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Encyclopedia > Porfiriato
Porfirio Díaz Mori
Porfirio Díaz Mori
President of Mexico
Term of office: 29 November 1876 to 30 November 1880 (first term)
1 December 1884 to 1910 (second term)
Preceded by: Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1876), Manuel González (1884)
Succeeded by: Manuel González (1880), Francisco León de la Barra interim (1911)
Date of birth: 15 September 1830
Place of birth: Oaxaca, Oaxaca
Date of death: 2 July 1915
Place of death: Paris, France
Profession: army officer and politician
First Lady: Delfina Ortega & Carmelita Romero Rubio
Party: Liberal

José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 18302 July 1915) was President of Mexico, considered a dictator, who ruled Mexico from 1876 until 1911 (with the exception of a single four-year period). Image File history File links Porfirio_diaz002. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Term of office: – July 19, 1872 to 30 November 1872 (interim) – 1 December 1872 to November 20, 1876 Preceded by: Benito Juárez Succeeded by: Porfirio Díaz Date of birth: April 24, 1823 Place of birth: Xalapa, Veracruz Date of death: April 21, 1889 Place of death: New York... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Term of office: December 1, 1880 to November 30, 1884 – {{{date2}}} Preceded by: Porfirio Diaz Succeeded by: Porfirio Diaz Date of birth: June 18, 1833 Place of birth: Tamaulipas Date of death: 1893 Place of death: Profession: army officer First Lady: Party: For the Peruvian political figure, see Manuel Gonz... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Term of office: December 1, 1880 to November 30, 1884 – {{{date2}}} Preceded by: Porfirio Diaz Succeeded by: Porfirio Diaz Date of birth: June 18, 1833 Place of birth: Tamaulipas Date of death: 1893 Place of death: Profession: army officer First Lady: Party: For the Peruvian political figure, see Manuel Gonz... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Term of office: 25 May 1911 – 6 November 1911 Preceded by: Porfirio Díaz Succeeded by: Francisco I. Madero Date of birth: 16 June 1863 Place of birth: Querétaro, Querétaro Date of death: 23 September 1939 Place of death: Biarritz, France Profession: Lawyer First Lady: María Refugio... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Catedral de Oaxaca, located at the Zócalo (central square) Santo Domingo de Guzmán Church The city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca (formally: Oaxaca de Juárez, in honor of 19th-century president and national hero Benito Juárez, who was born nearby) is the capital and main city of the... The Mexican state of Oaxaca (pronounced wa-HA-ka in English) is in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 3 miles behind. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dictatorship. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...

Contents


Early years

Porfirio Díaz was born in 1830 in the city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca. He was a Mestizo, of Mixtec Native American and Spanish ancestry. His father, José de la Cruz Díaz, died when he was 3 years old. His mother, Patrona Mori de Díaz, was an innkeeper until that business failed. She sent young Porfirio to the Seminario Pontifical in 1843, but he was not cut out for the priesthood. He joined the local militia in 1846, dreaming of defending the country from a threatened United States invasion. Tutored by Benito Juarez, he studied law and passed the legal exams in 1853. Díaz soon became a prominent local activist in the liberal opposition to the conservative Santa Anna dictatorship. Catedral de Oaxaca, located at the Zócalo (central square) Santo Domingo de Guzmán Church The city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca (formally: Oaxaca de Juárez, in honor of 19th-century president and national hero Benito Juárez, who was born nearby) is the capital and main city of the... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Benito Ju rez (March 21, 1806 - July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Indian who served two terms (1861-1863 and 1867-1872) as President of Mexico. ... Antonio López de Santa Anna Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876) was a 19th century Mexican general and dictator. ...


Following Juarez's rise to the presidency, Mexico was occupied by France, which attempted to establish the Second Mexican Empire. Díaz became something of a hero due to his participation in the war against the French, where he won several important victories. He led the cavalry in the celebrated Battle of Puebla of 1862, and remained popular well after the defeat of the French and the death of Juarez in 1872. The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... The Battle of Puebla took place on May 5, 1862 near the city of Puebla, Mexico, during the French invasion of Mexico. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Rise to power

In 1876 he overthrew the government of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Initially, he was something of a radical, in his early career he had been the one of the leaders of the "Liberales Rojos" faction. He advanced a platform of reform (first Plan de la Noria and later Plan de Tuxtepec), using the slogan "No Re-election" (for the President). After appointing himself President on November 29, 1876, he served one term and then dutifully stepped down in favor of Manuel González, one of his underlings. The four-year period that followed was marked by corruption and official incompetence, so that when Díaz stepped up in the next election he was a welcome replacement, and there was no remembrance of his "No Re-election" slogan. During this period the Mexican underground Political newspapers spread the new ironic slogan for the Porfirian times, based on the slogan "Sufragio Efectivo, No Reelección" (Effective votes, no re-election) and changed it to "Sufragio Efectivo No, Reelección" (Effective votes no, Re-election). In any case Díaz had the constitution amended, first to allow two terms in office, and then to remove all restrictions on re-elections. 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Term of office: – July 19, 1872 to 30 November 1872 (interim) – 1 December 1872 to November 20, 1876 Preceded by: Benito Juárez Succeeded by: Porfirio Díaz Date of birth: April 24, 1823 Place of birth: Xalapa, Veracruz Date of death: April 21, 1889 Place of death: New York... The term Radical, from the latin radix meaning root. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberalism by country | Mexican political parties ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Term of office: December 1, 1880 to November 30, 1884 – {{{date2}}} Preceded by: Porfirio Diaz Succeeded by: Porfirio Diaz Date of birth: June 18, 1833 Place of birth: Tamaulipas Date of death: 1893 Place of death: Profession: army officer First Lady: Party: For the Peruvian political figure, see Manuel Gonz...


