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Encyclopedia > Population transfer in the Soviet Union

Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, often classified as "enemies of workers", deportations of nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories. In most cases their destinations were underpopulated remote areas, see Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Ne_po_svoej. ... Image File history File links Ne_po_svoej. ... Book cover: Stalins arm, holding his famous smoking pipe, casually herds people Not by Their Own Will. ... Anti-Soviet refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet Union. ... For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ...

Contents

Deportations of social categories

Kulaks were the most numerous social category of deported. Resettlement of people officially designated as kulaks continued until early 1950, including several major waves. The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some ethnic deportations, e.g., of Poles after 1939 from annexed territories of what is now Western Belarus and Western Ukraine (but was then Eastern Poland), were also justified by political/social reasons.


A number of religions, most prominent being Jehovah's Witnesses, were declared anti-Soviet, and their members deported. Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ...


Transfers of ethnicities

The wholesale removal of potentially trouble-making ethnic groups was a technique used consistently by Joseph Stalin during his career: Romanians (1941 and 1944-1953) Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians (1941 and 1945-1949), Volga Germans (1941), Chechens, Ingushs (1944), Large numbers of kulaks regardless their nationality were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia. “Stalin” redirects here. ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


In the years during World War II particularly in 1943-44, the Soviet government conducted a series of deportations. 1.9 million people were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. Treasonous collaboration with the invading Germans and anti-Soviet rebellion were the official reasons for these deportations. Out of approximately 183,000 Crimean Tatars, 20,000 or 10% of the entire population served in German battalions.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ...


The deportations started with Poles from Belarus, Ukraine and European Russia (see Polish minority in Soviet Union) 1932-1936. Koreans in the Russian Far East were deported in 1937. Volga Germans and seven (overwhelmingly Turkic or non-Slavic) nationalities of the Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported: the Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, and Meskhetian Turks. Other minorities evicted from the Black Sea coastal region included Bulgarians, Greeks, and Armenians. From the newly conquered Eastern Poland 400,000 people were deported. The same followed in the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (over 200,000 people were deported). Likewise, Romanians from Chernivtsi Oblast and Moldova had been deported in great numbers which range from 200.000 to 400.000. According to the last census in Russia and Kazakhstan, there are 20,000 Romanians in the latter while at least 180,000 exist in the former. The overwhelming majority of these deportees successfully made their trip to Central Asia. For example, out of 225,000 deported Crimeans, 193,000 or 86% were located in their appropriate settlements in October 1946. [1] The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/balqar) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, the titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: , or, less formal, Karachay-Cherkessia ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... 1. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average...


After World War II, the population of the Kaliningrad Oblast was replaced by the Soviet one, mainly by Russians. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ...


In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev in his speech On the Personality Cult and its Consequences condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninist principles, asserting that the Ukrainians avoided such a fate "only because there were too many of them and there was no place to which to deport them." His government reversed most of Stalin's deportations, although it was not until as late as 1991 that the Crimean Tatars, Meskhs and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands. The deportations had a profound effect on the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union and they are still a major political issue - the memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in Chechnya and the Baltic republics. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... On the Personality Cult and its Consequences (Russian: ), commonly known as the Secret Speech was a report to the 20th Party Congress on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, in which he denounced the actions of Joseph Stalin. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... 1. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...


Labor force transfer

Punitive transfers of population transfers handled by Gulag and the system of involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union were planned in accordance with the needs of the colonization of the remote and underpopulated territories of the Soviet Union. (Their large scale has led to a controversial opinion in the West that the economic growth of the Soviet Union was largely based on the slave labor of Gulag prisoners.) At the same time, on a number of occasions the workforce was transferred by non-violent means, usually by means of "recruitment" (вербовка). This kind of recruitment was regularly performed at forced settlements, where people were naturally more willing to resettle. For example, the workforce of the Donbass and Kuzbass mining basins is known to have been replenished in this way. (As a note of historical comparison, in Imperial Russia the mining workers at state mines (bergals, "бергалы", from German Bergauer) were often recruited in lieu of military service which, for a certain period, had a term of 25 years ). Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Ukraine | Ukrainian historical regions ... The Kuznetsk Basin (often abbreviated as Kuzbas, Russian: Кузбас) in southwestern Siberia, Russia, is one of the biggest coal mining areas in the world, covering an area of around 27,000 square miles (69,900 km³) between Tomsk and Novokuznetsk in the basin of the Tom river. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


There were several notable campaigns of targeted workforce transfer.

