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Encyclopedia > Porcelain
Nymphenburg porcelain (about 1760-1765)

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating selected and refined materials, often including clay in the form of kaolinite, to high temperatures. The raw materials for porcelain, when mixed with water, form a plastic body that can be worked to a required shape before firing in a kiln at temperatures between 1200 and 1400 degrees Celsius. The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation at high temperatures of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body. Image File history File links Acap. ... Fine China is an indie rock band from Phoenix, Arizona comprised of Rob Withem (vocals, guitar), Greg Markov (bass) and Thom Walsh (drums). ... Porcelain is a ceramic material. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x3417, 994 KB) Summary Item of a baronial tea service at the Marstallmuseum in Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x3417, 994 KB) Summary Item of a baronial tea service at the Marstallmuseum in Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Germany. ... Nymphenburg porcelain tableware, c. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Kaolinite is a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Mullite, or porcelainite, is a rare clay mineral, aluminum silicate (Al6Si2O13). ...


Porcelain was named after its resemblance to the white, shiny Cowry, called in old Italian porcella (little pig), because the curved shape of its upper surface resembles the curve of a pig's back. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, high durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to chemical attack, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity. Species Cypraea annulus Cypraea moneta Cypraea pantherina Cypraea spurca Cypraea tigris Cypraea vitellus Cyprea linx Various species of Cowry from all over the world Cowry shells (also spelled “cowrie”), are marine snails of the genus Cypraea (family Cypraeidae), found chiefly in tropical regions, especially around the Maldives or the East... A property is an intrinsic or extrinsic quality of an object—where an object may be of any differing nature, depending on the context and field — be it computing, philosophy, etc. ... Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tanslucence is the property of a medium that permits the partial transmission of energy from a source, so that some but not all of the energy is dispersed, absorbed or reflected by the medium. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... {| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2, cell 1 | row 2, cell 2 | row 2, cell 3 |}{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1... Thermal shock and thermal loading refer to the disfuntion (and perhaps, crack) of a material due to the heating, especially non-stationary and non-uniform. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ...

French Porcelain inkwell

For the purposes of trade, the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities defines porcelain as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness) and resonant." However, the term porcelain lacks a universally agreed definition and has "been applied in a very unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common" (Burton 1906). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Porcelain is used to make table, kitchen, sanitary and decorative wares, objects of fine art and tiles. Its high resistance to the passage of electricity makes porcelain an excellent insulating material and it is widely used for high-voltage insulators. It is also used in dentistry to make false teeth, caps and crowns. Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a small, manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as clay or stone used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dielectric. ... A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient. ...

Contents

Scope, materials and methods

Scope

Porcelain has many uses but this article is concerned mainly with its employment as a material used to make objects of craft and fine art, including decorative and utilitarian household wares. A difficult line to draw is that which divides high-fired stoneware from porcelain because this depends upon how the terms porcelain and stoneware are defined. In this article the term porcelain is taken to encompass a broad range of high-fired ceramic wares, including some that might according to some systems of classification fall into the category of stoneware. A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ...


Materials

Further information: Pottery
Chinese porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-1796)

The material used to form the body of porcelain wares is often referred to as clay, even though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of its whole. The porcelain clay body, unfired or fired, is sometimes spoken of as the paste and porcelain clay is itself sometimes described as the body (for example, when buying materials a potter might order such an amount of porcelain body from a vendor). Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 3. ... This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The composition of porcelain is highly variable, but china clay, comprising mainly or in part the platey clay mineral kaolinite is often a significant component. Other materials mixed with china clay to make porcelain clay have included feldspar, ball-clay, glass, bone ash, steatite, quartz, petuntse and alabaster. Kaolinite is a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Bone ash is the white, powdery ash left from the burning of bones. ... An Egyptian carved and glazed steatite scarab amulet. ... Quartz is one of the most common minerals in the Earths continental crust. ... Petuntse (from 白墩子 in pinyin: bai2 dun1 zi0), also spelled petunse, also known as china stone, is a granite-derived feldspar. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ...


