FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Popular Front

A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group (most often fascist or far-right groups). Being very broad, they can sometimes include centrist and liberal (or "bourgeois") forces as well as socialist and communist ("working-class") groups. Popular fronts are larger in scope than united fronts, which contain only working-class groups. A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to...


In addition to the general definition, the term "popular front" also has a specific meaning in the history of Europe and the United States during the 1930s, and in the history of Communism and the Communist Party. The term "national front", similar in name but describing a different form of ruling, using ostensibly non-Communist parties which were in fact controlled by and subservient to the Communist party as part of a "coalition", was used in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


It should be noted that not all coalitions who use the term "popular front" necessarily meet the accepted definition for "popular fronts", and not all popular fronts necessarily use the term "popular front" in their name. The same applies to "united fronts".

Contents

The Comintern's Popular Front policy 1934-1939

In response to the growing threat of fascism in the 1930s, Communist parties that were members of the Comintern (then largely under the control of Joseph Stalin) adopted a policy of forming broad alliances with almost any political party willing to oppose the fascists. These were called "popular fronts". Some popular fronts won elections and formed governments, as in France (Front Populaire), the Second Spanish Republic, and Chile. Others never quite got off the ground (there were attempts in the United Kingdom to found a Popular Front against the National Government's appeasement of Nazi Germany, between the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the Independent Labour Party, the Communist Party, and even rebellious elements of the Conservative Party under Winston Churchill, but they failed due to opposition from within the Labour Party). Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Popular Front (Front Populaire) was an alliance of left-wing political parties that came into power in France following the 1936 elections. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


The Popular Front policy of the Comintern was introduced in 1934, succeeding its ultra-left "Third Period" during which it condemned non-Communist socialist parties as "social fascist". The new policy was signalled in a Pravda article of May 1934, which commented favourably on socialist-Communist collaboration.[1] In June 1934, Leon Blum's Socialist Party signed a pact of united action with the French Communist Party, extended to the Radical Party in October. In May 1935, France and Russia signed a defensive alliance and in August 1935, the Comintern's Seventh Congress officially endorsed the Popular Front strategy.[2] In the elections of May 1936, the Popular Front won a majority of parliamentary seats (378 deputies against 220), and Leon Blum formed a government.[3] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Third Period refers to the ultra-left policy adopted by the Comintern, following the end of the New Economic Policy in the Soviet Union in 1928 up to the adoption of the Popular Front policy in 1934. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s political Communist Party leaders linked to the Comintern (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), French socialist leader and Prime Minister, was born in Paris, into a middle-class Jewish family. ... The French Section of the Workers International (Section Française de lInternationale Ouvrière, SFIO), founded in 1905, was a French socialist political party, designed as the local section of the Second International (i. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In Italy, the Comintern advised an alliance between the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Socialist Party, but this was rejected by the Socialists. Similarly, in the United States, the CPUSA sought a joint Socialist-Communist ticket with Norman Thomas's Socialist Party of America in the 1936 presidential election but the Socialists rejected this overture. The CPUSA also offered critical support to Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal in this period. The Popular Front period in the USA saw the CP taking a very patriotic and populist line, later called Browderism. According to some historians, Joseph Stalin used the concept of the Popular Front to solidify control of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) and to suppress criticism from those in the radical left after the Moscow show trials and subsequent series of executions and assassinations.[4] The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... Norman Thomas Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Introduction The Great Depression was still widespread in 1936, and incumbent president Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal interventionist economic policy through Congress and the courts. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Earl Browder Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891–June 27, 1973) was a United States communist and General Secretary of the Communist Party USA from 1932 to 1945. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... The Moscow Trials were a series of trials of political opponents of Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge. ...


The Popular Front period came to an end with the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact between Nazi Germany and Russia, at which point Comintern parties turned from a policy of anti-fascism to one of advocating peace. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ...


Critics of the Popular Front policy

Leon Trotsky and his supporters roundly criticised the Popular Front strategy. In the first place, Stalin had used the Popular Front as a tool to oppose Trotsky and other dissidents outside Stalin's immediate control.[5] Additionally, Trotksy believed that only united fronts could ultimately be progressive, and that popular fronts were useless because they included non-working class bourgeois forces such as liberals. Trotsky also argued that in popular fronts, working class demands are reduced to their bare minimum, and the ability of the working class to put forward its own independent set of politics is compromised. This view is now common to most Trotskyist groups. Left communist groups also oppose popular fronts, but they came to oppose united fronts as well. Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ...


