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Encyclopedia > Pork barrel

A pork barrel, literally, is a barrel in which pork is kept. The term is more commonly used as a political metaphor for the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents or campaign contributors. This usage originated in American English. For other uses, see Barrel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Use of the term outside the United States

In other countries the practice is often called patronage, but this word does not always imply corrupt or undesirable conduct. The pork-barrel metaphor has spread to the variety of English used in other countries such as the UK, Australia and New Zealand that have parliamentary democracies as opposed to Presidential systems.[1] Similar expressions, meaning "election pork", are used in Denmark (valgflæsk) and Sweden (valfläsk).[2] ...


Definition

Pork barrel politics refers to government spending that is intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for their political support, either in the form of campaign contributions or votes. The term originated early in American history, when slaves were sometimes given a barrel of salt pork as a reward, and had to compete among themselves to get their share of the handout.[3] Typically it involves funding for government programs whose economic or service benefits are concentrated in a particular area but whose costs are spread among all taxpayers. Public works projects and agricultural subsidies are the most commonly cited examples, but they do not exhaust the possibilities. Pork barrel spending is often allocated through last-minute additions to appropriation bills. A politician who supplies his or her constituents with considerable funding is said to be "bringing home the bacon." Constituent may mean; Constituent (linguistics) Constituent (politics) Category: ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the market price of commodities. ... An appropriation bill is a legislative motion which authorizes the government to spend money. ...


In 1991, Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition developed seven criteria for a project to qualify as pork: Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) is a prominent taxpayer watchdog group in the USA. Its stated goal is to eliminate waste, fraud, abuse and mismanagement in the federal government. ...

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.[4]

A possible etymology comes from economist and three-term U.S. senator Paul H. Douglas who writes: "Each year (Senator Kenneth) McKellar's great hour came when he brought up his Rivers and Harbors Appropriations bill, universally known as 'the pork barrel.'" (Douglas, 1971, page 252) [5] For other persons named Paul Douglas, see Paul Douglas (disambiguation). ... Another Kenneth McKellar was a famous Scottish singer. ...


Examples

One of the earliest examples of pork barrel politics in the United States was the Bonus Bill of 1817, which was introduced by John C. Calhoun to construct highways linking the East and South of the United States to its Western frontier using the earnings bonus from the Second Bank of the United States. Calhoun argued for it using general welfare and post roads clauses of the United States Constitution. Although he approved of the economic development goal, President James Madison vetoed the bill as unconstitutional. Since then, however, U.S. presidents have seen the political advantage of pork barrel politics. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the first appearances of the term in the late 19th century: The Bonus Bill of 1817 was a bill introduced by John Calhoun to provide United States highways linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

1873 Defiance (Ohio) Democrat 13 Sept. 1/8 Recollecting their many previous visits to the public pork-barrel,..this hue-and-cry over the salary grab..puzzles quite as much as it alarms them. 1896 Overland Monthly Sept. 370/2 Another illustration represents Mr. Ford in the act of hooking out a chunk of River and Harbor Pork out of a Congressional Pork Barrel valued at two hundred and fifty thousand dollars.[citation needed]

One of the most famous (or infamous) pork-barrel projects was the Big Dig in Boston, Massachusetts. The Big Dig was a project to take a pre-existing 3.5 mile interstate highway and relocate it underground. It ended up costing $14.6 billion or over $4 billion per mile.[6] For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ...


Pork barrel projects or earmarks are added to the federal budget by members of the appropriation committees of Congress. This allows delivery of federal funds to the local district or state of the appropriation committee member, often accommodating major campaign contributors. To a certain extent a congressman is judged by their ability to deliver funds to their constituents. The Chairman and the ranking member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations are in a position to deliver significant benefits to their states. Likewise a Representative such as Anne M. Northup (R-Ky.), a Republican first elected in 1997 from the previously Democratic 3rd Congressional district (Louisville, Kentucky), was able to deliver significant financial benefits to her district through her appointment as a freshman member to the U.S. House Committee on Appropriations. Earmark is a the term that dates to the 16th century, originally referring to cuts or marks in the ears of cattle and sheep made to show ownership. ... Ranking member, in American politics, is a term used to refer to the member of a committee in Congress who is the longest-serving member of the party not in the majority (the longest-serving member of the majority is the chairman). ... U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... Anne Meagher Northup (born January 22, American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1997, representing the 3rd District of Kentucky. ... Louisville redirects here. ... The Committee on Appropriations, or Appropriations Committee (often referred to as simply Appropriations, as in Hes on Appropriations) is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


See also

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Earmark is a the term that dates to the 16th century, originally referring to cuts or marks in the ears of cattle and sheep made to show ownership. ... The Golden Fleece Award is presented to those public officials in the United States who (or whom) waste public money. ... The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (S. 2590)[1] is bill that would require the full disclosure of all entities or organizations receiving federal funds beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2007 on a website maintained by the Office of Management and Budget. ... The Gravina Island Bridge is a proposed $315 million bridge to replace the ferry that currently connects Ketchikan, Alaska (population 8,000) to developable land on Gravina Island and improve access to Ketchikan International Airport. ... This article is about the political effort. ... An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group (UK), or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ...

References

  1. ^ House of Representatives, New Zealand: Speakers' Rulings 1867-2005 inclusive, p. 187:4. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  2. ^ Nationalencyklopedin, NE Nationalencyklopedin AB. Article Valfläsk
  3. ^ The Lanahan Readings in the American Polity, 3rd Edition
  4. ^ http://www.cagw.org/site/PageServer?pagename=reports_pigbook2007#criteria
  5. ^ Douglas, Paul H., In the Fullness of Time, Harcout Brace Javonanovich, Inc, New York
  6. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2006/08/06/big_dig_failures_threaten_federal_funding/

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pork barrel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (623 words)
Pork barrel, in a literal sense, is a barrel in which pork is kept, but figuratively is a supply of money; often the source of one's livelihood.
In politics, a pork barrel (or pork barrel politics) is a derogatory term describing government spending that is intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for their political support, either in the form of campaign contributions or votes.
One of the earliest examples of pork barrel politics in the United States was the Bonus Bill of 1817, which was introduced by John C. Calhoun to construct highways linking the East and South of the United States to its Western frontier using the earnings bonus from the Second Bank of the United States.
Pork barrel - definition of Pork barrel in Encyclopedia (347 words)
Pork barrel (or pork barrel politics) is a derogatory term used to describe United States government spending that is intended to enrich constituents of a politician in return for their political support, either in the form of campaign contributions or votes.
Pork barreling is an important explanation for government deficits.
One of the earliest examples of pork barrel politics was the Bonus Bill of 1817, which was introduced by John Calhoun to construct highways linking the East and South of the United States to its Western frontier using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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