The clays used by potters are often described as being long or short according to plasticity. Long clays are cohesive (sticky) and of high plasticity and short clays are less cohesive and are of lower plasticity. In soil mechanics plasticity is determined by measuring the increase in content of water required to change a clay from a solid state bordering on the plastic, to a plastic state bordering on the liquid, though the term is also used less formally to describe the facility with which a clay may be worked. Porcelain clays are of lower plasticity (shorter) than many other clays used for making pottery and wet very quickly, which is to say that small changes in the content of water can produce large changes in workability. Thus, the range of water contents within which porcelain clays can be worked is very narrow and the loss or gain of water during storage and throwing or forming must be carefully controlled to keep the clay from becoming too wet or too dry to manipulate. This property also contributes to porcelain's use as a slipcasting body.[dubious ] Look up plasticity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Slipcasting is an easy technique for the mass-production of pottery, especially for shapes not easily made on a wheel. ...


Methods

A porcelain doll from the Czech Republic

The article on Pottery provides much useful background information on methods used for forming, decorating, finishing, glazing and firing ceramic wares. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 410 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (547 × 800 pixel, file size: 341 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Gila Brand Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 410 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (547 × 800 pixel, file size: 341 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Gila Brand Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


Forming. Porcelain wares can be formed by any of the shaping methods listed in the Pottery article. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


The relatively low plasticity of the clays used for making porcelain can cause difficulties for the potter, particularly in the case of wheel-thrown wares. To the spectator, throwing is often seen as pulling clay upwards and outwards into a required shape and potters often speak of pulling when forming a piece on a wheel, but the term is misleading, clay in a plastic condition cannot be pulled without breaking. The process of throwing is in fact one of remarkable complexity. To the casual observer, throwing carried out by an expert potter appears to be a graceful and almost effortless activity, but this masks the fact that a rotating mass of clay possesses energy and momentum in an abundance that will, given the slightest mishandling, rapidly cause the workpiece to become uncontrollable.


Glazing. It has been speculated that the first glazes were accidental and resulted from the presence in the kiln of lime-rich wood ash[citation needed] , which acted on the surface of the wares as a flux. Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining. Great detail is given in the glaze article.Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the celadon wares of Longquan, were designed specifically for their striking effects on porcelain. In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... Madonna with Child and Angels, ceramica glaze by Renaissance artist Andrea della Robbia. ... Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ...

Korean celadon incense burner from the Goryeo period

Decoration. Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze, using pigments that include cobalt and copper, or over the glaze using coloured enamels. In common with many earlier wares, modern porcelain wares are often bisque-fired at around 1000 degrees Celsius, coated with glaze and then sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1300 degrees Celsius, or greater. In an alternative method of glazing particularly associated with Chinese and early European porcelains the glaze was applied to the unfired body and the two fired together in a single operation. Wares glazed in this way are described as being green-fired or once-fired. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 535 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1230 × 1378 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of an image already on Wikipedia, see: http://en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 535 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1230 × 1378 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of an image already on Wikipedia, see: http://en. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Bisque is a fired piece (bisquette) of unglazed clay used to make pottery, figurines, dolls, knickknacks, ornaments etc. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Madonna with Child and Angels, ceramica glaze by Renaissance artist Andrea della Robbia. ...


Firing. Firing is the operation of heating green (unfired) ceramic wares at high-temperatures in a kiln to make permanent their shapes. The porcelain is fired at a higher temperature than earthenware or stoneware so that the clay can vitrify and become non porous. Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...


Categories of porcelain

Western porcelain is generally divided into the three main categories of hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china, depending on the composition of the paste (the paste is the material used to form the body of a piece of porcelain).