Popular Fronts governments in the Soviet Bloc

After World War II, most Central and Eastern European countries became de facto one-party states, but in theory they were ruled by coalitions between several different political parties who voluntarily chose to work together. For example, East Germany was ruled by a "National Front" of all anti-fascist parties and movements within parliament (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Liberal Party, Farmers' Party, Youth Movement, Trade Union Federation, etc). The People's Republic of China's United Front is a current (as of 2007) surviving system. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (German: Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (LDPD)) was a political party in East Germany. ... The Democratic Farmers Party of Germany (German: Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (DBD)) was an East German political party. ... The Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ) was the official youth movement of the government of the German Democratic Republic. ... Register of members of the FDGB. Daten zur Ausstellung des Mitgliedsbuches. ... The United Front in the Peoples Republic of China is a popular front led by the Communist Party of China. ...


Examples of Popular Fronts

Popular fronts in Communist countries

The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was a (permanent) coalition (or rather group) of parties – since 1948 also of various associations and mass organisations – from 1945 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The National Front was a united front of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland is a North Korean united front led by the Workers Party of Korea (WPK). ... The Workers Party of Korea (WPK) is the ruling party of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. ... The United Front in the Peoples Republic of China is a popular front led by the Communist Party of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist_ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes electoral... The Vietnamese Fatherland Front (Vietnamese: Mặt Trận Tổ Quốc Việt Nam) is an umbrella group of pro-government mass movements in Vietnam, and has close links to the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Vietnamese government. ... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ...

Popular fronts in non-Communist countries

The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ... Ahead of the 1936 elections to the French National Assembly, a Popular Front committee was formed in Senegal. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... Belarusian Peoples Front Revival or BPF (Belarusian: Беларускі Народны Фронт Адраджэньне, БНФ, Biełaruski Narodny Front Adradžeńnie) is a political party created in Belarus during the perestroika times. ... The Azerbaijan Popular Front Party (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is the main opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Əbülfəz Elçibəy. ... The Popular Front in Chile was an electoral and political left-wings coalition from 1937 to February 1941, during the Presidential Republic Era (1924-1973). ... UP poster from 1972, celebrating two years of UP government. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (in Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير عُمان - al-Jabhah al-Shaabiyah li-Tahrīr Uman) a Marxist and Arab nationalist revolutionary organisation in the Sultanate of Oman. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain (Arabic: ) was an underground political party in Bahrain associated with the Arab Nationalist Movement. ... Popular Front of India Flag The Popular Front of India is a confederation of minority society organisaitons which is active in southern India. ... The Popular Democratic Front (FDP, Italian: ) was a coalition of Italian political parties for the Parliamentary election of 1948. ...

See also

Organized Labour Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to... The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... Third Period refers to the ultra-left policy adopted by the Comintern, following the end of the New Economic Policy in the Soviet Union in 1928 up to the adoption of the Popular Front policy in 1934. ...

References

  1. ^ 1914-1946: Third Camp Internationalists in France during World War II, libcom.org
  2. ^ The Seventh Congress, Marxist Inernet Alliance
  3. ^ 1914-1946: Third Camp Internationalists in France during World War II, libcom.org
  4. ^ Lamont, Corliss et al., An Open Letter to American Liberals, Soviet Russia Today (March 1937)
  5. ^ Lamont, Corliss et al., An Open Letter to American Liberals, Soviet Russia Today (March 1937)

Kerala sex


  Results from FactBites:
 
Popular front - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (621 words)
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group (most often fascist or far-right groups).
The term "national front", similar in name but describing a different form of ruling, using obstensibly non-Communist parties which were in fact controlled by and subservient to the Communist party as part of a "coalition", was used in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
In the United States, Joseph Stalin used the concept of the Popular Front to solidify control of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) and to suppress criticism from those in the radical left after the Moscow show trials and subsequent series of executions and assassinations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m