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Encyclopedia > Poplar
Poplar, Aspen, Cottonwood

Western Balsam Poplar foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Populus
L.
Sections

Sect. Populus
Sect. Aegiros
Sect. Tacamahaca
Sect. Leucoides
Sect. Turanga Look up poplar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Family Achariaceae Family Balanopaceae Family Bonnetiaceae Family Caryocaraceae Family Chrysobalanaceae Family Clusiaceae Family Ctenolophonaceae Family Dichapetalaceae Family Elatinaceae Family Erythryloxaceae (coca family) Family Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Family Euphroniaceae Family Goupiaceae Family Humiriaceae Family Hypericaceae (St Johns wort family) Family Irvingiaceae Family Ixonanthaceae Family Lacistemaceae Family Linaceae (flax family... Genera See text. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ... Species Populus deltoides L. Populus fremontii [[]] Populus nigra L. This article is about the poplar species. ... Species Populus angustifolia Torr. ...

Populus is a genus of trees which includes the cottonwoods, poplars, and aspens, all of which are sometimes termed poplars (in some areas "popple"). Species Populus deltoides L. Populus fremontii [[]] Populus nigra L. This article is about the poplar species. ... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ...


Poplars are deciduous, and the leaves turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn. The leaves of many poplars, including the cottonwoods and aspens (but not the balsam poplars), have laterally-flattened stems, so that breezes easily cause the leaves to wobble back and forth, giving the whole tree a "twinkling" appearance in a breeze. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Like willows, many poplars have very strong and invasive root systems, so they must not be planted too close to houses or water pipes as they will crack walls and pipes in their search for moisture.


Poplars of the cottonwood section are often wetlands or riparian trees. The aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees. A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ... Boreal is usually applied to ecosystems localized to subarctic (Northern hemisphere) and subantarctic (Southern hemisphere) zones, although Austral is also used for the latter. ...


Poplars and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species - see List of Lepidoptera that feed on poplars. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Poplars (Populus spp. ...

Contents

Classification

A fastigiate Black Poplar cultivar of the Plantierensis Group, in Hungary
A poplar in autumn colours
  • Populus section Populus - aspens and white poplar. Circumpolar subarctic and cool temperate, and mountains farther south (white poplar warm temperate)
    • Populus tremula - Common Aspen, Trembling Aspen or Eurasian Aspen. Europe, northern Asia.
    • Populus tremuloides - Quaking Aspen or Trembling Aspen. North America.
    • Populus grandidentata - Bigtooth Aspen. Eastern North America.
    • Populus adenopoda - Chinese Aspen. Eastern Asia.
    • Populus sieboldii - Japanese Aspen. Eastern Asia.
    • Populus alba - White Poplar. Southern Europe to central Asia.
      • Populus × canescens (P. alba × P. tremula) - Grey Poplar
  • Populus section Aegiros - black poplars or cottonwoods. North America, Europe, western Asia; temperate
    • Populus nigra - Black Poplar. Europe.
    • Populus deltoides - Eastern Cottonwood. Eastern North America.
    • Populus fremontii - Fremont Cottonwood. Western North America.
    • Populus petrowskyana - Russian Poplar. Europe/Asia.
  • Populus section Tacamahaca - balsam poplars. North America, Asia; cool temperate
    • Populus angustifolia - Willow-leaved Poplar or Narrowleaf Cottonwood. Central North America.
    • Populus balsamifera - Ontario Balsam Poplar. Northern North America.
    • Populus trichocarpa - Western Balsam Poplar or Black Cottonwood. Western North America.
    • Populus laurifolia - Laurel-leaf Poplar. Central Asia.
    • Populus simonii - Simon's Poplar. Northeast Asia.
    • Populus maximowiczii - Maximowicz' Poplar. Northeast Asia.
  • Populus section Leucoides - necklace poplars or bigleaf poplars. Eastern North America, eastern Asia; warm temperate
    • Populus heterophylla - Swamp Cottonwood. Southeastern North America.
    • Populus lasiocarpa - Chinese Necklace Poplar. Eastern Asia.
    • Populus wilsonii - Wilson's Poplar. Eastern Asia.
  • Populus section Turanga - subtropical poplars. Southwest Asia, east Africa; subtropical to tropical
    • Populus euphratica - Euphrates Poplar. Southwest Asia.
    • Populus ilicifolia - Tana River Poplar. East Africa.
  • Populus section Abaso - Mexican poplars. Mexico; subtropical to tropical
    • Populus mexicana - Mexico Poplar. Mexico.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 349 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1225 × 2104 pixel, file size: 893 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 349 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1225 × 2104 pixel, file size: 893 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A poplar tree in autumn display, photographed by user:Karen Johnson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ... Binomial name L. Populus tremula is the Common Aspen (or Eurasian Aspen), a deciduous tree of the poplar family. ... Binomial name Populus tremuloides Michx. ... Binomial name Populus alba L. The White Poplar (Populus alba) is a species of poplar, most closely related to the aspens (Populus sect. ... Binomial name Populus alba L. The White Poplar (Populus alba) is a species of poplar, most closely related to the aspens (Populus sect. ... Species Populus deltoides L. Populus fremontii [[]] Populus nigra L. This article is about the poplar species. ... Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a species of poplar in the cottonwood section of the genus (Populus sect. ... Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a species of poplar in the cottonwood section of the genus (Populus sect. ... Binomial name Populus deltoides L. The Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is a large poplar tree native to North America, growing throughout the eastern United States and the southernmost part of eastern Canada. ... Species Populus angustifolia Torr. ... Binomial name The Ontario Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera is a species of the genus Populus. ... Binomial name Populus trichocarpa (Torr. ...