Hard paste

Main article Hard-paste porcelain

One of the earliest European porcelains was produced at the Meissen factory and was compounded from china clay kaolin, quartz and alabaster and was fired at temperatures in excess of 1350-degrees Celsius to produce a porcelain of great hardness and strength. At a later date the composition of Meissen hard paste was changed and the alabaster was replaced by feldspar, lowering the firing temperature required. China clay, feldspar and quartz (or other forms of silica) continue to this day to provide the basic ingredients for most continental European hard paste porcelains. Hard-paste porcelain is a hard ceramic that was originally made from a compound of the feldspathic rock petuntse and kaolin fired at very high temperature. ... A Meissen dinner service Meissen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quartz is one of the most common minerals in the Earths continental crust. ...


Soft paste

Main article Soft-paste porcelain

Its history dates from the early attempts by European potters to replicate Chinese porcelain by using mixtures of china clay and ground-up glass or frit; soapstone and lime were known to have also been included in some compositions. As these early formulations suffered from high pyroplastic deformation, or slumping in the kiln at raised temperature, they were uneconomic to produce. Formulations were later developed based on kaolin, quartz, feldspars, nepheline syenite and other feldspathic rocks. These were technically superior and continue in production. Soft-paste porcelain is a substitute for true porcelain. ...


Bone china

Although originally developed in England to compete with imported porcelain, Bone china is now made worldwide. It has been suggested that a misunderstanding of an account of porcelain manufacture in China given by a Jesuit missionary was responsible for the first attempts to use bone-ash as an ingredient of Western porcelain (in China, china clay was sometimes described as forming the bones of the paste, while the flesh was provided by refined porcelain stone). For what ever reason, when it was first tried it was found that adding bone-ash to the paste produced a white, strong, translucent porcelain. Traditionally English bone china was made from two parts of bone-ash, one part of china clay kaolin and one part of Cornish china stone (a feldspathic rock), although this has largely been replaced by feldspars from non-UK sources Bone china is type of porcelain body first developed in the Britain in which calcined ox bone, bone ash, is a major constituent. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... China stone is a medium grained, feldspar-rich partially decomposed granite. ...


History

The earliest porcelains originated in China possibly during the late Eastern Han dynasty. The reader is referred to the article on Chinese porcelain where the history of early porcelain is discussed. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ...


European porcelain

Porcelain was first made in China, and it is a measure of the esteem in which the exported Chinese porcelains of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were held in Europe that in English China became a commonly used synonym for the Franco-Italian term porcelain. After a number of false starts, such as the so-called Medici porcelain, the European search for the secret of porcelain manufacture ended in 1708 with the discovery by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus and Johann Friedrich Böttger of a combination of ingredients, including Colditz clay (a type of kaolin), calcined alabaster and quartz, that proved to be suitable for making a hard, white, translucent porcelain, first produced at Meissen. It appears that in this discovery technology transfer from the Orient played little part. Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (or Tschirnhausen) (April 10, 1651–October 11, 1708) was a German mathematician. ... Johann Friedrich Böttger Johann Friedrich Böttger (born February 4, 1682 in Schleiz; died March 13, 1719 in Dresden) was a German alchemist. ... Colditz is a city in Saxony, Germany, located at the banks of the river Mulde. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Quartz is one of the most common minerals in the Earths continental crust. ... Old town of Meißen. ... Technology transfer is the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. ...


William Cookworthy is credited with discovering china clay in Cornwall which made a considerable contribution to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom. Cookworthy's factory at Plymouth established in 1768 used Cornish china clay and Cornish china stone to make a form of porcelain the body of which in character closely resembled the Chinese porcelains of the early eighteenth century. William Cookworthy (12 April 1705 – 17 October 1780) was an English chemist and a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) from Kingsbridge, Devon. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Plymouth porcelain was a type of porcelain developed in England in the 18th century. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... China stone is a medium grained, feldspar-rich partially decomposed granite. ...