He maintained power through manipulation of votes, but also through simple violence and assassination of his opponents, which consequently were small in number. He was a cunning politician and knew very well how to manipulate people to his advantage. A phrase used to describe the order of his rule was "Pan, o palo" ("Bread, or the stick"), meaning that one could either accept what was willing to be given, or face harsh consequences.[1]


In 1899 he faced some small opposition from Bernardo Reyes, an official in his government, who decided to run for president after Díaz gave an interview in which he said he would allow the next election to be freely contested. In the end the attempt failed and Díaz forced Reyes into exile. 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bernardo Reyes (born in Guadalajara, Mexico, August 1850) was a Mexico under Porfirio Díaz, governor of Nuevo León and father of the writer Alfonso Reyes. ...


Economic development, human exploitation

Díaz embarked on a program of modernization, attempting to bring Mexico up to the level of a modern state. His principal advisers were of a type called científicos, akin to modern economists, because they espoused a program of "scientific" modernization. These included the building of railroad and telegraph lines across the country, including the first Mexican railway between Veracruz and Mexico City. Under his rule the amount of track in Mexico increased tenfold; many of these rails remain in operation today without remodelling. He introduced the idea of steam machines and technological appliances in industry and invited and welcomed foreign investment in Mexico. He also encouraged the construction of factories in Mexico City. This resulted in the rise of an urban proletariat and the influx of foreign capital (principally from the United States). The Científicos (Spanish for scientists or those scientifically oriented) were a circle of technocratic advisors to President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the name of a megacity located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus (altiplano) in the South of Mexico, about 2,240 meters (7,349 feet) above sea-level, surrounded on most sides... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the name of a megacity located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus (altiplano) in the South of Mexico, about 2,240 meters (7,349 feet) above sea-level, surrounded on most sides... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


The growing influence of U.S. businessmen, already a sore point in a Mexico that had lost much land to the United States, was a constant problem for Díaz. His modernization program was also at odds with the owners of the large plantations (haciendas) that had spread across much of Mexico. These rich plantation owners wanted to maintain their existing feudal system (peonage), and were reluctant to transform into the capitalist economy Díaz was pushing towards because it meant competing in a global market and contending with the monetary influence of businessmen from the United States. Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ...


Though he wished to modernize the country, Díaz by no means opposed the existence of the haciendas, and in fact supported them strongly throughout his rule. He appointed sympathetic governors and allowed the plantation owners to proceed with a slow campaign of encroachment onto collectively-owned village land, and enforced such theft through his well-equipped rural police (rurales). Rurales (Spanish for Rurals) was the common name commonly used to designate the Mexican Rural Guard, a force of mounted police that became famous during the long rule of President Porfirio Diaz (1876–1911). ...


Collapse of the regime

In a 1908 interview with the U.S. journalist James Creelman, Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. Francisco I. Madero answered the call for candidates. Although Madero was very similar to Díaz in his ideology, he hoped for other elites in Mexico to rule alongside the President, unlike Díaz. Díaz, however, did not approve of Madero and had him jailed on election day in 1910, provoking the Mexican Revolution. James Creelman (November 12, 1859 – February 12, 1915), was a reporter in the heydey of yellow journalism. ... Term of office: 6 November 1911 – 18 February 1913 Preceded by: Francisco León de la Barra (interim) Succeeded by: Pedro Lascuráin (interim) Date of birth: 30 October 1873 Place of birth: Parras, Coahuila Date of death: 22 February 1913 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Businessman First Lady... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Quotations

  • Díaz is usually credited with the saying, "Poor Mexico, so far from God and so close to the United States!" (¡Pobre México! ¡Tan lejos de Dios, y tan cerca los Estados Unidos!)
  • Referring to his policy of coopting political opponents, Díaz reportedly said, "a dog with a bone neither barks or bites" or "a dog with a bone in its mouth neither steals or kills."
  • As he headed for exile in May 1911 following the revolt by Francisco Madero, Díaz reportedly remarked, "Madero has unleashed a tiger; let’s see if he can control him."

See also

References

Garner's revisionist biography is the current standard in the field.

  • Porfirio Diaz, by Paul Garner (2001).
  • Revolutionary Mexico: The Coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution, by John Mason Hart (1989).
  • The Mexican Revolution, by Alan Knight (1986).
  • Juárez and Díaz: Machine Politics in Mexico, by Laurens Ballard Perry (1978).
  • The Age of Porfirio Diaz: Selected Readings, by Carlos Gil (1977).
  • Mexican Revolution: Genesis Under Madero, by Charles C. Cumberland (1974).
  • The United States Versus Porfirio Díaz, by Daniel Cosío Villegas, trans. by Nettie Lee Benson (1963).
  • Porfirio Diaz, Dictator of Mexico, by Carleton Beals (1932). * Díaz, by David Hanney (1917).
  • Porfirio Diaz, president of Mexico, the master builder of a great commonwealth, by Jose Francisco Godoy (1910).
  • Life of Porfirio Diaz, by Hubert Howe Bancroft (1885).

External links

  • Historial Text Archive: Díaz, Porfirio (1830-1915)
  • Works by Porfirio Díaz at Project Gutenberg
Preceded by:
Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
President of Mexico
1876–1880
Succeeded by:
Manuel González
Preceded by:
Manuel González
President of Mexico
1884–1911
Succeeded by:
Francisco León de la Barra

 
 

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