  • Twenty-five-thousanders
  • Labor Army#Russian Germans
  • Virgin Lands Campaign
  • Baku oil industry workers transfer: During the Great Patriotic War, in October 1942, about 10,000 workers from petroleum sites of Baku with families were transferred to several sites with potential oil production: the "Second Baku" area (Volga-Ural oil field), Kazakhstan and Sakhalin, under the potential German threat (Germany failed to seize Baku, though).

Twenty-five-thousanders (Двадцатипятитысячники in Russian, or Dvadtsatipyatitysyachniki) was a made-up collective name for the frontline workers from big industrial cities of the USSR, who voluntarily left their homes... This article is about the notion of the labor army in the history of the Soviet Union. ... Virgin Lands by Fedor Malaev, a romanticised view of the Campaign The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unused (virgin) steppe in the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR, started in 1954. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...

Timeline

Date of transfer Targeted group Approximate numbers Place of initial residence Transfer destination Reason for transfer
April 1920 Russians, Terek Cossacks 45,000 North Caucasus Ukraine, northern Russia "Decossackization", stopping Russian colonisation of North Caucasus
1921 Russians, Semirechye Cossacks Semirechye Extreme North, concentration camps "Decossackization", stopping Russian colonisation of Turkestan
September 1922 "Socially dangerous elements" 18,000 Western border regions of Ukraine and Byelorussia Western Siberia, Far East Social threat
19301936 Kulaks 2,323,000 "Regions of total collectivization", most of Russia, Ukraine, other regions Northern Russia, Ural, Siberia, North Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Collectivization
November–December 1932 Peasants 45,000 Krasnodar Krai (Russia) Northern Russia Sabotage
1933 Nomadic Kazakhs 200,000 Kazakhstan China, Mongolia, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey
February–May 1935 Ingrian Finns 30,000 Leningrad Oblast (Russia) Vologda Oblast, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan
February–March 1935 Germans, Poles 412,000 Central and western Ukraine Eastern Ukraine
May 1935 Germans, Poles 45,000 Border regions of Ukraine Kazakhstan
July 1937 Kurds 2,000 Border regions of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
September–October 1937 Koreans 172,000 Far East Northern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
September–October 1937 Chinese, Harbin Russians 9,000 Southern Far East Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
1938 Persian Jews 6,000 Mary Province (Turkmenistan) Deserted areas of northern Turkmenistan
January 1938 Azeris, Persians, Kurds, Assyrians n/a Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Iranian citizenship
February–June 1940 Poles (including refugees from Poland) 276,000 Western Ukraine, western Byelorussia Northern Russia, Ural, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
July 1940 "Foreigners" / "Other ethnicities" n/a Murmansk Oblast (Russia) Karelia and Altai Krai (Russia)
May–June 1941 "Counter-revolutionaries and nationalists" 107,000 Ukraine, Byelorussia, Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Siberia, Kirov (Russia), Komi (Russia), Kazakhstan
September 1941 – March 1942 Germans More than 780,000 Povolzhye, the Caucasus, Crimea, Ukraine, Moscow, central Russia Kazakhstan, Siberia
September 1941 Ingrian Finns, Germans 91,000 Leningrad Oblast (Russia) Kazakhstan, Siberia, Astrakhan Oblast (Russia), Far East
1942 Ingrian Finns 9,000 Leningrad Oblast (Russia) Eastern Siberia, Far East
April 1942 Greeks, Romanians, etc. n/a Crimea, North Caucasus n/a
June 1942 Germans, Romanians, Crimean Tatars, Greeks with foreign citizenship n/a Krasnodar Krai (Russia) n/a
August 1943 Karachais 70,500 Karachay-Cherkessia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, other Banditism, other
December 1943 Kalmyks 93,000 Kalmykia Kazakhstan, Siberia
February 1944 Chechens, Ingushes, Balkars 522,000 North Caucasus Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
February 1944 Kalmyks 3,000 Rostov Oblast (Russia) Siberia
March 1944 Kurds, Azeris 3,000 Tbilisi (Georgia) Southern Georgia
May 1944 Balkars 100 Northern Georgia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
May 1944 Crimean Tatars 182,000 Crimea Uzbekistan
May–June 1944 Greeks, Bulgarians, Armenians, Turks 42,000 Crimea Uzbekistan (?)
May–July 1944 Kalmyks 26,000 Northeastern regions Central Russia, Ukraine
June 1944 Kalmyks 1,000 Volgograd Oblast (Russia) Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russia)
June 1944 Kabardins 2,000 Kabardino-Balkaria Southern Kazakhstan Collaboration with the Nazis
July 1944 Russian True Orthodox Church adherers 1,000 Central Russia Siberia
August–September 1944 Poles 30,000 Ural, Siberia, Kazakhstan Ukraine, European Russia
November 1944 Meskhetian Turks, Kurds, Hamshenis, Karapapaks 92,000 Southwestern Georgia Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
November 1944 Lazes and other inhabitants of the border zone 1,000 Ajaria (Georgia) Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
December 1944 Members of the Volksdeutsche families 1,000 Mineralnye Vody (Russia) Siberia (according to other sources Tajikistan) Collaboration with the Nazis
January 1945 "Traitors and collaborators" 2,000 Mineralnye Vody (Russia) Tajikistan Collaboration with the Nazis
May 1948 Kulaks 49,000 Lithuania Eastern Siberia Banditism
June 1948 Greeks, Armenians 58,000 The Black Sea coast of Russia Southern Kazakhstan For Armenians: membership in the nationalist Dashnaktsutiun Party
June 1948 "Spongers" ("тунеядцы") 16,000 n/a n/a "Social parasitism"
October 1948 Kulaks 1,000 Izmail Oblast (Ukraine) Western Siberia
January 1949 Kulaks 94,000 Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia Siberia, Far East Banditism
May–June 1949 Armenians, Turks, Greeks n/a The Black Sea coast (Russia), South Caucasus Southern Kazakhstan Membership in the nationalist Dashnaktsutiun Party (Armenians), Greek or Turkish citizenship (Greeks), other
July 1949 – May 1952 Kulaks 78,400 Moldavia, the Baltic States, western Byelorussia, western Ukraine, Pskov Oblast (Russia) Siberia, Kazakhstan, Far East Banditism, other
March 1951 Basmachis 3,000 Tajikistan Northern Kazakhstan
April 1951 Jehova's Witnesses 3,000 Moldavia Western Siberia