Meissen

Tschirnhaus and Böttger worked at Dresden and at Meissen, in the German state of Saxony, for Augustus the Strong. Tschirnhaus had a wide knowledge of European science and had also worked on the search for porcelain for more than a decade. In 1705 Böttger was appointed to assist him in this task. After training as a pharmacist, Böttger turned to alchemy and it was his claim that he knew the secret of transmuting dross into gold that attracted the attention of Augustus. Imprisoned by Augustus as an incentive to hasten research, Böttger was obliged to work with other alchemists in the futile search for transmutation, but his work in this area ended in 1705, when he was appointed to assist Tschirnhaus in the search for the secret of making porcelain. However, one of the first results of the collaboration between Tschirnhaus and Böttger was the development of a red stoneware that resembled the red wares of Yixing, and a factory was established to make these wares at Meissen, in 1707. Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Old town of Meißen. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Yixing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: YíxÄ«ng) is a city in Jiangsu province, in eastern China, which is well-known for its Yixing clay and artistry in teaware. ...


A workshop note records that the first specimen of hard, white European porcelain was produced in January, 1708. At this time the research was still being carried out under the direction of Tschirnhaus, who died in October of that year. It was left to Böttger to report to Augustus in March, 1709 that he could make good, white porcelain and for this reason credit for the European discovery of porcelain is traditionally given to him, but unjustly, in the view of many of those who point to the essential role played by Tschirnhaus.


The Meissen factory was established in 1710, following the development of a kiln and a glaze suitable for use with Böttger's porcelain, which required firing at very high temperatures to achieve translucence (greater than 1350 degrees Celsius). Meissen porcelain was once-fired or green-fired in the Chinese manner and was noted for its great resistance to thermal shock; so much so that a visitor to the factory in Böttger's time reported having seen a white-hot teapot being removed from the kiln and dropped into cold water, without damage. Evidence to support this widely disbelieved story was given in the 1980s when the procedure was repeated in an experiment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Thermal shock and thermal loading refer to the disfuntion (and perhaps, crack) of a material due to the heating, especially non-stationary and non-uniform. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Heinrich Schmidt, a designer from the Meissen factory, went on to establish his reputation in America when he joined the Knowles, Taylor & Knowles factory in East Liverpool, Ohio in the 1890s. Schmidt was the creative force behind KT&K's famed Lotus Ware, commonly acknowledged to be the finest porcelain ever produced in the United States.[dubious ] East Liverpool is a city located in Columbiana County, Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Lotus Ware is generally considered to be the finest porcelain ever produced in the United States. ...


As a building material

Dakin Building, Brisbane, California using porcelain panels

In unusual modern cases porcelain has also been used as a building material for exterior surfaces. Generally the porcelain is formed into large rectangular panels . An award winning building using porcelain is the Dakin Building, Brisbane, California. An older example is the Gulf Building, Houston, Texas, built in 1929, which had a seventy-foot long logo of porcelain [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1800, 729 KB) Photograher took this photo in April 2006 and releases all rights I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1800, 729 KB) Photograher took this photo in April 2006 and releases all rights I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... // Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... Brisbane is a small city located in the northern part of San Mateo County, California. ... The Gulf Building in Houston, Texas, now called the JPMorgan Chase building, is one of the preeminent Art Deco skyscrapers in the southern United States. ...