Flowers

The flowers are dioecious and appear in early spring before the leaves. They are borne in long, drooping, sessile or pedunculate aments which are produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. The pistillate aments lengthen very considerably before maturity. The flowers are solitary, each one seated in a cup-shaped disk which is borne on the base of a scale which is itself attached to the rachis of the ament. The scales are obovate, lobed and fringed, membranous, hairy or smooth, usually caducous. The staminate flowers are without calyx or corolla and consist simply of a group of stamens, four to twelve, or twelve to sixty, inserted on a disk; filaments short, pale yellow; anthers oblong, purple or red, introrse, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally.[1] In biology, Dioecious is an adjective which indicates the exisistence of separate sexes in a species of organisms. ...


The pistillate flower is equally destitute of calyx and corolla and consists of a one-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. The style is short, stigmas two to to four, variously lobed; ovules numerous. The fruit is a two to four-valved capsule, ripening before the full development of the leaf; greenish or reddish-brown. The seed is light brown and surrounded by a tuft of long, soft, white hairs.[1]


Cultivation and uses

Fast-growing hybrid poplars are grown on plantations in many areas for pulpwood and used for the manufacture of paper. The wood is generally white, often with a slightly yellowish cast. It is also sold as inexpensive hardwood timber, used for pallets and cheap plywood; more specialised uses include matches and the boxes in which camembert cheese is sold. Poplar wood is widely used in the snowboard industry for the snowboard "core", because it has exceptional flexibility. // This article is about a biological term. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut in order to make wood pulp for paper production. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Toy constructed from plywood. ... An igniting match A match is a consumable tool for producing fire under controlled circumstances on demand. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurised Not normally Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ... A snowboard with strap-in bindings A snowboard is a board ridden in snowboarding to descend a snow-covered slope. ...


Poplar was the most common wood used in Italy for panel paintings; the Mona Lisa and indeed most famous Early Renaissance Italian paintings are on poplar. The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, interior view, 1432. ... Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda (La Joconde), is a 16th century oil painting on a poplar panel by Leonardo Da Vinci. ...


Due to its tannic acid content, the bark has been used in Europe for tanning leather.[1] This is a bottle of tannic acid. ...


There has been some interest in using poplar as an energy crop/biofuel, particuarly in light of its high energy in/energy out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential and fast growth. An energy crop is a plant domesticated for use in agriculture and is produced as a low cost and low maintenance harvest (generally, non food crops) to be used to make biofuels or directly exploited for its energy content. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ...


In the September 2006 issue of Science, it was announced that a species of poplar, Populus trichocarpa, was the first tree to have its full DNA code sequenced (published in full here). Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Binomial name Populus trichocarpa (Torr. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Poplar is also a wood that, particularly when seasoned, makes a good hearth for a bow drill. The bow drill has been used used by ancient Sumerians and other groups to drill holes in a piece of wood, called the fire board when creating a coal for fire. ...


Poplar is also used for the bodies of certain types of electric guitars.


The Pearl Export series of drums are made of poplar.


History

Populus is among the oldest type of dicotyledonous plants. When sequoias, pines and cycads made up the bulk of the Cretaceous forests of Greenland, the poplar alone of deciduous trees was present.[1] Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


Trivia

Poplar trees are one of the largest deciduous trees in North America, with a trunk diameter of up to 5 feet (2 m) and a a height of 150 feet (46 m).


Poplar was picked as the material for the bones of "Buster", the crash test dummy used in the TV show MythBusters, after some experiments revealed that it fractures under approximately the same loads as human bone. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 410-412. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Populus

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