1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Semirechye Cossask Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host in Imperial Russia, located in Semirechye Oblast (today comprising most of Kyrgyzstan as well as Almaty oblysy, Taldy-Korgan (Taldyqorghan) oblysy, and parts of the Taraz oblysy and Semey oblysy in Kazakhstan) with the center in Verny. ... Semiryechye (Семиречье, also written Semirechie, Semireche, Semirechiye, Semirechye) is a historical name of a part of Russian Turkestan, which corresponds to the South-Eastern part of modern Kazakhstan, known as Zhetysu (Jetysu, Jity-su, Жетысу, &#1044... The Extreme North or Far North (Russian: ) is a huge part of Russia located mainly beyond the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siberia. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... Ural may refer to one of the following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural, Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Kipchak and other Turk peoples, ancient Indo-Iranian tribes, Mongols The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turk people of the northern parts of Central... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siberia. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ethnic Russians in China. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Mary Province (Mary welaýaty / Мары велаяты) is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity An entry was temporarily removed here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Ural may refer to one of the following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural, Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Murmansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Kirov can refer to: Sergey Kirov, Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist The north-eastern European Russian city Kirov, center of Kirov Oblast The Soviet warship Kirov, now of the Russian Navy, lead ship of the Kirov class of battlecruisers. ... The name may refer to Komi Republic Komi peoples Komi-Zyrians Komi-Permyaks Komi language Komi-Zyrian language Komi-Permyak language Komi is also a rule in a board game Go. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Church of the Saviour – a German Kirche in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... The Crimea Germans (De. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Flag of Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Oblast (Russian: , Astrakhanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), with an area of 44,100 km², and a population of 1,005,276 (according to the 2002 Census). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Siberia. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: , or, less formal, Karachay-Cherkessia ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия; Ingush: Гiалгiай Мохк) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/balqar) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, the titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Flag of Rostov Oblast Rostov Oblast (Russian: , Rostovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... Coordinates: Government  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area  - City 372 km²  (143. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/balqar) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, the titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Volgograd Oblast (Russian: , Volgogradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Following the death of Patriarch Tikhon unrest settled over the Russian Orthodox Church. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Ural may refer to one of the following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural, Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ«Õ¶Õ« in Armenian; HemÅŸinli in Turkish; Амшенцы in Russian) are an ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... Mineralnye Vody (Russian: Минеральные Воды) is a spa town located in the Stavropol Krai in southwestern Russia. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mineralnye Vody (Russian: Минеральные Воды) is a spa town located in the Stavropol Krai in southwestern Russia. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Siberia. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism[2] International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 11 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official Web Site... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... It has been suggested that Akkerman Oblast be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siberia. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism[2] International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 11 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official Web Site... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Pskov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Basmachi Revolt, or Basmachestvo (Басмачество) as it is called in the Russian language, was an uprising against Soviet rule in Central Asia. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Kingdom Hall of Jehovahs Witnesses Jehovahs Witnesses are members of an international religion that claims to be the restoration of first-century Christianity. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siberia. ...