See also

Europe and The Americas

Belleek Pottery Ltd is a chinaware company that began trading in August of 1884 as the Belleek Pottery Works Company Ltd in Belleek, County Fermanagh Northern Ireland. ... Bone china is type of porcelain body first developed in the Britain in which calcined ox bone, bone ash, is a major constituent. ... Capodimonte Porcelain is a peculiar [ — see talk page]way of working and decorating by hands the porcelain to create figures and above all cups of flowers. ... The Chelsea porcelain factory (established around 1743) is thought to be the first in England. ... Typical Goss collection Goss crested china is typically in the form of small white glazed porcelain models, made from 1858 to 1939, carrying the coat of arms of the place where they were sold as a souvenir. ... Gzhel (Russian: Гжель) is: a village in Moscow Oblast, Russia a particular style of blue-white ceramics, originating in the town of the same name. ... Herend is a small town in Hungary (Europe), near the city of Veszprém. ... Josiah Spode (23 March 1733 - 1797) was an English potter. ... Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... Lenox is a major manufacturer of Fine China Dinnerware and collectibles. ... The manufactory of hard-paste Limoges porcelain was established by Turgot in 1771 and placed under the patronage of the comte dArtois, brother of Louis XVI. Limoges had been the site of a minor industry producing plain faience earthenwares since the 1730s, but the first identified French source of... Liverpool porcelain is a soft-paste porcelain produced between 1756 and 1800 in various factories in Liverpool, mainly for export to the colonies and later to the United States of America. ... Lladró is a Spanish company based in Tavernes Blanques, Valencia that produces high quality porcelain figures. ... The Imperial Porcelain Factory (or Manufactory) (Russian: Императорский Фарфоровый Завод, Imperatorskii Farforovyi Zavod), is a producer of fine, handpainted ceramic products in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Lotus Ware is generally considered to be the finest porcelain ever produced in the United States. ... The anciest italian factory producing Porcelain of Capodimonte. ... A Meissen dinner service Meissen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ... Mintons Ltd, a major international ceramics manufacturing company, originated with Thomas Minton (1765-1836) the founder of Thomas Minton and Sons, who established his pottery factory in Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, England, in 1793, producing earthenware and from 1798 bone china. ... The Nantgarw Pottery was established in November 1813, when artist and ceramicist William Billingsley and his son-in-law Samuel Walker, a skilled ceramic technician, purchased Nantgarw House on the eastern bank of the Glamorganshire Canal, eight miles north of Cardiff in the Taff Valley, Glamorganshire, UK, and set about... -1... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Plymouth porcelain was a type of porcelain developed in England in the 18th century. ... The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Baoensi - the Temple of Gratitude, is on the south bank of the Yangtze in Nanjing, China. ... A stone grinder for turning quartz, feldspar, kaolin and other stones into fine powder for making ceramic paste Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory located in Sèvres, France. ... The Vincennes porcelain manufactory was established in 1740 in the disused royal Château de Vincennes , in Vincennes, east of Paris. ... The Royal Worcester Porcelain Factory was established in 1751 and manufactures fine china and in particular porcelain in Worcester, England. ...

East Asia

This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... Imari plate, made at Arita, 18th century Imari porcelain is the European collectors name for Japanese porcelain wares made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū, and exported from the port of Imari, Saga specifically for the European export trade. ... Korean pottery appeared later than south Chinese pottery, and required a reasonably stable village culture before domestic Korean potters wheels and kilns could be produced. ... This article may not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...

References

  • Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities - EC Commission in Luxembourg, 1987 .
  • Burton, William. Porcelain, it's Nature, Art and Manufacture. Batsford, London, 1906.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • International Ceramic Directory - providing you with links to ceramic artists, backstamps, manufacturers, historical sites and more
  • ArtLex Art Dictionary - Porcelain

  Results from FactBites:
 
Porcelain (0 words)
The finest T’zu or porcelain as we know it is a composite of kaolin clay, which fires white, and a feldspathic stone called pe-tun-tse; both these materials are found in abundance throughout China.
The Dutch later expanded the export in porcelain in the seventeenth century.
Porcelain was being produced in Europe by 1710 under the patronage of Augustus of Saxony that was so hard it could be “cut and polished like a jewel.”
What is Porcelain? (1954 words)
Porcelain, pronounced POUR suh lihn, is a type of ceramics highly valued for its beauty and strength.
However, porcelain is known primarily as a material for high-quality vases and tableware, as well as for figurines and other decorative objects.
Porcelain differs from other types of ceramics in its ingredients and in the process by which it is produced.
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