000). "Pornography and sexual aggression: are there reliable effects and can we understand them?". Annual Review of Sex Research 2000 (11): 26-91. PMID: 11351835. Retrieved on 2006-09-08.  (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000, p. 79-81)
  13. ^ Porn & Violence. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  14. ^ President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
  15. ^ Politics and Pornography. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  16. ^ Wilcox, Brian L. "Pornography, Social Science, and Politics: When Research and Ideology Collide." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 941-943.
  17. ^ Koop, C. Everett. "Report of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Pornography and Public Health." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 944-945.
  18. ^ Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  19. ^ Political Smut Makers by Tristan Taormino. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  20. ^ President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
  21. ^ Schlosser, Eric (2003-5-08). Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market.. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618334661. 
  22. ^ Ron Wagner, Director of IT at a California porn studio: "If you look at the VHS vs. Beta standards, you see the much higher-quality standard dying because of [the porn industry’s support of VHS] ... The mass volume of tapes in the porn market at the time went out on VHS." [1]
  23. ^ The Inquirer, 18 January 2007: "By many accounts VHS would not have won its titanic struggle against Sony’s Betamax video tape format if it hadn’t been for porn. This might be over-stating its importance but it was an important factor." [2]
  24. ^ Porn Industry May Decide DVD Format War
  25. ^ Blu-ray loves porn after all
  26. ^ Porn industry may be decider in Blu-ray, HD-DVD battle
  27. ^ Richard, Emmanuelle. "The Naked Untruth", Alternet, 2002-23-05. Retrieved on 2006-09-08. (in English) 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Advocacy

  • Susie Bright. "Susie Sexpert's Lesbian Sex World and Susie Bright's Sexual Reality: A Virtual Sex World Reader", San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1990 and 1992. Challenges any easy equation between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
  • Betty Dodson. "Feminism and Free speech: Pornography." Feminists for Free Expression 1993. 8 May 2002[28]
  • Kate Ellis. Caught Looking: Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship. New York: Caught Looking Incorporated, 1986.
  • Susan Griffin. Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
  • Matthew Gever. "Pornography Helps Women, Society"[29], UCLA Bruin, 1998-12-03.
  • Jason Russell. "The Canadian Past-Time" "Stand Like A Rock"
  • Michele Gregory. "Pro-Sex Feminism: Redefining Pornography (or, a study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper)[30]
  • Andrea Juno and V. Vale. Angry Women, Re/Search # 12. San Francisco, CA: Re/Search Publications, 1991. Performance artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon's claim to speak on behalf of all women.
  • Michael Kimmel. "Men Confront Pornography". New York: Meridian--Random House, 1990. A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
  • Wendy McElroy defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.[31]
    • "A Feminist Overview of Pornography, Ending in a Defense Thereof"[32]
    • "A Feminist Defense of Pornography"[33]
  • Annalee Newitz. "Obscene Feminists: Why Women Are Leading the Battle Against Censorship" San Francisco Bay Guardian Online 8 May 2002. 9 May 2002[34]
  • Nadine Strossen:
    • "Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights" (ISBN 0-8147-8149-7)
    • "Nadine Strossen: Pornography Must Be Tolerated"[35]
  • Scott Tucker. "Gender, Fucking, and Utopia: An Essay in Response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man"[36] in Social Text 27 (1991): 3-34. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's positions on pornography and power.
  • Carole Vance, Editor. "Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality". Boston: Routledge, 1984. Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.

Susie Bright (also known as Susie Sexpert) (born March 25, 1958, Arlington, Virginia) is a writer, speaker, teacher, audio show host, performer, all on the subject of sexuality. ... Betty Dodson, Ph. ... Susan Griffin is the eco-feminist author of The Book of the Courtesans: A Catalogue of Their Virtues (2001); Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her; Pornography and Silence; and A Chorus of Stones; Unremembered Country (1987); The Eros of Everyday Life (1995); What Her Body Thought: A Journey into... Michael S. Kimmel is an american sociologist. ... Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ... A portait of Nadine Strossen Professor Nadine Strossen is president of the American Civil Liberties Union. ...

External links

Commentary
Government
History
Sociology

  Results from FactBites:
 
ASACP: Association of Sites Advocating Child Protection (637 words)
ASACP battles child pornography through its CP reporting hotline, and by organizing the efforts of the online adult industry to combat the heinous crime of child sexual abuse.
ASACP keeps its members informed on current laws and regulations pertaining to child pornography and child protection, as well as new and pending legislation.
It`s good to know that there are people in this world who have the decency and the drive to work together and fight against criminals who post child porn material on the net.
Protection From Pornography Week, 2003 (341 words)
Pornography can have debilitating effects on communities, marriages, families, and children.
The effects of pornography are particularly pernicious with respect to children.
The recent enactment of the PROTECT Act of 2003 strengthens child pornography laws, establishes the Federal Government's role in the AMBER Alert System, increases punishment for Federal crimes against children, and authorizes judges to require extended supervision of sex offenders who are released from prison.
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