See also

Mass operations of the NKVD were carried out during the Great Purge and targeted specific categories of people. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Acts of Soviet repression | Forced migration ... The Nazi-Soviet population transfers were a series of population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of Germans from territories occupied by Soviet Union due to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, notably Bessarabia and the Baltic states of Estonia and Latvia, all of which traditionally had large German minorities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... Plaque on the building of Government of Estonia, Toompea, commemorating government members killed by communist terror As the Soviet Union had occupied Estonia in 1940 and retaken it from Nazi Germany again in 1944, tens of thousands of Estonias citizens suffered deportation in the 1940s. ...

References

  • Martin, Terry. 1998. "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing," Journal of Modern History 70 (December): 813-861.
  • Polian, Pavel (Павел Полян), Deportations in the USSR: An index of operations with list of corresponding directives and legislation, Russian Academy of Science.
  • Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polyan, Not by Their Own Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001, ISBN 5-94282-007-4
  • 28 августа 1941 г. Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР "О выселении немцев из районов Поволжья".
  • 1943 г. Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР "О ликвидации Калмыцкой АССР и образовании Астраханской области в составе РСФСР". *Постановление правительства СССР от 12 января 1949 г. "О выселении с территории Литвы, Латвии и Эстонии кулаков с семьями, семей бандитов и националистов, находящихся на нелегальном положении, убитых при вооруженных столкновениях и осужденных, легализованных бандитов, продолжающих вести вражескую работу, и их семей, а также семей репрессированных пособников и бандитов"
  • Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР от 13 декабря 1955 г. "О снятии ограничений в правовом положении с немцев и членов их семей, находящихся на спецпоселении".
  • 17 марта 1956 г. Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР "О снятии ограничений в правовом положении с калмыков и членов их семей, находящихся на спецпоселении".
  • 1956 г. Постановление ЦК КПСС "О восстановлении национальной автономии калмыцкого, карачаевского, балкарского, чеченского и ингушского народов".
  • 29 августа 1964 г. Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР "О внесении изменений в Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР от 28 августа 1941 г. о переселении немцев, проживающих в районах Поволжья".
  • 1991 г: Laws of Russian Federation: "О реабилитации репрессированных народов", "О реабилитации жертв политических репрессий".
  1. ^ Alexander Statiev, "The Nature of Anti-Soviet Armed Resistance, 1942-44", Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (Spring 2005) 285-318

Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Book cover: Stalins arm, holding his famous smoking pipe, casually herds people Not by Their Own Will. ... Kritica: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History is a scholarly journal published quarterly since 2000 by Slavica publishers, a division of Indiana University. ...

Wikisource

  • State Defense Committee Decree No. 5859ss: On Crimean Tatars (See also Three answers to the Decree No. 5859ss)

External links

  • Polian's index online
  • Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949 by J.Otto Pohl. Books.google.com
  • These Names Accuse (Soviet Deportations in Latvia)
  • Baltic Deportation Order No 001223 — Full text, English
  • DEPORTATIONS Revelations from the Russian Archives at the Library of Congress
  • Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944
  • Эдиев Д.М. Демографические потери депортированных народов СССР. Ставрополь, 2003

  Results from FactBites:
 
Population transfer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2761 words)
Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion.
Population transfer differs more than simply technically from individually-motivated migration, though at times of war, the act of fleeing from danger or famine often blurs the differences.
Two famous transfers connected with the history of France are the expulsion of the Muslims in the 13th century, and of the Huguenots who were declared illegal by the Edict of Fontainebleau, 1685.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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